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MKISOFS(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  an  hybrid ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF filesystem-image
       with optional Rock Ridge	attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] -find [find expression]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively	 a  pre-mastering  program  to	 generate   an
       ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF hybrid filesystem.

       ISO-9660/JOLIET/UDF  filesystems	are limited to a maximum size of 8 TB.
       The maximum size	of a single file is 8 TB (single files in UDF are cur-
       rently limited to aprox.	200 GB).  If yo	like to	have files larger than
       2 GB, you need to specify -iso-level 3 or above.	 If a  HFS  hybrid  is
       created,	 the  maximum file size	for files in the HFS hybrid is 2 GB in
       any case.

   Hybrid filesystem support
       mkisofs is capable  of  generating  the	System	Use  Sharing  Protocol
       records	(SUSP) specified by the	Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This
       is used to further describe the files in	the ISO-9660 filesystem	 to  a
       unix  host, and provides	information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links,  hard	 links,	 block	and  character
       devices.

       If  Joliet,  HFS	 or  UDF  hybrid  command  line	options	are specified,
       mkisofs will  create  additional	 separate  filesystem  meta  data  for
       Joliet,	HFS  or	UDF.  The file content in this case refers to the same
       data blocks on the media.  It will generate a pure ISO-9660  filesystem
       unless the Joliet, HFS or UDF hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when	 accessed  from	 a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO-9660	 files when accessed from other	machines. HFS stands for Hier-
       archical	File System and	is the native file system  used	 on  Macintosh
       computers up to Mac OS 9.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can  generate  the  Apple	 Extensions to
       ISO-9660	or UDF for each	file. These extensions provide each file  with
       CREATOR,	 TYPE and certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

   Functional description
       mkisofs takes a snapshot	of a given directory  tree,  and  generates  a
       binary  image  which  will  correspond to an ISO-9660 or	Joliet/HFS/UDF
       filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the	ISO-9660 filesystem must have  a  filename  in
       the  8.3	 format	 (8 characters,	period,	3 characters, all upper	case),
       even if Rock Ridge attributes are in use.  This	filename  is  used  on
       systems	that  are  not	able  to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions
       (such as	MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different
       from  the  other	 filenames  in	the same directory.  mkisofs generally
       tries to	form correct names by forcing the unix filename	to upper  case
       and  truncating as required, but	often times this yields	unsatisfactory
       results when there are cases where the  truncated  names	 are  not  all
       unique.	 mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are	otherwise the same are found the name with the lower  priority
       is  renamed  to have a 3	digit number as	an extension (where the	number
       is guaranteed to	be unique).  An	example	of this	 would	be  the	 files
       foo.bar	and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the  file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and	the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS or UDF  options,  mkisofs  will  attempt  to
       recognise  files	stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will
       copy the	data and resource forks	as well	as any relevant	finder	infor-
       mation. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below	for more about
       formats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not	designed to communicate	with writers for opti-
       cal  media  directly.  Most writers have	proprietary command sets which
       vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized  tool
       like cdrecord to	actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest	version	   of	 cdrecord    is	    available	  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord				    or
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/alpha

       Also you	should know that most cd writers  are  very  particular	 about
       timing.	 Once  you  start  to burn a disc, you cannot let their	buffer
       empty before you	are done, or you will end  up  with  a	corrupt	 disc.
       Thus  it	is critical that you be	able to	maintain an uninterrupted data
       stream to the writer for	the entire time	that the disc is  being	 writ-
       ten.

   Dealing with	path names
       pathspec	 is  the  path	of  the	 directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO-9660	filesystem.  Multiple paths can	be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge  the  files found in all of the specified path components to form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than	the root directory, and	it is possible
       to graft	files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they	 have  in  the	source filesystem.  This is easiest to
       illustrate with a couple	of examples.   Let's start by assuming that  a
       local  file  ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
       image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the	file old.lis in	the cdrom image	 at  /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories	as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist	on the
       cdrom image - the directories do	not need  to  appear  in  one  of  the
       paths.	By  default,  any directories that are created on the fly like
       this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be	owned  by  the	person
       running mkisofs.	 If you	wish other permissions or owners of the	inter-
       mediate	directories,  see  -uid,  -gid,	 -dir-mode,   -file-mode   and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs	will also run on Win9x/NTx machines when compiled with Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page	to Unix	also apply to Win32 or Win64.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies	 the abstract file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
	      tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to	18 characters.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      ABST=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.   There  is  space  on	the disc for 128 characters of
	      information.  The	related	Joliet entry is	limited	to 64  charac-
	      ters.   This  parameter  can  also be set	in the file .mkisofsrc
	      with APPI=id.  If	specified in both  places,  the	 command  line
	      version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO-9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.  Usually, a
	      leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lower	case characters	to appear in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one	 dot  to  appear  in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.  A leading dot	is not affected	by this	option,	it may
	      be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies	 the  bibliographic  file  name	 in the	primary	volume
	      descriptor.  There is space on the disc  for  37	characters  of
	      information.   The related Joliet	entry is limited to 18 charac-
	      ters.  This parameter can	also be	set  in	 the  file  .mkisofsrc
	      with  BIBLO=filename.   If specified in both places, the command
	      line version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      mkisofs finds a hard link	(a file	with multiple names), then the
	      file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
	      on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is  default	on  UNIX  like
	      operating	 systems.   Be	careful	 when  using  this option on a
	      filesystem without unique	inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
	      files containing the wrong content on CD.

	      If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will	revert to the old Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do  not  cache  inode and	device numbers.	 This option is	needed
	      whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers.	It  is
	      the  default on old Cygwin versions.  As the Microsoft operating
	      system that runs below Cygwin uses  64  bit  inode  numbers  for
	      NTFS, it does not	have unique inode numbers in the 32 bit	range.
	      Old Cygwin versions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from	a hash
	      algorithm	 and thus create non-unique numbers.  If mkisofs would
	      cache inodes on old Cygwin versions, it would believe that  some
	      files  are  identical  although they are not. The	result in this
	      case are files that contain the wrong content if	a  significant
	      amount  of  different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that
	      is  to  be  archived.    This   does   not   happen   when   the
	      -no-cache-inodes	is  used, but the disadvantage is that mkisofs
	      cannot detect hardlinks anymore and the resulting	CD  image  may
	      be larger	than expected.

