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MKISOFS(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  an  hybrid ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF filesystem-image
       with optional Rock Ridge	attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] -find [find expression]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively	 a  pre-mastering  program  to	 generate   an
       ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF hybrid filesystem.

       ISO-9660/JOLIET/UDF  filesystems	are limited to a maximum size of 8 TB.
       The maximum size	of a single file is 8 TB (single files in UDF are cur-
       rently limited to aprox.	200 GB).  If yo	like to	have files larger than
       2 GB, you need to specify -iso-level 3 or above.	 If a  HFS  hybrid  is
       created,	 the  maximum file size	for files in the HFS hybrid is 2 GB in
       any case.

   Hybrid filesystem support
       mkisofs is capable  of  generating  the	System	Use  Sharing  Protocol
       records	(SUSP) specified by the	Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This
       is used to further describe the files in	the ISO-9660 filesystem	 to  a
       unix  host, and provides	information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, hard links, block and	character  de-
       vices.

       If  Joliet,  HFS	 or UDF	hybrid command line options are	specified, mk-
       isofs will create additional separate filesystem	meta data for  Joliet,
       HFS  or	UDF.   The  file  content in this case refers to the same data
       blocks on the media.  It	will generate a	pure ISO-9660  filesystem  un-
       less the	Joliet,	HFS or UDF hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when	 accessed  from	 a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO-9660	 files when accessed from other	machines. HFS stands for Hier-
       archical	File System and	is the native file system  used	 on  Macintosh
       computers up to Mac OS 9.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can  generate  the  Apple	 Extensions to
       ISO-9660	or UDF for each	file. These extensions provide each file  with
       CREATOR,	 TYPE and certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

   Functional description
       mkisofs takes a snapshot	of a given directory tree, and generates a bi-
       nary  image  which  will	 correspond  to	 an ISO-9660 or	Joliet/HFS/UDF
       filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the	ISO-9660 filesystem must have  a  filename  in
       the  8.3	 format	 (8 characters,	period,	3 characters, all upper	case),
       even if Rock Ridge attributes are in use.  This	filename  is  used  on
       systems	that  are  not	able  to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions
       (such as	MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different
       from  the  other	 filenames  in	the same directory.  mkisofs generally
       tries to	form correct names by forcing the unix filename	to upper  case
       and  truncating as required, but	often times this yields	unsatisfactory
       results when there are cases where the  truncated  names	 are  not  all
       unique.	 mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are	otherwise the same are found the name with the lower  priority
       is  renamed  to have a 3	digit number as	an extension (where the	number
       is guaranteed to	be unique).  An	example	of this	 would	be  the	 files
       foo.bar	and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the  file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and	the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS or UDF  options,  mkisofs  will  attempt  to
       recognise  files	stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will
       copy the	data and resource forks	as well	as any relevant	finder	infor-
       mation. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below	for more about
       formats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not	designed to communicate	with writers for opti-
       cal  media  directly.  Most writers have	proprietary command sets which
       vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized  tool
       like cdrecord to	actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest	version	   of	 cdrecord    is	    available	  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord				    or
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/alpha

       Also you	should know that most cd writers  are  very  particular	 about
       timing.	 Once  you  start  to burn a disc, you cannot let their	buffer
       empty before you	are done, or you will end  up  with  a	corrupt	 disc.
       Thus  it	is critical that you be	able to	maintain an uninterrupted data
       stream to the writer for	the entire time	that the disc is  being	 writ-
       ten.

   Dealing with	path names
       pathspec	 is  the  path	of  the	 directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO-9660	filesystem.  Multiple paths can	be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge  the  files found in all of the specified path components to form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than	the root directory, and	it is possible
       to graft	files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they	have in	the source filesystem.	This is	easiest	to il-
       lustrate	with a couple of examples.   Let's start by  assuming  that  a
       local  file  ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
       image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the	file old.lis in	the cdrom image	 at  /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories	as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist	on the
       cdrom image - the directories do	not need  to  appear  in  one  of  the
       paths.	By  default,  any directories that are created on the fly like
       this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be	owned  by  the	person
       running mkisofs.	 If you	wish other permissions or owners of the	inter-
       mediate	directories,  see  -uid,  -gid,	 -dir-mode,   -file-mode   and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs	will also run on Win9x/NTx machines when compiled with Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page	to Unix	also apply to Win32 or Win64.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies	 the abstract file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
	      tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to	18 characters.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      ABST=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.  There	is space on the	disc for 128 characters	of in-
	      formation.  The related Joliet entry is limited  to  64  charac-
	      ters.   This  parameter  can  also be set	in the file .mkisofsrc
	      with APPI=id.  If	specified in both  places,  the	 command  line
	      version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO-9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.  Usually, a
	      leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lower	case characters	to appear in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one	 dot  to  appear  in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.  A leading dot	is not affected	by this	option,	it may
	      be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies	 the bibliographic file	name in	the primary volume de-
	      scriptor.	 There is space	on the disc for	37 characters  of  in-
	      formation.   The	related	 Joliet	entry is limited to 18 charac-
	      ters.  This parameter can	also be	set  in	 the  file  .mkisofsrc
	      with  BIBLO=filename.   If specified in both places, the command
	      line version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      mkisofs finds a hard link	(a file	with multiple names), then the
	      file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
	      on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is default on UNIX like op-
	      erating  systems.	  Be  careful  when  using  this  option  on a
	      filesystem without unique	inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
	      files containing the wrong content on CD.

	      If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will	revert to the old Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do  not  cache  inode and	device numbers.	 This option is	needed
	      whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers.	It  is
	      the  default on old Cygwin versions.  As the Microsoft operating
	      system that runs below Cygwin uses  64  bit  inode  numbers  for
	      NTFS, it does not	have unique inode numbers in the 32 bit	range.
	      Old Cygwin versions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from	a hash
	      algorithm	 and thus create non-unique numbers.  If mkisofs would
	      cache inodes on old Cygwin versions, it would believe that  some
	      files  are  identical  although they are not. The	result in this
	      case are files that contain the wrong content if	a  significant
	      amount  of  different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that
	      is to be archived.  This does not	happen when the	 -no-cache-in-
	      odes is used, but	the disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot	detect
	      hardlinks	anymore	and the	resulting CD image may be larger  than
	      expected.

	      If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will	revert to the old Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative to the source path and inside the source	tree specified
	      to mkisofs.  This	option is required  to	make  an  "El  Torito"
	      bootable	CD.  The boot image must be exactly the	size of	either
	      a	1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and  mkisofs  will  use  this
	      size when	creating the output ISO-9660 filesystem. It is assumed
	      that the first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot  im-
	      age  (it	is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This
	      will work, for example, if the boot image	is a LILO  based  boot
	      floppy.

	      If  the  boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need	to add
	      one of the options: -hard-disk-boot or  -no-emul-boot.   If  the
	      system should not	boot off the emulated disk, use	-no-boot.

	      If  the -sort option has not been	specified, the boot images are
	      sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
	      If  you  don't like this,	you need to specify a sort weight of 0
	      for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of "El Torito" boot parameters.   This  al-
	      lows to have more	than one El Torito boot	on a CD.  A maximum of
	      63 El Torito boot	entries	may be put on a	single CD.

       errctl= name

       errctl= error control spec
	      Add the content from file	name to	the error control  definitions
	      or  add  error  control  spec  to	the error control definitions.
	      More than	one error control file and more	than one error control
	      spec as well as a	mixture	of both	forms is possible.

	      The  reason  for	using  error  control is to make mkisofs quiet
	      about error conditions that are known to be  irrelevant  on  the
	      quality of the created filesystem	or to tell mkisofs to abort on
	      certain error conditions instead of trying to continue with  the
	      filesystem.

	      A	 typical  reason  to use error control is to suppress warnings
	      about growing log	files while doing a backup on a	live file sys-
	      tem.  Another typical reason to use error	control	is to tell mk-
	      isofs to abort if	e.g. a file could not be archived  instead  of
	      continuing to archive other files	from a list.

	      The  error  control  file	contains a set of lines, each starting
	      with a list of error conditions to be ignored followed by	 white
	      space  followed  by  a  file  name pattern (see match(1) or pat-
	      match(3) for more	information).  The error control spec uses the
	      same  syntax  as	a single line from the error control file.  If
	      the file name pattern needs to start with	 white	space,	use  a
	      backslash	to escape the start of the file	name. It is not	possi-
	      ble to have new line characters in the file name pattern.	 When-
	      ever an error situation is encountered, mkisofs checks the lines
	      in the error control file	starting from the top.	If the current
	      error  condition	is listed on a line in the error control file,
	      then mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest of the  line
	      matches  the  current  file  name.  If this is the case, mkisofs
	      uses the current error control specification to control the cur-
	      rent error condition.

	      The  list	 of error conditions to	be handled may use one or more
	      (in this case separated by a '|' character) identifiers from the
	      list below:

	      ABORT	  If  this meta	condition is included in an error con-
			  dition, mkisofs aborts (exits) as soon  as  possible
			  after	 this error condition has been seen instead of
			  making mkisofs quiet about the condition.  This  er-
			  ror condition	flag may only be used together with at
			  another error	condition or a list  of	 error	condi-
			  tions	(separated by a	'|' character).

	      WARN	  If  this meta	condition is included in an error con-
			  dition, mkisofs prints the warning about  the	 error
			  condition  but  the  error condition does not	affect
			  the exit code	of mkisofs and	the  error  statistics
			  (which  is  printed to the end) does not include the
			  related errors.  This	error condition	flag may  only
			  be  used together with at another error condition or
			  a list of error conditions (separated	by a '|' char-
			  acter).   The	WARN meta condition has	a lower	prece-
			  dence	than ABORT.

	      ALL	  This is a shortcut for all error conditions below.

	      STAT	  Suppress warnings that mkisofs could not  stat(2)  a
			  file.

	      GETACL	  Suppress  warnings  about files on which mkisofs had
			  problems to retrieve the ACL information.

	      OPEN	  Suppress warnings about  files  that	could  not  be
			  opened.

	      READ	  Suppress warnings read errors	on files.

	      WRITE	  Suppress warnings write errors on files.

	      READLINK	  Suppress  warnings  readlink(2)  errors  on symbolic
			  links.

	      GROW	  Suppress warnings about files	that  did  grow	 while
			  they have been archived.

	      SHRINK	  Suppress  warnings about files that did shrink while
			  they have been archived.

	      MISSLINK	  Suppress warnings about files	for which mkisofs  was
			  unable to archive all	hard links.

	      NAMETOOLONG Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the name of the file	 is  too  long
			  for the archive format.

	      FILETOOBIG  Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the size of the file	is too big for
			  the archive format.

	      SPECIALFILE Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the file type is not	 supported  by
			  the archive format.

	      GETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not retrieve the extended  file  attribute  informa-
			  tion.

	      SETTIME	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the time information during extraction.

	      SETMODE	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the access modes during extraction.

	      SECURITY	  Suppress warnings about files	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	they have been	considered  to
			  be  a	 security risk.	 This currently	applies	to all
			  files	that have a '/../' sequence  inside  when  -..
			  has not been specified.

	      LSECURITY	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	they have been	considered  to
			  be  a	 security risk.	 This currently	applies	to all
			  link names that start	with '/' or have a '/../'  se-
			  quence inside	when -secure-links has been specified.
			  In this case,	mkisofs	tries to match the  link  name
			  against the pattern in the error control file.

	      SAMEFILE	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	source and target of the  link
			  are pointing to the same file.  If mkisofs would not
			  skip these files, it would end up with removing  the
			  file	completely.   In  this	case, mkisofs tries to
			  match	the link name against the pattern in the error
			  control file.

	      BADACL	  Suppress  warnings  access  control  list conversion
			  problems.

	      SETACL	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the ACL information during extraction.

	      SETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the extended file attribute information dur-
			  ing extraction.

       If  a  specific error condition is ignored, then	the error condition is
       not only	handled	in a silent way	but also excluded from the error  sta-
       tistics that are	printed	at the end of the mkisofs run.

       Be  very	 careful  when using error control as you may ignore any error
       condition.  If you ignore the wrong error conditions, you  may  not  be
       able to see real	problems anymore.

       Note that currently only	the tags OPEN, READ, GROW, SHRINK, are checked
       from mkisofs.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	a comma	separated list of boot images that are	needed
	      to  make	a  bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition 0 is used
	      for the ISO-9660 image, the first	image file is mapped to	parti-
	      tion  1.	There may be empty fields in the comma separated list.
	      The maximum number of possible partitions	is 8 so	it is impossi-
	      ble to specify more than 7 partition images.  This option	is re-
	      quired to	make a bootable	CD for Sun sparc systems.  If  the  -B
	      or  -sparc-boot  option  has been	specified, the first sector of
	      the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk la-
	      bel  specifies  slice  0	for the	ISO-9660 image and slice 1 ...
	      slice 7 for the boot images that have been specified  with  this
	      option.  Byte  offset 512	... 8191 within	each of	the additional
	      boot images must contain a primary boot that works for  the  ap-
	      propriate	 sparc	architecture.  The  rest of each of the	images
	      usually contains an ufs filesystem that is used  primary	kernel
	      boot stage.

	      The  implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS
	      4.x and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS	inter-
	      nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
	      son, it should be	usable for any OS that boots off a sparc  sys-
	      tem.

	      For more information also	see the	NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the	actual and all follow-
	      ing boot partitions are mapped to	the previous partition.	If mk-
	      isofs  is	 called	 with -G image -B ...  all boot	partitions are
	      mapped to	the partition that contains  the  ISO-9660  filesystem
	      image and	the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the generic boot image	to  be
	      used  when making	a generic bootable CD.	The generic_boot_image
	      will be placed on	the first 16 sectors of	the CD.	The  first  16
	      sectors  are  the	 sectors  that are located before the ISO-9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
	      the  -sparc-boot	option,	 the  Sun  disk	label will overlay the
	      first 512	bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	that  the  boot	 image	used  to  create  "El  Torito"
	      bootable	CDs is a hard disk image. The hard disk	image must be-
	      gin with a master	boot record that contains a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	that  the  boot	 image	used  to  create  "El  Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	'no emulation' image. The system will load and
	      execute this image without performing any	disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	that the created "El Torito" CD	should	be  marked  as
	      not  bootable. The system	will provide an	emulated drive for the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies	the load segment address of the	boot image for no-emu-
	      lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	 the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	 that  a  56-byte table	with information of the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in	at offset 8 in the boot	file.  If this
	      option  is  given,  the  boot  file  is  modified	 in the	source
	      filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file  cannot  be
	      easily  regenerated!   See the EL	TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
	      for a description	of this	table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a  CDextra
	      or the image of a	second session or a higher level session for a
	      multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  numbers
	      separated	 by  a comma. The first	number is the sector number of
	      the first	sector in the last session of the disk that should  be
	      appended to.  The	second number is the starting sector number of
	      the new session.	The expected pair of numbers may be  retrieved
	      by  calling  cdrecord  -msinfo  ...  If the -C option is used in
	      conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
	      image that is intended to	be a continuation of the previous ses-
	      sion.  If	the -C option is used without the -M  option,  mkisofs
	      will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
	      second session on	a CDextra. This	is a  multi  session  CD  that
	      holds  audio data	in the first session and a ISO-9660 filesystem
	      in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the boot catalog to  be  used
	      when  making  an	"El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
	      relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.	  This	option
	      is  required  to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
	      into the output tree and not created in the  source  filesystem,
	      so  be sure the specified	filename does not conflict with	an ex-
	      isting file, as  it  will	 be  excluded.	Usually	 a  name  like
	      "boot.catalog" is	chosen.