	      If  inodes  are  not cached, mkisofs will	revert to the old Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative to the source path and inside the source	tree specified
	      to mkisofs.  This	option is required  to	make  an  "El  Torito"
	      bootable	CD.  The boot image must be exactly the	size of	either
	      a	1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and  mkisofs  will  use  this
	      size when	creating the output ISO-9660 filesystem. It is assumed
	      that the first 512 byte sector should  be	 read  from  the  boot
	      image (it	is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This
	      will work, for example, if the boot image	is a LILO  based  boot
	      floppy.

	      If  the  boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need	to add
	      one of the options: -hard-disk-boot or  -no-emul-boot.   If  the
	      system should not	boot off the emulated disk, use	-no-boot.

	      If  the -sort option has not been	specified, the boot images are
	      sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
	      If  you  don't like this,	you need to specify a sort weight of 0
	      for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set  of	"El  Torito"  boot  parameters.	  This
	      allows  to have more than	one El Torito boot on a	CD.  A maximum
	      of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

       errctl= name

       errctl= error control spec
	      Add the content from file	name to	the error control  definitions
	      or  add  error  control  spec  to	the error control definitions.
	      More than	one error control file and more	than one error control
	      spec as well as a	mixture	of both	forms is possible.

	      The  reason  for	using  error  control is to make mkisofs quiet
	      about error conditions that are known to be  irrelevant  on  the
	      quality of the created filesystem	or to tell mkisofs to abort on
	      certain error conditions instead of trying to continue with  the
	      filesystem.

	      A	 typical  reason  to use error control is to suppress warnings
	      about growing log	files while doing a backup on a	live file sys-
	      tem.   Another  typical  reason  to use error control is to tell
	      mkisofs to abort if e.g. a file could not	be archived instead of
	      continuing to archive other files	from a list.

	      The  error  control  file	contains a set of lines, each starting
	      with a list of error conditions to be ignored followed by	 white
	      space  followed  by  a  file  name pattern (see match(1) or pat-
	      match(3) for more	information).  The error control spec uses the
	      same  syntax  as	a single line from the error control file.  If
	      the file name pattern needs to start with	 white	space,	use  a
	      backslash	to escape the start of the file	name. It is not	possi-
	      ble to have new line characters in the file name pattern.	 When-
	      ever an error situation is encountered, mkisofs checks the lines
	      in the error control file	starting from the top.	If the current
	      error  condition	is listed on a line in the error control file,
	      then mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest of the  line
	      matches  the  current  file  name.  If this is the case, mkisofs
	      uses the current error control specification to control the cur-
	      rent error condition.

	      The  list	 of error conditions to	be handled may use one or more
	      (in this case separated by a '|' character) identifiers from the
	      list below:

	      ABORT	  If  this meta	condition is included in an error con-
			  dition, mkisofs aborts (exits) as soon  as  possible
			  after	 this error condition has been seen instead of
			  making mkisofs  quiet	 about	the  condition.	  This
			  error	 condition flag	may only be used together with
			  at another error condition or	a list of error	condi-
			  tions	(separated by a	'|' character).

	      WARN	  If  this meta	condition is included in an error con-
			  dition, mkisofs prints the warning about  the	 error
			  condition  but  the  error condition does not	affect
			  the exit code	of mkisofs and	the  error  statistics
			  (which  is  printed to the end) does not include the
			  related errors.  This	error condition	flag may  only
			  be  used together with at another error condition or
			  a list of error conditions (separated	by a '|' char-
			  acter).   The	WARN meta condition has	a lower	prece-
			  dence	than ABORT.

	      ALL	  This is a shortcut for all error conditions below.

	      STAT	  Suppress warnings that mkisofs could not  stat(2)  a
			  file.

	      GETACL	  Suppress  warnings  about files on which mkisofs had
			  problems to retrieve the ACL information.

	      OPEN	  Suppress warnings about  files  that	could  not  be
			  opened.

	      READ	  Suppress warnings read errors	on files.

	      WRITE	  Suppress warnings write errors on files.

	      READLINK	  Suppress  warnings  readlink(2)  errors  on symbolic
			  links.

	      GROW	  Suppress warnings about files	that  did  grow	 while
			  they have been archived.

	      SHRINK	  Suppress  warnings about files that did shrink while
			  they have been archived.

	      MISSLINK	  Suppress warnings about files	for which mkisofs  was
			  unable to archive all	hard links.

	      NAMETOOLONG Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the name of the file	 is  too  long
			  for the archive format.

	      FILETOOBIG  Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the size of the file	is too big for
			  the archive format.

	      SPECIALFILE Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  archived because the file type is not	 supported  by
			  the archive format.

	      GETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not retrieve the extended  file  attribute  informa-
			  tion.

	      SETTIME	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the time information during extraction.

	      SETMODE	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the access modes during extraction.

	      SECURITY	  Suppress warnings about files	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	they have been	considered  to
			  be  a	 security risk.	 This currently	applies	to all
			  files	that have a '/../' sequence  inside  when  -..
			  has not been specified.

	      LSECURITY	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	they have been	considered  to
			  be  a	 security risk.	 This currently	applies	to all
			  link names that start	with  '/'  or  have  a	'/../'
			  sequence  inside  when -secure-links has been	speci-
			  fied.	 In this case, mkisofs tries to	match the link
			  name against the pattern in the error	control	file.

	      SAMEFILE	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on extraction	because	source and target of the  link
			  are pointing to the same file.  If mkisofs would not
			  skip these files, it would end up with removing  the
			  file	completely.   In  this	case, mkisofs tries to
			  match	the link name against the pattern in the error
			  control file.