	      If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot catalog
	      sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
	      If  you  don't like this,	you need to specify a sort weight of 0
	      for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check all	filenames imported from	 old  session  for  compliance
	      with  actual  mkisofs ISO-9660 file naming rules.	 It his	option
	      is not present, only names with a	length >  31  are  checked  as
	      these files are a	hard violation of the ISO-9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check  all  old  sessions	 for  compliance  with	actual mkisofs
	      ISO-9660 file naming rules.  This	is a high level	option that is
	      a	combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
	      the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies	the Copyright file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.   There  is space on	the disc for 37	characters of informa-
	      tion.  The related Joliet	entry is  limited  to  18  characters.
	      This  parameter  can  also  be  set  in the file .mkisofsrc with
	      COPY=filename.  If specified in both places,  the	 command  line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -d     Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.
	      If ISO-9660:1999	has  not  been	selected,  this	 violates  the
	      ISO-9660	standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -data-change-warn
	      If the size of a file changes while the file is being  archived,
	      treat  this  condition as	a warning only that does not cause mk-
	      isofs to abort.  A warning message is still written if the  con-
	      dition  is not otherwise ignored by another rule from an errctl=
	      option.  The -data-change-warn option works as if	the last error
	      control option was

		   errctl="WARN|GROW|SHRINK *"

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the  mode  of directories used	to create the image to
	      mode.  Specifying	this option automatically enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate	DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
	      sorting the order	of the content of the appropriate files	and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note	that the sort-
	      ing only works if	the DVD-Video  filenames  include  upper  case
	      characters only.
	      Note  that  in order to get a DVD-Video compliant	filesystem im-
	      age, you need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant  directory	 tree.
	      This  means  you need to have a directory	VIDEO_TS (all caps) in
	      the root directory of the	resulting DVD and you  should  have  a
	      directory	 AUDIO_TS. The directory VIDEO_TS needs	to include all
	      needed files (file names must be all caps) for a compliant  DVD-
	      Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When
	      this option is not in use, symbolic links	will be	entered	 using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

	      See also -posix-L	option.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the mode of regular files used	to create the image to
	      mode.  Specifying	this option automatically enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -find  This  option  acts  a separator.	If it is used, all mkisofs op-
	      tions must be to the left	of the -find option. To	the  right  of
	      the  -find  option, mkisofs accepts the find command line	syntax
	      only.

	      The find expression acts as a filter between the source of  file
	      names  and the consumer, which is	archiving engine.  If the find
	      expression evaluated as TRUE, then the related file is  selected
	      for processing, otherwise	it is omited.

	      In order to make the evaluation of the find expression more con-
	      venient, mkisofs implements additional find primaries that  have
	      side effects on the file meta data.  Mkisofs implements the fol-
	      lowing additional	find primaries:

	      -help  Lists the available find(1) syntax.

	      -chgrp gname
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets  the	 group
		     of	the file to gname.

	      -chmod mode
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets the permis-
		     sions of the file to mode.	 Octal	and  symbolic  permis-
		     sions are accepted	for mode as with chmod(1).

	      -chown uname
		     The  primary  always evaluates as true; it	sets the owner
		     of	the file to uname.

	      -false The primary always	evaluates as false; it allows to  make
		     the  result of the	full expression	different from the re-
		     sult of a part of the expression.

	      -true  The primary always	evaluates as true; it allows  to  make
		     the  result of the	full expression	different from the re-
		     sult of a part of the expression.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o	false )	-o ! -type d

	      lists all	directories and	puts all non-directories to the	 image
	      o.iso.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown	root -o	true )

	      archives	all  directories so they appear	to be owned by root in
	      the archive, all non-directories are archived as they are	in the
	      file system.

	      Note  that  the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot be used if
	      stdin or stdout has not been redirected.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	the gid	read from the source files  to	the  value  of
	      gid.   Specifying	 this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the	output
	      more verbose but may have	other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points	for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all filenames are	checked	for graft points. The filename is  di-
	      vided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of '\\'
	      and '=' characters must be escaped with  '\\'  if	 -graft-points
	      has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide  glob  from being seen on the ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge	direc-
	      tory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that  must	 match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 Multiple globs	may be hidden.
	      If glob matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory
	      will  be	hidden.	 In order to match a directory name, make sure
	      the pathname does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
	      hidden  files will still be written to the output	CD image file.
	      Should be	used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
	      more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add  the	hidden	(existence)  ISO-9660  directory attribute for
	      glob.  This attribute will prevent glob from being listed	on DOS
	      based  systems if	the /A flag is not used	for the	listing.  glob
	      is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any  part  of
	      the  filename or path.  In order to match	a directory name, make
	      sure the pathname	does not include  a  trailing  '/'  character.
	      Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to get the hidden attribute as
	      above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the Joliet directory.   glob	 is  a
	      shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part	of the
	      filename or path.	  Multiple  globs  may	be  hidden.   If  glob
	      matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order	to match a directory name, make	sure the path-
	      name  does not include a trailing	'/' character.	All the	hidden
	      files will still be written to the output	CD image file.	Should
	      be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the	Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally don't make sense in the Joliet World	as they	list the  real
	      name  and	the ISO-9660 name which	may both be different from the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock	 Ridge
	      tree.  It	seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory	from the Rock Ridge tree.  This	option only makes  the
	      visible tree better to understand	for people who don't know what
	      this directory is	for.  If you need to have no  RR_MOVED	direc-
	      tory  at	all,  you  should use the -D option. Note that in case
	      that the -D option has been specified, the resulting  filesystem
	      is  not  ISO-9660	 level-1 compliant and will not	be readable on
	      MS-DOS.  See also	NOTES section  for  more  information  on  the
	      RR_MOVED directory.

       -hide-udf glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the UDF directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      or  path.	  Multiple globs may be	hidden.	 If glob matches a di-
	      rectory, then the	contents of that directory will	be hidden.  In
	      order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
	      include a	trailing '/' character.	 All  the  hidden  files  will
	      still  be	 written  to the output	CD image file.	Should be used
	      with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-udf-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -input-charset charset
	      Set up the input charset that defines the	characters used	in lo-
	      cal  file	names.	To get a list of valid charset names, call mk-
	      isofs -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping,	 you  may  use
	      default  as  charset name. If the	input charset has not been set
	      up from the locale in the	environment, the default initial  val-
	      ues  are	cp437  on DOS based systems and	iso8859-1 on all other
	      systems.	See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

	      If -input-charset	has not	been specified,	it will	be set up from
	      the locale in the	environment. If	you like to disable this auto-
	      matic setup, use the empty string	as locale name.

       -output-charset charset
	      Set up the output	charset	that defines the characters that  will
	      be used in Rock Ridge file names.	Defaults to the	input charset.
	      See CHARACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the ISO-9660 conformance level. Valid	numbers	are  1..3  and
	      4.

	      With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
	      names are	restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no restrictions (other than	ISO-9660:1988) do  ap-
	      ply.   Starting with this	level, mkisofs also allows files to be
	      larger than 4 GB by implementing ISO-9660	multi-extent files.

	      With all ISO-9660	levels from 1..3, all filenames	are restricted
	      to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore	(_). The maxi-
	      mum filename length is restricted	to 31 characters,  the	direc-
	      tory  nesting  level  is	restricted  to	8 and the maximum path
	      length is	limited	to 255 characters.

	      Level 4 officially does  not  exists  but	 mkisofs  maps	it  to
	      ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an	enhanced volume	descriptor with	version	number
	      and file structure version number	set to 2  is  emitted.	 There
	      may be more than 8 levels	of directory nesting, there is no need
	      for a file to contain a dot and the  dot	has  no	 more  special
	      meaning,	file  names  do	 not have version numbers, the maximum
	      length for files and directory is	raised to 207.	If Rock	 Ridge
	      is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length	is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced	volume
	      descriptor which looks similar to	a  primary  volume  descriptor
	      but is slightly different. Be careful not	to use broken software
	      to make ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second  PVD  copy
	      and patching this	putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate	 Joliet	 directory  records  in	 addition  to  regular
	      ISO-9660 file names.  This is primarily useful  when  the	 discs
	      are to be	used on	Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The	Joliet
	      filenames	are specified in Unicode and each path	component  can
	      be  up  to  64  Unicode characters long.	Note that Joliet is no
	      standard - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no  standard
	      Rock  Ridge  extensions  may  usually  only be used on Microsoft
	      Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that	the filenames are lim-
	      ited  to	64 characters and the fact that	Joliet uses the	UTF-16
	      coding for Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow Joliet filenames to	be up to 103 Unicode characters.  This
	      breaks  the Joliet specification - but appears to	work. Use with
	      caution. The number 103 is derived from: the  maximum  Directory
	      Record  Length (254), minus the length of	Directory Record (33),
	      minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information	(14),  divided
	      by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
	      TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO-9660	 file-
	      name  will  be in	an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
	      even though the ISO-9660 standard	allows filenames of up	to  31
	      characters.   If	you use	this option, the disc may be difficult
	      to use on	a MS-DOS system, but this comes	in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use	with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots instead.	 This option will get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics
	      with mkisofs-3.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -long-rr-time
	      Use the long ISO-9660 time format	for the	file time stamps  used
	      in  Rock	Ridge.	This time format allows	to represent year 0 ..
	      year 9999	with a granularity of 10ms.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from	being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path as with option -x).	Technically glob  is  matched  against
	      the  d-_d_name  part of the directory entry.  Multiple globs may
	      be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m	'*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	".o", called "core"  or	 "foo-
	      bar"  to	be  copied  to CDROM. Note that	if you had a directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all	its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be excluded as above.

       -max-ISO-9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in	ISO-9660 filenames.  This option forces	the -N
	      option  as the extra name	space is taken from the	space reserved
	      for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many  systems.   Although	a conforming application needs to pro-
	      vide a buffer space of at	least  37  characters,	disks  created
	      with  this option	may cause a buffer overflow in the reading op-
	      erating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies	path to	existing ISO-9660 image	to be merged. The  al-
	      ternate  form  takes  a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
	      syntax as	the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of the
	      image specified in -M.  Typically	 this  requires	 multi-session
	      capability  for  the  recorder  and cdrom	drive that you are at-
	      tempting to write	this image to.	This option may	only  be  used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from	ISO-9660 file names.
	      This  violates the ISO-9660 standard, but	no one really uses the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode to use when creating	new directories	in the iso  fs	image.
	      The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do  not  include	backup files files on the ISO-9660 filesystem.
	      If the -no-bak option is specified, files	that contain the char-
	      acters  '~'  or '#' or end in '.bak' will	not be included	(these
	      are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -no-limit-pathtables
	      A	ISO-9660 filesystem contains path tables that contain  a  list
	      of directories.  This list may contain many directories but only
	      65535 of them may	be parent directories.	When -no-limit-pathta-
	      bles is in use, further parent directories will be folded	to the
	      root directory and the resulting filesystem will	no  longer  be
	      usable on	DOS.

       -no-long-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in Rock Ridge.  This time	format allows to represent  year  1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -force-rr
	      Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
	      previous sessions.  This helps to	show rotten ISO-9660 extension
	      records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the	 Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
	      This may help to avoid getting into trouble when	mkisofs	 finds
	      illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space,	but  the  SunOS	 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in	reading	split SL components (link_size
	      =	component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note that	this option has	been introduced	by Eric	 Youngdale  in
	      1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
	      it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
	      create  defective	 CE  signatures	if a symlink contained `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a	bug in reading split SL	fields
	      (a `/' can be dropped).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
	      1997.  It	is questionable	whether	it makes sense at  all.	  When
	      it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have	a serious bug that did
	      create defective CE signatures if	a  symlink  contained  `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is  the  name of the file	to which the ISO-9660 filesystem image
	      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can  correspond  directly	to the device name of the optical disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output
	      can  also	be a block special device for a	regular	disk drive, in
	      which case the disk partition can	be mounted and examined	to en-
	      sure that	the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole	image by 150 sectors (300 kB).	If the
	      option -B	is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
	      ISO-9660	partition  and before the beginning of the boot	parti-
	      tions.  The size of this padding is chosen  to  make  the	 first
	      boot  partition  start  on a sector number that is a multiple of
	      16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) im-
	      plement  read ahead bugs in their	filesystem I/O.	These bugs re-
	      sult in read errors on one or more files that are	located	at the
	      end  of a	track. They are	usually	present	when the CD is written
	      in Track at Once mode or when the	disk is	written	as mixed  mode
	      CD where an audio	track follows the data track.

	      To  avoid	 problems  with	 I/O  error  on	 the  last file	on the
	      filesystem, the -pad option has been made	the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do not Pad the end by 150	sectors	(300 kB) and do	not  make  the
	      the boot partitions start	on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	 file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
	      to be added to the ISO-9660 filesystem. This list	 of  pathspecs
	      are  processed after any that appear on the command line.	If the
	      argument is -, then the list is read from	the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option reserved by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -publisher  in-
	      stead.   This  option  will  get POSIX.1-2001 semantics with mk-
	      isofs-3.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.	This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the  disc	for 128	characters of information.  The	related	Joliet
	      entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can  also  be
	      set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	preparer of the	CDROM, usually
	      with a mailing address and phone number.	There is space on  the
	      disc  for	128 characters of information.	The related Joliet en-
	      try is limited to	64 characters.	This parameter can also	be set
	      in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -posix-H
	      Follow all symbolic links	encountered on command line when  gen-
	      erating the filesystem.

       -posix-L
	      Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When
	      this option is not in use, symbolic links	will be	entered	 using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

       -posix-P
	      Do  not  follow  symbolic	 links	when generating	the filesystem
	      (this is the default).  If -posix-P is specified after  -posix-H
	      or -posix-L, the effect of these options will be reset.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
	      (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for	Disk  At  Once
	      mode  and	 with  some  CD-R  drives  when	 piping	 directly into
	      cdrecord.	 In this case it is needed to know  the	 size  of  the
	      filesystem  before  the  actual CD-creation is done.  The	option
	      -print-size allows to get	this size from a "dry-run" before  the
	      CD  is actually written.	Old versions of	mkisofs	did write this
	      information (among other information) to stderr.	As this	 turns
	      out  to  be hard to parse, the number without any	other informa-
	      tion is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a  sim-
	      ple shell	script,	redirect stderr	and catch the number from std-
	      out.  This may be	done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ...	`

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No	progress  output  will
	      be provided.

       -R     Generate	SUSP  and  RR records using the	Rock Ridge protocol to
	      further describe the files on the	ISO-9660 filesystem.  The Rock
	      Ridge  protocol  is  needed in order to add POSIX	like file meta
	      data like	permissions, extended time  stamps,  user/group	 is'd,
	      link  counts,  inode  numbers and	symbolic links.	The Rock Ridge
	      protocol allows to archive hierarchy trees with unlimited	depth.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they are usually only useful on the  author's  system,  and  not
	      useful  to  the client.  All the file read bits are set true, so
	      that files and directories are globally readable on the  client.
	      If  any  execute	bit  is	set for	a file,	set all	of the execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If  any search bit is set	for a directory, set all of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All  write  bits are cleared, because the	CD-Rom will be mounted
	      read-only	in any case.  If any of	the special mode bits are set,
	      clear  them,  because  file  locks are not useful	on a read-only
	      file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or  gid
	      0.   When	 used  on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all	files.
	      This is a	result of the lack of file permissions	on  Win32  and
	      the   Cygwin   POSIX  emulation  layer.	See  also  -uid	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and	-new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO-9660 filenames  to  in-
	      clude  digits,  upper  case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII
	      characters (resp.	anything except	lowercase characters).
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves  all  files	and directories	into dir in the	image. This is
	      essentially the same as using -graft-points and  adding  dir  in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to	use.

	      dir  may actually	be several levels deep.	It is created with the
	      same permissions as other	graft points.

       -rrip110
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the old Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.10	 standard  from	1993. This option may be needed	if you
	      know of systems that do not implement  the  Rrip	protocol  cor-
	      rectly  and  like	 the  file system to be	read by	such a system.
	      Currently	no such	system is known.

	      If a file	system has been	created	with -rrip110, the Rock	 Ridge
	      attributes do not	include	inode number information.

       -rrip112
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the new Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.12	standard from 1994, this is the	default.

       -old-root dir
	      This option is necessary when writing a multisession  image  and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using a directory	name not found in the previous session	causes
	      mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without  this  option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodi-
	      fied files and would be forced to	write their data into the  im-
	      age once more.

	      -root  and  -old-root are	meant to be used together to do	incre-
	      mental backups.  The initial session  would  e.g.	 use:  mkisofs
	      -root  backup_1  dirs.  The next incremental backup with mkisofs
	      -root backup_2 -old-root	backup_1  dirs.	  would	 take  another
	      snapshot of these	directories. The first snapshot	would be found
	      in backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but  only  modified  or
	      new files	need to	be written into	the second session.

	      Without  these  options,	new  files would be added and old ones
	      would be preserved. But old ones would  be  overwritten  if  the
	      file was modified. Recovering the	files by copying the whole di-
	      rectory back from	CD would also restore files that were  deleted
	      intentionally.  Accessing	 several  older	versions of a file re-
	      quires support by	the operating system to	choose which  sessions
	      are to be	mounted.