	      BADACL	  Suppress  warnings  access  control  list conversion
			  problems.

	      SETACL	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the ACL information during extraction.

	      SETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the extended file attribute information dur-
			  ing extraction.

       If  a  specific error condition is ignored, then	the error condition is
       not only	handled	in a silent way	but also excluded from the error  sta-
       tistics that are	printed	at the end of the mkisofs run.

       Be  very	 careful  when using error control as you may ignore any error
       condition.  If you ignore the wrong error conditions, you  may  not  be
       able to see real	problems anymore.

       Note that currently only	the tags OPEN, READ, GROW, SHRINK, are checked
       from mkisofs.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	a comma	separated list of boot images that are	needed
	      to  make	a  bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition 0 is used
	      for the ISO-9660 image, the first	image file is mapped to	parti-
	      tion  1.	There may be empty fields in the comma separated list.
	      The maximum number of possible partitions	is 8 so	it is impossi-
	      ble  to  specify	more  than 7 partition images.	This option is
	      required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If	the -B
	      or  -sparc-boot  option  has been	specified, the first sector of
	      the resulting image will contain a Sun  disk  label.  This  disk
	      label  specifies	slice 0	for the	ISO-9660 image and slice 1 ...
	      slice 7 for the boot images that have been specified  with  this
	      option.  Byte  offset 512	... 8191 within	each of	the additional
	      boot images must contain a  primary  boot	 that  works  for  the
	      appropriate  sparc  architecture.	The rest of each of the	images
	      usually contains an ufs filesystem that is used  primary	kernel
	      boot stage.

	      The  implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS
	      4.x and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS	inter-
	      nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
	      son, it should be	usable for any OS that boots off a sparc  sys-
	      tem.

	      For more information also	see the	NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the	actual and all follow-
	      ing boot partitions are mapped to	 the  previous	partition.  If
	      mkisofs  is called with -G image -B ...  all boot	partitions are
	      mapped to	the partition that contains  the  ISO-9660  filesystem
	      image and	the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the generic boot image	to  be
	      used  when making	a generic bootable CD.	The generic_boot_image
	      will be placed on	the first 16 sectors of	the CD.	The  first  16
	      sectors  are  the	 sectors  that are located before the ISO-9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
	      the  -sparc-boot	option,	 the  Sun  disk	label will overlay the
	      first 512	bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	that  the  boot	 image	used  to  create  "El  Torito"
	      bootable	CDs  is	 a  hard  disk image. The hard disk image must
	      begin with a master boot record that contains  a	single	parti-
	      tion.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	'no emulation' image. The system will load and
	      execute this image without performing any	disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  created "El	Torito"	CD should be marked as
	      not bootable. The	system will provide an emulated	drive for  the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies	the load segment address of the	boot image for no-emu-
	      lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	the number of "virtual"	(512-byte) sectors to load  in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	that a 56-byte table with information  of  the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in	at offset 8 in the boot	file.  If this
	      option is	given,	the  boot  file	 is  modified  in  the	source
	      filesystem,  so  make sure to make a copy	if this	file cannot be
	      easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO	TABLE  section
	      for a description	of this	table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra
	      or the image of a	second session or a higher level session for a
	      multi  session  disk.  The option	-C takes a pair	of two numbers
	      separated	by a comma. The	first number is	the sector  number  of
	      the  first sector	in the last session of the disk	that should be
	      appended to.  The	second number is the starting sector number of
	      the  new session.	 The expected pair of numbers may be retrieved
	      by calling cdrecord -msinfo ...  If the -C  option  is  used  in
	      conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
	      image that is intended to	be a continuation of the previous ses-
	      sion.   If  the -C option	is used	without	the -M option, mkisofs
	      will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
	      second  session  on  a  CDextra. This is a multi session CD that
	      holds audio data in the first session and	a ISO-9660  filesystem
	      in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path and filename	of the boot catalog to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the	source path specified to mkisofs.  This	option
	      is required to make a bootable CD.  This file will  be  inserted
	      into  the	 output	tree and not created in	the source filesystem,
	      so be sure the specified filename	 does  not  conflict  with  an
	      existing	file,  as  it  will  be	 excluded. Usually a name like
	      "boot.catalog" is	chosen.

	      If the -sort option has not been	specified,  the	 boot  catalog
	      sorted  with  low	 priority (+1) to the beginning	of the medium.
	      If you don't like	this, you need to specify a sort weight	 of  0
	      for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames  imported  from old	session	for compliance
	      with actual mkisofs ISO-9660 file	naming rules.  It  his	option
	      is  not  present,	 only  names with a length > 31	are checked as
	      these files are a	hard violation of the ISO-9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check all	 old  sessions	for  compliance	 with  actual  mkisofs
	      ISO-9660 file naming rules.  This	is a high level	option that is
	      a	combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
	      the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies	the Copyright file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
	      tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to	18 characters.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      COPY=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -d     Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.
	      If  ISO-9660:1999	 has  not  been	 selected,  this  violates the
	      ISO-9660 standard, but it	happens	to work	on many	systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -data-change-warn
	      If  the size of a	file changes while the file is being archived,
	      treat this condition as a	 warning  only	that  does  not	 cause
	      mkisofs  to  abort.   A  warning message is still	written	if the
	      condition	is not otherwise  ignored  by  another	rule  from  an
	      errctl=  option.	 The  -data-change-warn	option works as	if the
	      last error control option	was

		   errctl="WARN|GROW|SHRINK *"

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of directories	used to	create	the  image  to
	      mode.   Specifying  this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate DVD-Video compliant UDF file system. This  is  done  by
	      sorting the order	of the content of the appropriate files	and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note	that the sort-
	      ing  only	 works	if  the	DVD-Video filenames include upper case
	      characters only.
	      Note that	in order  to  get  a  DVD-Video	 compliant  filesystem
	      image, you need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
	      This means you need to have a directory VIDEO_TS (all  caps)  in
	      the  root	 directory  of the resulting DVD and you should	have a
	      directory	AUDIO_TS. The directory	VIDEO_TS needs to include  all
	      needed  files (file names	must be	all caps) for a	compliant DVD-
	      Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow all symbolic links	when generating	the filesystem.	  When
	      this  option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

	      See also -posix-L	option.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of regular files used to create the image  to
	      mode.   Specifying  this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -find  This option acts a  separator.   If  it  is  used,  all  mkisofs
	      options must be to the left of the -find option. To the right of
	      the -find	option,	mkisofs	accepts	the find command  line	syntax
	      only.