       -short-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in Rock Ridge.  This time	format allows to represent  year  1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -s sector type

       -sectype	sector type
	      Set  the	sector	type  to  be used for the output file with the
	      ISO-9660 filesystem.  The	sector type may	be one of:

	      data   This is the default. It results in	standard  CD-ROM  data
		     sectors with 2048 bytes per sector.

	      xa1    This  sets	 the sector type to CD-ROM XA mode 1 with 2056
		     bytes per sector.	This sector type is the	official  sec-
		     tor  type	for  multi-session  CDs, it should be used to-
		     gether with the -XA option	of mkisofs.  It	is required to
		     write  Kodak  Photo  CDs  and Kodak Picture CDs.  Use the
		     -xa1 option from cdrecord to tell cdrecord	to  write  CD-
		     ROM  XA mode 1 sectors.  Do not use for DVD or BluRay me-
		     dia.

	      raw    This sets the sector type to raw audio sectors with  2352
		     bytes  per	 sector.  This is reserved for future enhance-
		     ments.  Do	not use	for DVD	or BluRay media.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort file	locations on the media.	Sorting	 is  controlled	 by  a
	      file that	contains pairs of filenames and	sorting	offset weight-
	      ing.  If the weighting is	 higher,  the  file  will  be  located
	      closer to	the beginning of the media, if the weighting is	lower,
	      the file will be located closer to the end of the	 media.	 There
	      must  be	only  one space	or tabs	character between the filename
	      and the weight and the weight must be the	last characters	 on  a
	      line. The	filename is taken to include all the characters	up to,
	      but not including	the last space or tab  character  on  a	 line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the	end of
	      a	filename.  This	option does not	sort the  order	 of  the  file
	      names  that appear in the	ISO-9660 directory. It sorts the order
	      in which the file	data is	written	to the CD image	- which	may be
	      useful  in  order	 to  optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is  cre-
	      ated with	the -sparc-boot	option.

       -split-output
	      Split the	output image into several files	of approximately 1 GB.
	      This helps to create DVD sized ISO-9660 images on	operating sys-
	      tems without large file support.	Cdrecord will concatenate more
	      than one file into a single track	if writing to a	DVD.  To  make
	      -split-output  work,  the	 -o filename option must be specified.
	      The resulting output images  will	 be  named:  filename_00,file-
	      name_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select  streaming	operation and set the media size to # sectors.
	      This allows you to pipe the output of the	tar program  into  mk-
	      isofs and	to create a ISO-9660 filesystem	without	the need of an
	      intermediate tar archive file.  If this option has  been	speci-
	      fied,  mkisofs reads from	stdin and creates a file with the name
	      STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file	(with padding) is  200
	      sectors  less than the specified media size. If -no-pad has been
	      specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than	the  specified
	      media  size.   If	 the  file is smaller, then mkisofs will write
	      padding. This may	take a while.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple  ISO-9660  filesys-
	      tems only	and may	not used together with multi-session or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Set the file name	used with -stream-media-size # to a value dif-
	      ferent  from STREAM.IMG.	If this	option is used,	the filesystem
	      is created as if -iso-level 4 has	been specified.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies	a comma	separated list of filesystem images  that  are
	      needed to	make a bootable	CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note  that  partition  1 is used for the ISO-9660	image and that
	      partition	2 is the whole disk, so	partition 1 and	2 may  not  be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image	file is	mapped
	      to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in  the  comma	 sepa-
	      rated  list,  and	 list  entries	for  partition 1 and 2 must be
	      empty.  The maximum number of supported  partitions  is  8  (al-
	      though  the  Solaris  x86	partition table	could support up to 16
	      partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than  6	parti-
	      tion  images.  This option is required to	make a bootable	CD for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first	sector
	      of  the resulting	image will contain a PC	fdisk label with a So-
	      laris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at  offset  512  and
	      spans  the  whole	 CD.   In  addition, for the Solaris type 0x82
	      fdisk partition, there is	a SVr4 disk label at  offset  1024  in
	      the  first  sector of the	CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0
	      for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image	that  is  used
	      to  boot	the  PC	 and  slice 1 for the ISO-9660 image.  Slice 2
	      spans the	whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may  be  used  for	 addi-
	      tional  filesystem images	that have been specified with this op-
	      tion.

	      A	Solaris	x86 boot CD uses a 1024	byte sized primary  boot  that
	      uses  the	 El-Torito  no-emulation  boot	mode  and  a secondary
	      generic boot that	is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G	genboot	must be	specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set  the	SVr4  disk  label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
	      created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	the system ID.	There is space	on  the	 disc  for  32
	      characters  of  information.   This parameter can	also be	set in
	      the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.	If specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate	a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which
	      can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help  establish
	      the  correct  file  names.  There	is also	information present in
	      the file that indicates the major	and minor  numbers  for	 block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
	      -T  option.   If you are creating	a multi-session	image you must
	      use the same name	as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The  default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -UDF   Include  a UDF hybrid in the generated filesystem	image.	As mk-
	      isofs always creates a ISO-9660 filesystem, it is	 not  possible
	      to  create UDF only images.  Note	that UDF wastes	the space from
	      sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning	of the disk  in	 addi-
	      tion to the spcae	needed for real	UDF data structures.

       -udf   Rationalized  UDF	 with user and group set to 0 and with simpli-
	      fied permissions.	 See -r	option for more	information.

       -udf-symlinks
	      Support symlinks in UDF filesystems. This	is the default.

       -no-udf-symlinks
	      Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	the uid	read from the source files  to	the  value  of
	      uid.   Specifying	 this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use	 file  version
	      numbers  from  the  filesystem.  If the option is	not specified,
	      mkisofs creates a	version	number of 1 for	all files.  File  ver-
	      sions  are  strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option	is the
	      default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely   violating   the
	      ISO-9660	standards  described  above. Forces on the -d, -l, -N,
	      -allow-leading-dots, -relaxed-filenames, -allow-lowercase,  -al-
	      low-multidot  and	 -no-iso-translate  flags. It allows more than
	      one '.' character	in the filename, as well as mixed  case	 file-
	      names.   This is useful on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS
	      filesystem does not recognize ANY	extensions. Use	 with  extreme
	      caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the characters '#' and '~' which are invalid
	      for ISO-9660 filenames.  These characters	are though invalid of-
	      ten used by Microsoft systems.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be  written
	      into  the	master block.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  This parameter can also be  set  in  the
	      file  .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
	      command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a	volume
	      ID,  this	 is the	name that will be used as the mount point used
	      by the Solaris volume management system and the name that	is as-
	      signed to	the disc on a Microsoft	Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	 the  volset  ID.   There is space on the disc for 128
	      characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is  limited
	      to  64  characters.   This parameter can also be set in the file
	      .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.  If specified  in	 both  places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the	volume set size	to #.  The volume set size is the num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a	CD volume set.	A volume set is	a col-
	      lection  of  one	or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create	a set numbered
	      CD's  that  are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set
	      of CD's.	Volume Sets are	rather used to record a	big  directory
	      tree  that  would	 not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a
	      Volume Set contains a description	of  all	 the  directories  and
	      files  that  are recorded	on the volumes where the sequence num-
	      bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
	      the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently	does not support a -volset-size	that is	larger
	      than 1.

	      The option -volset-size must be specified	 before	 -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the	 volume	 set sequence number to	#.  The	volume set se-
	      quence number is the index number	of the current CD in a CD set.
	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice	on the command line, extra de-
	      bug information will be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from	being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete pathname that  results  from  concatenating	 the  pathname
	      given as command line argument and the path relative to this di-
	      rectory.	Multiple paths may be excluded.	 Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE: The	-m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are	wrong.	Both now work identical	and use	filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -XA    Generate	XA  iso-directory  attributes  with original owner and
	      mode information.	 This option is	required to create  conforming
	      multi  session  CDs  as used by the Kodak	Photo CD and the Kodak
	      Picture CD.  A conforming	XA CD uses CD-ROM XA mode  1  sectors,
	      see the -sector xa2 option for more information.