	      The  find	expression acts	as a filter between the	source of file
	      names and	the consumer, which is archiving engine.  If the  find
	      expression  evaluated as TRUE, then the related file is selected
	      for processing, otherwise	it is omited.

	      In order to make the evaluation of the find expression more con-
	      venient,	mkisofs	implements additional find primaries that have
	      side effects on the file meta data.  Mkisofs implements the fol-
	      lowing additional	find primaries:

	      -help  Lists the available find(1) syntax.

	      -chgrp gname
		     The  primary  always evaluates as true; it	sets the group
		     of	the file to gname.

	      -chmod mode
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets the permis-
		     sions  of	the  file to mode.  Octal and symbolic permis-
		     sions are accepted	for mode as with chmod(1).

	      -chown uname
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets  the	 owner
		     of	the file to uname.

	      -false The  primary always evaluates as false; it	allows to make
		     the result	of the	full  expression  different  from  the
		     result of a part of the expression.

	      -true  The  primary  always evaluates as true; it	allows to make
		     the result	of the	full  expression  different  from  the
		     result of a part of the expression.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o	false )	-o ! -type d

	      lists  all directories and puts all non-directories to the image
	      o.iso.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown	root -o	true )

	      archives all directories so they appear to be owned by  root  in
	      the archive, all non-directories are archived as they are	in the
	      file system.

	      Note that	the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot be  used  if
	      stdin or stdout has not been redirected.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	 the  gid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      gid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for	a GUI. This currently makes the	output
	      more verbose but may have	other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points	for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all  filenames  are  checked  for	 graft points. The filename is
	      divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences  of
	      '\\'   and   '='	 characters  must  be  escaped	with  '\\'  if
	      -graft-points has	been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the ISO-9660	or Rock	 Ridge	direc-
	      tory.   glob  is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 Multiple globs	may be hidden.
	      If glob matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory
	      will be hidden.  In order	to match a directory name,  make  sure
	      the pathname does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
	      hidden files will	still be written to the	output CD image	 file.
	      Should be	used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
	      more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden  (existence)  ISO-9660  directory	attribute  for
	      glob.  This attribute will prevent glob from being listed	on DOS
	      based systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.	  glob
	      is  a  shell wild-card-style pattern that	must match any part of
	      the filename or path.  In	order to match a directory name,  make
	      sure  the	 pathname  does	 not include a trailing	'/' character.
	      Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to get the hidden attribute as
	      above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
	      shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any	 part  of  the
	      filename	or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob
	      matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order	to match a directory name, make	sure the path-
	      name does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the	hidden
	      files will still be written to the output	CD image file.	Should
	      be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the	Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally  don't make sense in	the Joliet World as they list the real
	      name and the ISO-9660 name which may both	be different from  the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename  the  directory  RR_MOVED	to .rr_moved in	the Rock Ridge
	      tree.  It	seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory	 from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option	only makes the
	      visible tree better to understand	for people who don't know what
	      this  directory  is for.	If you need to have no RR_MOVED	direc-
	      tory at all, you should use the -D option.  Note	that  in  case
	      that  the	-D option has been specified, the resulting filesystem
	      is not ISO-9660 level-1 compliant	and will not  be  readable  on
	      MS-DOS.	See  also  NOTES  section  for more information	on the
	      RR_MOVED directory.

       -hide-udf glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the UDF directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      or path.	Multiple globs may  be	hidden.	  If  glob  matches  a
	      directory,  then	the contents of	that directory will be hidden.
	      In order to match	a directory name, make sure the	pathname  does
	      not include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden files will
	      still be written to the output CD	image file.   Should  be  used
	      with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-udf-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -input-charset charset
	      Set  up  the  input  charset that	defines	the characters used in
	      local file names.	 To get	a list of valid	 charset  names,  call
	      mkisofs  -input-charset help.  To	get a 1:1 mapping, you may use
	      default as charset name. If the input charset has	not  been  set
	      up  from the locale in the environment, the default initial val-
	      ues are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1	on  all	 other
	      systems.	See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

	      If -input-charset	has not	been specified,	it will	be set up from
	      the locale in the	environment. If	you like to disable this auto-
	      matic setup, use the empty string	as locale name.

       -output-charset charset
	      Set  up the output charset that defines the characters that will
	      be used in Rock Ridge file names.	Defaults to the	input charset.
	      See CHARACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set  the	ISO-9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3 and
	      4.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one  section  and	 file-
	      names are	restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With  level  3,  no  restrictions	 (other	than ISO-9660:1988) do
	      apply.  Starting with this level,	mkisofs	also allows  files  to
	      be larger	than 4 GB by implementing ISO-9660 multi-extent	files.

	      With all ISO-9660	levels from 1..3, all filenames	are restricted
	      to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore	(_). The maxi-
	      mum  filename  length is restricted to 31	characters, the	direc-
	      tory nesting level is restricted	to  8  and  the	 maximum  path
	      length is	limited	to 255 characters.

	      Level  4	officially  does  not  exists  but  mkisofs maps it to
	      ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With level 4, an enhanced	volume descriptor with version	number
	      and  file	 structure  version number set to 2 is emitted.	 There
	      may be more than 8 levels	of directory nesting, there is no need
	      for  a  file  to	contain	 a dot and the dot has no more special
	      meaning, file names do not have  version	numbers,  the  maximum
	      length  for files	and directory is raised	to 207.	 If Rock Ridge
	      is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length	is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced	volume
	      descriptor  which	 looks	similar	to a primary volume descriptor
	      but is slightly different. Be careful not	to use broken software
	      to  make	ISO-9660 images	bootable by assuming a second PVD copy
	      and patching this	putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate	Joliet	directory  records  in	addition  to   regular
	      ISO-9660	file  names.   This is primarily useful	when the discs
	      are to be	used on	Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The	Joliet
	      filenames	 are  specified	in Unicode and each path component can
	      be up to 64 Unicode characters long.  Note  that	Joliet	is  no
	      standard	- CD's that use	only Joliet extensions but no standard
	      Rock Ridge extensions may	usually	 only  be  used	 on  Microsoft
	      Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that	the filenames are lim-
	      ited to 64 characters and	the fact that Joliet uses  the	UTF-16
	      coding for Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow  Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This
	      breaks the Joliet	specification -	but appears to work. Use  with
	      caution.	The  number 103	is derived from: the maximum Directory
	      Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record	 (33),
	      minus  CD-ROM  XA	System Use Extension Information (14), divided
	      by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
	      TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow  full 31 character filenames.  Normally the	ISO-9660 file-
	      name will	be in an 8.3 format which is compatible	 with  MS-DOS,
	      even  though  the	ISO-9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31
	      characters.  If you use this option, the disc may	 be  difficult
	      to use on	a MS-DOS system, but this comes	in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use	with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots	instead.   This	option will get	POSIX.1-2001 semantics
	      with mkisofs-3.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -long-rr-time
	      Use  the long ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in Rock Ridge.  This time	format allows to represent year	 0  ..
	      year 9999	with a granularity of 10ms.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from	being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path  as	with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
	      the d-_d_name part of the	directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
	      be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m	'*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would  exclude  all files	ending in ".o",	called "core" or "foo-
	      bar" to be copied	to CDROM. Note that if	you  had  a  directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all	its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE: The	-m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are	wrong.	Both now work identical	and use	filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be excluded as above.

       -max-ISO-9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in	ISO-9660 filenames.  This option forces	the -N
	      option as	the extra name space is	taken from the space  reserved
	      for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Although a	conforming application needs  to  pro-
	      vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, disks created
	      with this	option may cause a  buffer  overflow  in  the  reading
	      operating	system.	Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies	 path  to  existing  ISO-9660  image to	be merged. The
	      alternate	form takes a SCSI device specifier that	uses the  same
	      syntax as	the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of the
	      image  specified	in  -M.	 Typically this	requires multi-session
	      capability for  the  recorder  and  cdrom	 drive	that  you  are
	      attempting to write this image to.  This option may only be used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from	ISO-9660 file names.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but no one really uses  the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode  to	use when creating new directories in the iso fs	image.
	      The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do not include backup files files	on  the	 ISO-9660  filesystem.
	      If the -no-bak option is specified, files	that contain the char-
	      acters '~' or '#'	or end in '.bak' will not be  included	(these
	      are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -no-limit-pathtables
	      A	 ISO-9660  filesystem contains path tables that	contain	a list
	      of directories.  This list may contain many directories but only
	      65535 of them may	be parent directories.	When -no-limit-pathta-
	      bles is in use, further parent directories will be folded	to the
	      root  directory  and  the	resulting filesystem will no longer be
	      usable on	DOS.

       -no-long-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in  Rock	Ridge.	This time format allows	to represent year 1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -force-rr
	      Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes  recognition  for
	      previous sessions.  This helps to	show rotten ISO-9660 extension
	      records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge	 attributes  from  previous  sessions.
	      This  may	 help to avoid getting into trouble when mkisofs finds
	      illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE)  instead.  This  may	 waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in	reading	split SL components (link_size
	      =	component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
	      1997.  It	is questionable	whether	it makes sense at  all.	  When
	      it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have	a serious bug that did
	      create defective CE signatures if	a  symlink  contained  `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't  split  the	 SL  fields, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a	bug in reading split SL	fields
	      (a `/' can be dropped).

	      Note that	this option has	been introduced	by Eric	 Youngdale  in
	      1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
	      it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
	      create  defective	 CE  signatures	if a symlink contained `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is the name of the file to which the ISO-9660  filesystem	 image
	      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can correspond directly to the device name of the	 optical  disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output
	      can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive,  in
	      which  case  the	disk  partition	can be mounted and examined to
	      ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad the end of the whole image by	150 sectors (300 kB).  If  the
	      option  -B  is  used,  then there	is a padding at	the end	of the
	      ISO-9660 partition and before the	beginning of the  boot	parti-
	      tions.   The  size  of  this padding is chosen to	make the first
	      boot partition start on a	sector number that is  a  multiple  of
	      16.

	      The  padding  is	needed	as many	operating systems (e.g.	Linux)
	      implement	read ahead bugs	in their filesystem  I/O.  These  bugs
	      result  in  read errors on one or	more files that	are located at
	      the end of a track. They are usually  present  when  the	CD  is
	      written  in  Track  at  Once mode	or when	the disk is written as
	      mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

	      To avoid problems	with  I/O  error  on  the  last	 file  on  the
	      filesystem, the -pad option has been made	the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do  not  Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the
	      the boot partitions start	on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of pathspec directories	and  filenames
	      to  be  added to the ISO-9660 filesystem.	This list of pathspecs
	      are processed after any that appear on the command line. If  the
	      argument is -, then the list is read from	the standard input.

       -P     Outdated	 option	  reserved  by	POSIX.1-2001,  use  -publisher
	      instead.	This  option  will  get	 POSIX.1-2001  semantics  with
	      mkisofs-3.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	publisher of the  CDROM,  usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the disc for 128 characters of information.  The related	Joliet
	      entry  is	 limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.   If  specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	preparer of the	CDROM, usually
	      with  a mailing address and phone	number.	 There is space	on the
	      disc for 128 characters  of  information.	  The  related	Joliet
	      entry  is	 limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.   If  specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -posix-H
	      Follow  all symbolic links encountered on	command	line when gen-
	      erating the filesystem.