       -xa    Generate XA iso-directory	attributes with	rationalized owner and
	      mode information.	 User ID and group ID are set to 0.   See  -XA
	      for more information.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
	      transparent  decompression,  such	as Linux 2.4.14	or later.  You
	      must specify the -R or -r	options	to enable RockRidge, and  gen-
	      erate compressed files using the mkzftree	utility	before running
	      mkisofs.	Note that transparent  compression  is	a  nonstandard
	      Rock  Ridge  extension.	The resulting disks are	only transpar-
	      ently readable if	used on	Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need	to call	mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic	and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -no-hfs
	      Do  not  create  an ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD even though other op-
	      tions may	imply to do so.

       -apple Create an	ISO-9660 CD with Apple's extensions.  Similar  to  the
	      -hfs  option,  except  that the Apple Extensions to ISO-9660 are
	      added instead of creating	an HFS hybrid volume.  Former  mkisofs
	      versions	did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if	-apple
	      was specified. This versions of mkisofs does not	do  this  any-
	      more.  If	 you  like  to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to
	      specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	 file  based on	the filename's extension. A filename is	mapped
	      only if it is not	one of the know	Apple/Unix file	 formats.  See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The  CREATOR and TYPE information	is set by using	a file's magic
	      number (usually the first	few bytes of a file).  The  magic_file
	      is  only	used if	a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
	      -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more de-
	      tails.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set  the	default	 TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats.	 See  the HFS MACINTOSH	FILE FORMATS section below for
	      more about these formats.	 However, the only way	to  check  for
	      MacBinary	and AppleSingle	files is to open and read them.	There-
	      fore this	option may increase processing time. It	is  better  to
	      use  one	or  more  double  dash	options	given below if the Ap-
	      ple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files  will
	      be created when the CD is	used on	a Macintosh (and stored	in the
	      System Folder).  By default, empty Desktop files	are  added  to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use  the	HFS  filename  as the starting point for the ISO-9660,
	      Joliet and Rock Ridge file names.	See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
	      NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may	make the CD bootable on	a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition	table. By default, no partition	 table
	      is generated, but	some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need	an HFS
	      partition	table on the CDROM to be able to  recognize  a	hybrid
	      CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make  the	 HFS  CD  use  the  QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to
	      launch an	application or document. The given  filename  must  be
	      the  name	 of a document or application located at the top level
	      of the CD. The filename must be less than	 12  characters.  (Al-
	      pha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set  the	size in	bytes of the cluster or	allocation units of PC
	      Exchange files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS  MAC-
	      INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide  glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will still
	      exist in the ISO-9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a	 shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	".o" or	called	"foobar"  from
	      the HFS volume. Note that	if you had a directory called "foobar"
	      it too (and of course all	its descendants)  would	 be  excluded.
	      The glob can also	be a path name relative	to the source directo-
	      ries given on the	command	line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would exclude just the file or directory called "html" from  the
	      "src"  directory.	 Any  other file or directory called "html" in
	      the tree will not	be excluded.  Should be	used  with  the	 -hide
	      and/or  -hide-joliet  options.   In  order  to match a directory
	      name, make sure the pathname does	not  include  a	 trailing  '/'
	      character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume  name for the HFS partition. This is the name that	is as-
	      signed to	the disc on a Macintosh	and replaces  the  volid  used
	      with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use  the	icon  position information, if it exists, from the Ap-
	      ple/Unix file.  The icons	will appear in the  same  position  as
	      they  would  on a	Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on
	      screen, its scroll positions, folder View	(view as Icons,	 Small
	      Icons,  etc.) are	also preserved.	 This option may become	set by
	      default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set the location,	size on	screen,	scroll positions, folder  View
	      etc.  for	 the root folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP boot	image file. Up to 4 are	allowed. See  README.prep_boot
	      (Alpha)

       -chrp-t
	      Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot for fur-
	      ther information.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters	used in	HFS file names
	      when  used  with	the  -mac-name option.	The default charset is
	      cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections	below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
	      the HFS file names. Defaults to the input	charset. See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS	volume that is locked.
	      This option leaves the volume unlocked so	 that  other  applica-
	      tions  (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
	      LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about	using this op-
	      tion.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given	directory (folder). This is usually the	System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name	of the
	      directory	 must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
	      if the given pathspec is ./cddata	and  the  required  folder  is
	      called System Folder, then the whole path	name is	"./cddata/Sys-
	      tem Folder" (remember to use quotes if the  name	contains  spa-
	      ces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override	certain	parameters used	to create the HFS file system.
	      Unlikely to be  used  in	normal	circumstances.	See  the  lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for	 AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for	CAP Apple/Unix
	      file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  is	disabled, unless other double dash options are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK	Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for	Macintosh files	(NT only) (Al-
	      pha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs	processes  file	 names	in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for	all  languages,	 8-bit
       characters  are	not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent	all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.	UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UCS-2 is used  by
       Microsoft with Win32.  This coding is similar to	UTF-16 with the	disad-
       vantage that it only supports a 16 bit subset of	 all  codes  and  that
       16-bit  characters  are	not compliant with the POSIX filesystem	inter-
       face.

       Modern UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  This
       coding  allows to use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit char-
       acter is	represented by one or more 8-bit characters.  If  a  character
       is  coded  in  ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North America) is
       maps 1:1	to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.	If a character
       is  coded  in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other	countries with limited
       character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8	coded  Unicode
       character.  Character codes that	cannot be represented as a single byte
       in UTF-8	(typically if the value	is > 0x7F) use escape  sequences  that
       map to more than	one 8-bit character.

       If all operating	systems	would use UTF-8	coding,	mkisofs	would not need
       to recode characters in file names.   Unfortunately,  Apple  uses  com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a	Unicode	coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the  actual  character  that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name	used by	Microsoft) used	by the local operating system in use -
       the  characters	in  a character	set will reflect the region or natural
       language	used by	the user.

       Usually	character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f  are  the  7  bit  ASCII  characters  and (on PC's and	Mac's)
       0x80-0xff are used for other characters.	 Unfortunately even this  does
       not  follow  ISO	standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there	is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the	same character
       code may	represent a different character	in different  character	 sets.
       So  a  file  name generated, say	in central Europe, may not display the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use  dif-
       ferent character	sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter code for "small e with acute accent" may be character  code  0x82
       on a PC,	code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while the codings used on a PC or Mac are  nonstandard,	Unicode	 codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value	as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and	applications will use the Uni-
       code  character set as the basis	for file names in a unique way,	it may
       be necessary to specify which character set your	file names use in  and
       which character set the file names should appear	on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you	want to	use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines  the  local character set	you are	using on your host ma-
	      chine.  Any character set	conversions that take place  will  use
	      this character set as the	staring	point. The default input char-
	      acter sets are cp437 on DOS based	systems	and iso8859-1  on  all
	      other systems.

	      If  the  -J option is given, then	the Unicode equivalents	of the
	      input character set will be used in the Joliet directory.	 Using
	      the -jcharset option is the same as using	the -input-charset and
	      -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines the character set	that will be used with	for  the  Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
	      likely to	be useful if used on a non-Unix	platform.  e.g.	 using
	      mkisofs  on  a Microsoft Win32 machine to	create Rock Ridge CDs.
	      If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it  is  likely  that
	      the output character set will be the same	as the input character
	      set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used for HFS  file	names  decoded
	      from  any	 of  the  various Apple/Unix file formats. Only	useful
	      when used	with -mac-name option.	See  the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
	      NAMES for	more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used to create HFS file names from
	      the input	character set in use. In most cases this will be  from
	      the character set	given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
	      to the input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to	 mkisofs.   To	get  a
       listing,	use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional  character  sets  from iconv(1) may be used on systems, that
       support iconv(1).  In this case,	call iconv -l to get a list  of	 valid
       character  sets	from  this  coding method.  To force an	iconv(1) based
       coding, use iconv:name instead of name for the character	set.

       If using	non iconv(1) based character sets, additional  character  sets
       can  be read from file for any of the character set options by giving a
       filename	as the argument	to the options.	The given file	will  only  be
       read if its name	does not match one of the built	in character sets.

       The  format of the character set	files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte	code (in hex as	0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as	0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the	line is	ignored.

       Any  blank line,	line without two (or more) columns in the above	format
       or comments lines (starting with	the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code	is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit	UNICODE	 (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE	(UTF-32)  coding  because  this	coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding	which is compatible to
       POSIX filenames and supported by	moder UNIX implementations such	as So-
       laris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the	behav-
       iour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO-9660 file names generated from the input	filenames are not con-
       verted  from  the  input	character set. The ISO-9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII	characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will	be replaced with a '_'
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file	has two	properties associated  with  it	 which	define
       which  application created the file, the	CREATOR	and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter	strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application	etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by	using something	like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	in all the various Ap-
       ple/Unix	encoded	files.	For other files	it is  possible	 to  base  the
       CREATOR	and TYPE on the	filename's extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic	option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is	 given	first,	then a filename	extension match	is at-
       tempted before a	magic number match. However, if	the -magic  option  is
       given  first,  then a magic number match	is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default	CREATOR	and TYPE for all regular files can be set by using en-
       tries in	the .mkisofsrc file or using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type
       options,	otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

       The  format  of	the mapping file is the	same afpfile format as used by
       aufs.  This file	has five columns for the extension, file  translation,
       CREATOR,	 TYPE  and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#' character are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first	column EXTN defines the	Unix filename extension	to  be
	      mapped.  The  default  mapping  for  any filename	extension that
	      doesn't match is defined with the	"*" character.

	      The Xlate	column defines the type	of  text  translation  between
	      the  Unix	 and  Macintosh	 file it is ignored by mkisofs,	but is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs  does  not
	      alter  the contents of a file, if	a binary file has its TYPE set
	      as 'TEXT', it may	be read	incorrectly on a Macintosh.  Therefore
	      a	better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The  CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and en-
	      closed in	single quotes.

	      The comment field	is enclosed in double quotes - it  is  ignored
	      by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format  of the magic file is almost	identical to the magic(5) file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines	for reading and	decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This  file  has	four  tab separated columns for	the byte offset, type,
       test and	message.  Lines	starting with the '#'  character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard	unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format of the file is described in the magic(5) man	page. The only
       difference here is that for each	entry in the magic file,  the  message
       for the initial offset must be 4	characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4 characters for	the TYPE - white space is optional between  them.  Any
       other  characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (start-
       ing with	a '>') are also	ignored	i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using  the  -magic option may significantly increase processing time as
       each file has to	opened and read	to find	its magic number.

       In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix'	 and  the  de-
       fault  TYPE  is	'TEXT'.	  These	can be changed by using	entries	in the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a	file is	in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the	format
       has been	selected), then	the CREATOR and	TYPE are taken from the	values
       stored in the Apple/Unix	file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then	 these	values
       override	the default CREATOR and	TYPE.

       A   full	  CREATOR/TYPE	 database   can	 be  found  at	http://www.an-
       gelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two	parts called the Data and Resource  fork.  Ei-
       ther  may  be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num-
       ber  of	attributes  associated with them - probably the	most important
       are the TYPE and	CREATOR. Again Unix has	no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where	the image is stored in
       the Data	fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that	is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a	Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found	to cope	with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred	to as the finder info).	 Unfortunately,	it  seems  that	 every
       software	 package that stores Macintosh files on	Unix has chosen	a com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports	are:

       CAP AUFS	format
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	in  subdirectory  .re-
	      source  with same	filename as data fork. Finder info in .finder-
	      info subdirectory	with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	stored in a file  with
	      same name	prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
	      file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
	      erinfo  stored  in  subdirectory	.AppleDouble with same name as
	      data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above,	except both forks  and	finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork  stored  in a file. Resource fork and finder info to-
	      gether in	subdirectory .rsrc with	same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the  finder  info  is
	      stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored	in one file.

       Apple PC	Exchange
	      Used  by	Macintoshes  to	 store Apple files on DOS (FAT)	disks.
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	 in  subdirectory  re-
	      source.frk  (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as one	record in file
	      finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat  for  each  data
	      fork directory.

	      Note:  mkisofs  needs to know the	native FAT cluster size	of the
	      disk that	the PC Exchange	files are  on  (or  have  been	copied
	      from).  This  size  is  given  by	the -cluster-size option.  The
	      cluster or allocation size can be	found by using the DOS utility
	      CHKDSK.

	      May  not	work  with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
	      with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media containing PC	Exchange files	should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when	they mount HFS disks. Data fork	stored
	      in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource  with  same
	      name.  Finder  info as one record	in file	.HSancillary. Separate
	      .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE
	      Allows Macintoshes to store Apple	files on  SMB  servers.	  Data
	      fork  stored  in	a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory re-
	      source.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource	fork.

       Services	for Macintosh
	      Format of	files stored by	NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
	      fork  is	stored	as  "filename".	Resource fork stored as	a NTFS
	      stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder	info is	stored
	      as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
	      are normally invisible to	the user.

	      Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.	If  an
	      HFS  file	 or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
	      NT character in its name,	then NT	converts these	characters  to
	      Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
	       | also a	space or period	if it is the  last  character  of  the
	      file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by  the  mkisofs	NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
	      name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
	      contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS	X on to	a non-
	      HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the	files  are  stored  in
	      AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in	a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
	      also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix	encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
	      a	MacOS X	system.	Data fork stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with	 the same name with the	suffix
	      '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available	via a MacOS X  library
	      call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If  a  file  is found with a zero	length resource	fork and empty
	      finderinfo, it is	assumed	not to have any	Apple/Unix encoding  -
	      therefore	a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs	will attempt to	set the	CREATOR, TYPE, date and	possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,	the  Macintosh
       filename	 is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on	the Unix filename - see	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE	NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the	 -apple	option,	the TYPE and CREATOR are stored	in the
       optional	System Use or SUSP field in the	ISO-9660 Directory Record - in
       much  the  same	way  as	the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the	beginning of  the  ex-
       isting  Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get
       the Rock	Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the	resource  fork	to  be	stored	as  an
       ISO-9660	 associated  file. This	is just	like any normal	file stored in
       the ISO-9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple	machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by	other OSs

       When  using  the	 -hfs  option,	the TYPE and CREATOR plus other	finder
       info, are stored	in a  separate	HFS  directory,	 not  visible  on  the
       ISO-9660	 volume.  The  HFS  directory references the same data and re-
       source fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the  -ap-
       ple  option,  as	the latter imposes the limited ISO-9660	characters al-
       lowed in	filenames. However, the	Apple extensions do give the advantage
       that  the  files	 are packed on the disk	more efficiently and it	may be
       possible	to fit more files on a CD - important when the total  size  of
       the source files	is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename	that is	stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part	of the CD. However, not	all the	Apple/Unix en-
       codings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the
       Unix filename is	used - with escaped special characters.	Special	 char-
       acters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters	by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk	and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses	"%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't	find an	HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx ==	two hex	digits)	converted to a	single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS	 directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or	:xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	HFS filenames appear to	support	upper and lower	case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a	unique name by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the  starting  point  for the ISO-9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an	HFS name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange)	file is	stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix	filesystem, but	contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is	the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix	name as	 the  starting	point  for  the	 other
       names,  then  the ISO-9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the ac-
       tual  data  (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename	as the starting	point and the ISO-9660 name will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and	the Joliet/Rock	Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix	name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not	the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any	HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults	to cp10000 (Mac	 Roman).   The	character  set
       used  can be specified using the	-input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character	sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007	(MacCyrillic),
       cp10029	(MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names	taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be	converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character set.	Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge  names  de-
       rived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter	out any	illegal	characters for
       the ISO-9660 and	Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing
       directly	with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names	as is.	But as
       '/' is a	legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       '/' to a	'_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO-9660	filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh.	However, as the	Macintosh ISO-9660 drivers can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems	on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example	this.file.name	will  be converted to THIS.FILE	i.e. only have
       one '.',	also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH	but  abcdefghi
       will  be	seen as	ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a	'.' at the end - don't know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem.	All  filenames
       will be in upper	case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines	will not be able to see	Level 2	filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD	a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes	a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume	a cus-
       tom icon	on a Macintosh,	an icon	has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon	is  very  similar  -  an invisible file	called
       'Icon\r'	exits in the folder itself.

       Probably	the easiest way	to create a custom icon	that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank	HFS floppy disk	on a Mac, paste	an icon	to its
       "Get Info" box. If using	Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

		  mount	-t hfs /dev/fd0	/mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as	a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

		  mkisofs --cap	-o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then	you can	use the	hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from	the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy	-m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M.	Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir	icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom	folder icons is	very similar -
       paste an	icon to	folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       'Icon\r'	file to	the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the	icon files from	the ISO-9660 and Joliet	trees.