       -posix-L
	      Follow all symbolic links	when generating	the filesystem.	  When
	      this  option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

       -posix-P
	      Do not follow symbolic  links  when  generating  the  filesystem
	      (this  is	the default).  If -posix-P is specified	after -posix-H
	      or -posix-L, the effect of these options will be reset.

       -print-size
	      Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector  size
	      (2048  bytes)  and  exit.	This option is needed for Disk At Once
	      mode and	with  some  CD-R  drives  when	piping	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  In  this  case  it is	needed to know the size	of the
	      filesystem before	the actual CD-creation is  done.   The	option
	      -print-size  allows to get this size from	a "dry-run" before the
	      CD is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write  this
	      information  (among other	information) to	stderr.	 As this turns
	      out to be	hard to	parse, the number without any  other  informa-
	      tion  is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write	a sim-
	      ple shell	script,	redirect stderr	and catch the number from std-
	      out.  This may be	done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ...	`

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This  makes  mkisofs even	less verbose.  No progress output will
	      be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and	RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
	      further describe the files on the	ISO-9660 filesystem.  The Rock
	      Ridge protocol is	needed in order	to add POSIX  like  file  meta
	      data  like  permissions,	extended time stamps, user/group is'd,
	      link counts, inode numbers and symbolic links.  The  Rock	 Ridge
	      protocol allows to archive hierarchy trees with unlimited	depth.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they  are	 usually  only	useful on the author's system, and not
	      useful to	the client.  All the file read bits are	set  true,  so
	      that  files and directories are globally readable	on the client.
	      If any execute bit is set	for a file, set	 all  of  the  execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If any search bit	is set for a directory,	set all	of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All write	bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will  be  mounted
	      read-only	in any case.  If any of	the special mode bits are set,
	      clear them, because file locks are not  useful  on  a  read-only
	      file  system, and	set-id bits are	not desirable for uid 0	or gid
	      0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is  set  on  all	files.
	      This  is	a  result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and
	      the  Cygwin  POSIX  emulation  layer.   See  also	  -uid	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and	-new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The  option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO-9660	 filenames  to
	      include digits, upper case characters and	all other 7 bit	 ASCII
	      characters (resp.	anything except	lowercase characters).
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves all	files and directories into dir in the image.  This  is
	      essentially  the	same  as using -graft-points and adding	dir in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to	use.

	      dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with  the
	      same permissions as other	graft points.

       -rrip110
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the old Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.10	standard from 1993. This option	may be needed  if  you
	      know  of	systems	 that  do not implement	the Rrip protocol cor-
	      rectly and like the file system to be read  by  such  a  system.
	      Currently	no such	system is known.

	      If  a file system	has been created with -rrip110,	the Rock Ridge
	      attributes do not	include	inode number information.

       -rrip112
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the new Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.12	standard from 1994, this is the	default.

       -old-root dir
	      This  option  is necessary when writing a	multisession image and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using  a directory name not found	in the previous	session	causes
	      mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without this option, mkisofs would not be	able to	 find  unmodi-
	      fied  files  and	would  be  forced to write their data into the
	      image once more.

	      -root and	-old-root are meant to be used together	to  do	incre-
	      mental  backups.	 The  initial  session would e.g. use: mkisofs
	      -root backup_1 dirs.  The	next incremental backup	 with  mkisofs
	      -root  backup_2  -old-root  backup_1  dirs.   would take another
	      snapshot of these	directories. The first snapshot	would be found
	      in  backup_1,  the  second one in	backup_2, but only modified or
	      new files	need to	be written into	the second session.

	      Without these options, new files would be	 added	and  old  ones
	      would  be	 preserved.  But  old ones would be overwritten	if the
	      file was modified. Recovering the	files  by  copying  the	 whole
	      directory	 back  from  CD	 would	also  restore  files that were
	      deleted intentionally. Accessing several	older  versions	 of  a
	      file  requires  support  by the operating	system to choose which
	      sessions are to be mounted.

       -short-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in  Rock	Ridge.	This time format allows	to represent year 1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -s sector type

       -sectype	sector type
	      Set the sector type to be	used for  the  output  file  with  the
	      ISO-9660 filesystem.  The	sector type may	be one of:

	      data   This  is  the default. It results in standard CD-ROM data
		     sectors with 2048 bytes per sector.

	      xa1    This sets the sector type to CD-ROM XA mode 1  with  2056
		     bytes  per	sector.	 This sector type is the official sec-
		     tor  type	for  multi-session  CDs,  it  should  be  used
		     together  with the	-XA option of mkisofs.	It is required
		     to	write Kodak Photo CDs and Kodak	Picture	CDs.  Use  the
		     -xa1  option  from	cdrecord to tell cdrecord to write CD-
		     ROM XA mode 1 sectors.  Do	not  use  for  DVD  or	BluRay
		     media.

	      raw    This  sets	the sector type	to raw audio sectors with 2352
		     bytes per sector.	This is	reserved for  future  enhance-
		     ments.  Do	not use	for DVD	or BluRay media.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort  file  locations  on	 the media. Sorting is controlled by a
	      file that	contains pairs of filenames and	sorting	offset weight-
	      ing.   If	 the  weighting	 is  higher,  the file will be located
	      closer to	the beginning of the media, if the weighting is	lower,
	      the  file	 will be located closer	to the end of the media. There
	      must be only one space or	tabs character	between	 the  filename
	      and  the	weight and the weight must be the last characters on a
	      line. The	filename is taken to include all the characters	up to,
	      but  not	including  the	last space or tab character on a line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the	end of
	      a	 filename.   This  option  does	not sort the order of the file
	      names that appear	in the ISO-9660	directory. It sorts the	 order
	      in which the file	data is	written	to the CD image	- which	may be
	      useful in	order to  optimize  the	 data  layout  on  a  CD.  See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set  the Sun disk	label name for the Sun disk label that is cre-
	      ated with	the -sparc-boot	option.

       -split-output
	      Split the	output image into several files	of approximately 1 GB.
	      This helps to create DVD sized ISO-9660 images on	operating sys-
	      tems without large file support.	Cdrecord will concatenate more
	      than  one	file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To make
	      -split-output work, the -o filename option  must	be  specified.
	      The  resulting  output  images  will be named: filename_00,file-
	      name_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size	to #  sectors.
	      This  allows  you	 to  pipe  the	output of the tar program into
	      mkisofs and to create a ISO-9660 filesystem without the need  of
	      an intermediate tar archive file.	 If this option	has been spec-
	      ified, mkisofs reads from	stdin and creates a file with the name
	      STREAM.IMG.   The	maximum	size of	the file (with padding)	is 200
	      sectors less than	the specified media size. If -no-pad has  been
	      specified,  the  file size is 50 sectors less than the specified
	      media size.  If the file is smaller,  then  mkisofs  will	 write
	      padding. This may	take a while.

	      The  option  -stream-media-size creates simple ISO-9660 filesys-
	      tems only	and may	not used together with multi-session or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Set the file name	used with -stream-media-size # to a value dif-
	      ferent from STREAM.IMG.  If this option is used, the  filesystem
	      is created as if -iso-level 4 has	been specified.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies	 a  comma separated list of filesystem images that are
	      needed to	make a bootable	CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that	partition 1 is used for	the ISO-9660  image  and  that
	      partition	 2  is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may	not be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image	file is	mapped
	      to  partition  0.	  There	may be empty fields in the comma sepa-
	      rated list, and list entries for	partition  1  and  2  must  be
	      empty.	The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions	 is  8
	      (although	the Solaris x86	partition table	could support up to 16
	      partitions),  so	it is impossible to specify more than 6	parti-
	      tion images.  This option	is required to make a bootable CD  for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If  the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first	sector
	      of the resulting image will contain a  PC	 fdisk	label  with  a
	      Solaris  type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at	offset 512 and
	      spans the	whole CD.  In addition,	 for  the  Solaris  type  0x82
	      fdisk  partition,	 there	is a SVr4 disk label at	offset 1024 in
	      the first	sector of the CD.  This	disk label specifies  slice  0
	      for  the	first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used
	      to boot the PC and slice 1 for  the  ISO-9660  image.   Slice  2
	      spans  the  whole	 CD  slice 3 ... slice 7 may be	used for addi-
	      tional filesystem	images that  have  been	 specified  with  this
	      option.

	      A	 Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
	      uses the	El-Torito  no-emulation	 boot  mode  and  a  secondary
	      generic boot that	is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G	genboot	must be	specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set the SVr4 disk	label name for the SVr4	 disk  label  that  is
	      created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	 the  system  ID.   There  is space on the disc	for 32
	      characters of information.  This parameter can also  be  set  in
	      the  file	 .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL	in each	directory on the CDROM,	 which
	      can  be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to	help establish
	      the correct file names.  There is	also  information  present  in
	      the  file	 that  indicates the major and minor numbers for block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
	      -T option.  If you are creating a	multi-session image  you  must
	      use the same name	as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set  Unicode  conformance	 level	in the Joliet SVD. The default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -UDF   Include a	UDF hybrid in  the  generated  filesystem  image.   As
	      mkisofs always creates a ISO-9660	filesystem, it is not possible
	      to create	UDF only images.  Note that UDF	wastes the space  from
	      sector  ~20  to sector 256 at the	beginning of the disk in addi-
	      tion to the spcae	needed for real	UDF data structures.

       -udf   Rationalized UDF with user and group set to 0 and	 with  simpli-
	      fied permissions.	 See -r	option for more	information.

       -udf-symlinks
	      Support symlinks in UDF filesystems. This	is the default.

       -no-udf-symlinks
	      Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	 the  uid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      uid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option  -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version
	      numbers from the filesystem.  If the option  is  not  specified,
	      mkisofs  creates a version number	of 1 for all files.  File ver-
	      sions are	strings	in the range ;1	to ;32767 This option  is  the
	      default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "Untranslated"	filenames,  completely	violating  the
	      ISO-9660 standards described above. Forces on the	 -d,  -l,  -N,
	      -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,    -allow-lowercase,
	      -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than
	      one  '.'	character in the filename, as well as mixed case file-
	      names.  This is useful on	HP-UX system, where the	built-in  CDFS
	      filesystem  does	not recognize ANY extensions. Use with extreme
	      caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do not translate the characters '#' and '~'  which  are  invalid
	      for  ISO-9660  filenames.	  These	 characters are	though invalid
	      often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	 the  volume  ID  (volume name or label) to be written
	      into the master block.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	 This parameter	can also be set	in the
	      file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If	specified in both places,  the
	      command  line version is used.  Note that	if you assign a	volume
	      ID, this is the name that	will be	used as	the mount  point  used
	      by  the  Solaris	volume	management system and the name that is
	      assigned to the disc on a	Microsoft Win32	or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	the volset ID.	There is space on  the	disc  for  128
	      characters  of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited
	      to 64 characters.	 This parameter	can also be set	 in  the  file
	      .mkisofsrc  with	VOLS=volset_id.	  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the  num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a	CD volume set.	A volume set is	a col-
	      lection of one or	more volumes, on  which	 a  set	 of  files  is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create	a set numbered
	      CD's that	are part of e.g. a Operation System  installation  set
	      of  CD's.	 Volume	Sets are rather	used to	record a big directory
	      tree that	would not fit on a single volume.  Each	 volume	 of  a
	      Volume  Set  contains  a	description of all the directories and
	      files that are recorded on the volumes where the	sequence  num-
	      bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
	      the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently	does not support a -volset-size	that is	larger
	      than 1.