       To give a custom	icon to	a Joliet CD, follow the	instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD	bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or  compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable	HFS partition and the necessary	System,	Finder,	etc. files.

       A driver	can be obtained	from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The  HFS	 partition  (i.e.  the hybrid disk in our case)	must contain a
       suitable	System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its	boot  block  set.  The
       boot  block  is	in  the	 first	two  blocks of a partition. For	a non-
       bootable	partition the boot block is full of zeros.  Normally,  when  a
       System  file is copied to partition on a	Macintosh disk,	the boot block
       is filled with a	number of required settings -  unfortunately  I	 don't
       know the	full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will	work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also	extracts the boot  block  from
       the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by	mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver	from an	Apple CD and copying Apple software to
	      your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
	      License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the	-boot-info-table option	is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file  specified	by the -b option by inserting a	56-byte	"boot informa-
       tion table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in  the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily  or
       reliably	obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table is as follows; all integers	are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA	of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA	of boot	file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in	bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit	words in the boot file
       starting	 at  byte  offset  64.	 All linear block addresses (LBAs) are
       given in	CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc	file, first in the current working di-
       rectory,	 then  in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which	the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series	of lines of the	form TAG=value , and in	this way you can spec-
       ify certain options.  The case of the tag  is  not  significant.	  Some
       fields  in  the volume header are not settable on the command line, but
       can be altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed  in  this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The  application identifier should describe the application that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of information.  The related Joliet	entry is limited to 64
	      characters.  May be overridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name	of a file on the  disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of information.  The related Joliet	entry is  lim-
	      ited  to	18 characters.	May be overridden using	the -copyright
	      command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information,	often the name of a file on  the  disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is	space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters of	information.  The related Joliet entry is  limited  to
	      18  characters.	May  be	overridden using the -abstract command
	      line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic	information, often the name of a file  on  the
	      disc  containing a bibliography.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of information.  The related Joliet	entry is  lim-
	      ited  to 18 characters.  May be overridden using the -bilio com-
	      mand line	option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer	of the CDROM, usually  with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry  is
	      limited  to  64 characters.  May be overridden using the -p com-
	      mand line	option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the	CDROM, usually with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry  is
	      limited  to  64  characters.   May be overridden using the -pub-
	      lisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid com-
	      mand line	option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	May be overridden using	the -V command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of information.  The related Joliet	entry is limited to 64
	      characters.  May be overridden using the	-volset	 command  line
	      option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The  default TYPE	for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-type  command  line  op-
	      tion.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh	files. Must be exactly 4 char-
	      acters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-creator	 command  line
	      option.

       mkisofs	can  also be configured	at compile time	with defaults for many
       of these	fields.	 See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in	the file cd.iso, where
       the  directory  cd_dir will become the root directory of	the CD ISO im-
       age, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all	files have at least read permission and	all files  are
       owned by	root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write a tar archive directly	to a CD	that will later	contain	a sim-
       ple ISO-9660 filesystem with the	tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size	333000 | \
       cdrecord	dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge	extensions  of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving  all
       files  CREATOR and TYPES	based on just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map	mapping	cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO-9660', from the	source
       directories  cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other	files are given	CREATOR	and TYPE based
       on their	magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name README, but	have different contents	when seen as a	ISO-9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or	HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following command puts the contents	of the directory cd_dir	on the
       CD along	with the three README files - but only one will	be  seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs	-J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs	-hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix	\
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the  file README.hfs will be seen as README on the	HFS CD and the
       other two README	files will be hidden. Similarly	 for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO-9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are probably all sorts of	strange	results	possible with combina-
       tions of	the hide options ...

AUTHOR
       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or	<eric@andante.org>  wrote  the
       first  versions	(1993 ... 1998)	of the mkisofs utility.	 The copyright
       for old versions	of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the	SCSI transport library and its
       adaptation layer	to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1997)	of the
       utility.	  Joerg	 Schilling  is the primary maintainer since 1999, this
       makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1997-2010 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997	... 2001.

       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie.

       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin	1986, 1987, 1989, 1990,	 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs	may safely be installed	suid root. This	may be needed to allow
       mkisofs to read the previous session when creating a multi session  im-
       age.

       mkisofs	is  not	based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because we
       must generate a complete	copy of	an existing filesystem on  a  disk  in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of	a mis-
       nomer, since it not only	creates	the filesystem,	but it also  populates
       it  as  well.   However,	the appropriate	tool name for a	UNIX tool that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not	well known.

       If mkisofs is creating a	filesystem image with  Rock  Ridge  attributes
       and  the	 directory  nesting  level of the source directory tree	is too
       much for	ISO-9660, mkisofs will do deep directory relocation.  This re-
       sults  in  a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid	this directory in the directory	tree that  is  visible
       with ISO-9660 but it it automatically hidden in the Rock	Ridge tree.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely follows the official Sparc CD	 boot  requirements  from  the
       Boot prom in Sun	Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions	for Sparc sys-
       tems use	a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is	not  Sparc  CD
       boot compliant.	It is annoyingly to see	that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix SILO	but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch"  to  mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Does  not	 properly  read	relocated directories in multi-session
	      mode when	adding data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
	      include the deep directory.

	      Repeat  by:  create first	session	with deep directory relocation
	      then add new session with	a single dir that differs from the old
	      deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session	from TRANS.TBL

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have	had  to	 make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work,	however	there may be situations	that either  I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore I can't guarantee that mkisofs will	work as	expected  (although  I
       haven't	had  a major problem yet). Most	of the HFS features work fine,
       however,	some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although	HFS filenames appear to	support	upper and lower	case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a	unique name by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names	that share the first 31	characters have	_N' (N
       ==  decimal number) substituted for the last few	characters to generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above  for the method and syntax	involved). It is not possible to use a
       new name	for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded	file  called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not
       use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode	"oldname". However, you	can graft  Ap-
       ple/Unix	 encoded files or directories as long as you do	not attempt to
       give them new names as above.

       When creating an	HFS volume with	the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous	sessions to the	HFS volume.

       However,	if each	session	is created with	the -part  option,  then  each
       session	will appear as separate	volumes	when mounted on	a Mac. In this
       case, it	is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give  each  ses-
       sion  a	unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear	on the
       Desktop with the	same name.

       Symbolic	links (as with all other non-regular files) are	not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes may be larger than pure ISO-9660	volumes	containing the
       same data. In some cases	(e.g. DVD sized	volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be  significantly larger. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the al-
       location	block size (the	smallest amount	of space a file	 can  occupy).
       For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation	block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will
       be about	70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -  although
       the real	limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting hybrid volume can	be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it  is set as locked.  The option -hfs-unlock will create an output im-
       age that	is unlocked - however no changes should	be made	 to  the  con-
       tents of	the volume (unless you really know what	you are	doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS	volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although	mkisofs	does not alter the contents of a  file,	 if  a	binary
       file has	its TYPE set as	'TEXT',	it may be read incorrectly on a	Macin-
       tosh. Therefore a better	choice for the default TYPE may	be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media	containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat)	when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially	supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the	-boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot or -chrp-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create	HFS hybrid images over	4Gb,  although
       this has	not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui	interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	 is   available	  as   part   of  the  cdrecord	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils	from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree	 is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING	LISTS
       If  you	want  to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de

       If you definitly	found a	bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The interfaces provided by mkisofs are designed for long	 term  stabil-
       ity.  As	mkisofs	depends	on interfaces provided by the underlying oper-
       ating system, the stability of the interfaces offered  by  mkisofs  de-
       pends on	the interface stability	of the OS interfaces.  Modified	inter-
       faces in	the OS may enforce modified interfaces in mkisofs.

Version	3.0			  2010/11/24			    MKISOFS(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HFS OPTIONS | CHARACTER SETS | HFS CREATOR/TYPE | HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS | HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES | HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS | HFS BOOT DRIVER | EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE | CONFIGURATION | EXAMPLES | AUTHOR | NOTES | BUGS | HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | MAINTAINER | HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER | INTERFACE STABILITY

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