	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets the volume set  sequence  number  to	 #.   The  volume  set
	      sequence	number	is  the	index number of	the current CD in a CD
	      set.   The  option  -volset-size	must   be   specified	before
	      -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose  execution.  If  given  twice on the command line, extra
	      debug information	will be	printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from	being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete  pathname  that  results  from  concatenating the pathname
	      given as command line argument and the  path  relative  to  this
	      directory.  Multiple paths may be	excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -XA    Generate XA iso-directory	attributes  with  original  owner  and
	      mode  information.  This option is required to create conforming
	      multi session CDs	as used	by the Kodak Photo CD  and  the	 Kodak
	      Picture  CD.   A conforming XA CD	uses CD-ROM XA mode 1 sectors,
	      see the -sector xa2 option for more information.

       -xa    Generate XA iso-directory	attributes with	rationalized owner and
	      mode  information.   User	ID and group ID	are set	to 0.  See -XA
	      for more information.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.   This is only of use and interest	for hosts that support
	      transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or  later.   You
	      must  specify the	-R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and gen-
	      erate compressed files using the mkzftree	utility	before running
	      mkisofs.	 Note  that  transparent  compression is a nonstandard
	      Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks  are  only  transpar-
	      ently readable if	used on	Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need	to call	mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an	ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD.	This option should be used  in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic	and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -no-hfs
	      Do not create  an	 ISO-9660/HFS  hybrid  CD  even	 though	 other
	      options may imply	to do so.

       -apple Create  an  ISO-9660  CD with Apple's extensions.	Similar	to the
	      -hfs option, except that the Apple Extensions  to	 ISO-9660  are
	      added  instead of	creating an HFS	hybrid volume.	Former mkisofs
	      versions did include Rock	Ridge attributes by default if	-apple
	      was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
	      more. If you like	to have	Rock Ridge  attributes,	 you  need  to
	      specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	file based on the filename's extension.	A filename  is	mapped
	      only  if	it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's	 magic
	      number  (usually	the first few bytes of a file).	The magic_file
	      is only used if a	file is	not one	of the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
	      -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
	      details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats.	See the	HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
	      more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
	      MacBinary	and AppleSingle	files is to open and read them.	There-
	      fore  this  option may increase processing time. It is better to
	      use  one	or  more  double  dash	options	 given	below  if  the
	      Apple/Unix formats in use	are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New	HFS Desktop files will
	      be created when the CD is	used on	a Macintosh (and stored	in the
	      System  Folder).	 By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the starting  point  for	the  ISO-9660,
	      Joliet  and  Rock	 Ridge	file names. See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may	make the CD bootable on	a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an HFS partition table.	By default, no partition table
	      is generated, but	some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need	an HFS
	      partition	 table	on  the	CDROM to be able to recognize a	hybrid
	      CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use  the	QuickTime  2.0	Autostart  feature  to
	      launch  an  application  or document. The	given filename must be
	      the name of a document or	application located at the  top	 level
	      of  the  CD.  The	 filename  must	 be  less  than	12 characters.
	      (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units	of  PC
	      Exchange	files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
	      INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob	from the HFS volume. The file or directory will	 still
	      exist  in	the ISO-9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would  exclude  all files	ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
	      the HFS volume. Note that	if you had a directory called "foobar"
	      it  too  (and  of	course all its descendants) would be excluded.
	      The glob can also	be a path name relative	to the source directo-
	      ries given on the	command	line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude just the file or directory	called "html" from the
	      "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
	      the  tree	 will  not be excluded.	 Should	be used	with the -hide
	      and/or -hide-joliet options.  In	order  to  match  a  directory
	      name,  make  sure	 the  pathname does not	include	a trailing '/'
	      character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This  is  the	name  that  is
	      assigned	to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces	the volid used
	      with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon  position  information,  if	it  exists,  from  the
	      Apple/Unix  file.	 The icons will	appear in the same position as
	      they would on a Macintosh	desktop. Folder	location and  size  on
	      screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	This option may	become set  by
	      default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the location, size on screen, scroll	positions, folder View
	      etc. for the root	folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP  boot image file. Up	to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
	      (Alpha)

       -chrp-t
	      Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot for fur-
	      ther information.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters	used in	HFS file names
	      when used	with the -mac-name option.   The  default  charset  is
	      cp10000  (Mac  Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman)	See CHARACTER SETS and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections	below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      the HFS file names. Defaults to the input	charset. See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume  that  is  locked.
	      This  option  leaves  the	volume unlocked	so that	other applica-
	      tions (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify	the volume. See	the HFS	 PROB-
	      LEMS/LIMITATIONS	section	 below	for  warnings about using this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given	directory (folder). This is usually the	System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name	of the
	      directory	must be	the whole path name as mkisofs sees  it.  e.g.
	      if  the  given  pathspec	is ./cddata and	the required folder is
	      called System Folder, then the whole path	name is	"./cddata/Sys-
	      tem  Folder"  (remember  to use quotes if	the name contains spa-
	      ces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file  system.
	      Unlikely	to  be	used  in  normal  circumstances.  See the lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP	Macintosh files.  Search  for  CAP  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  only. Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix
	      file formats is disabled,	unless other double dash  options  are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK	Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look  for	 Microsoft's  Services	for  Macintosh files (NT only)
	      (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs processes file names in a POSIX compliant  way  as  strings  of
       8-bit  characters.   To	represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit
       characters are not sufficient. Unicode or  ISO-10646  define  character
       codings	that  need  at least 21	bits to	represent all known languages.
       They may	be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or  UTF-8  coding.	UTF-32
       uses  a plain 32-bit coding but seems to	be uncommon.  UCS-2 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32.  This coding is similar to	UTF-16 with the	disad-
       vantage	that  it  only	supports a 16 bit subset of all	codes and that
       16-bit characters are not compliant with	the  POSIX  filesystem	inter-
       face.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to	use the	complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit	 char-
       acter  is  represented by one or	more 8-bit characters.	If a character
       is coded	in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and  North  America)  is
       maps 1:1	to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.	If a character
       is coded	in 7-Bit ASCII (used in	USA and	other countries	 with  limited
       character  set)	is maps	1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16	or UTF-8 coded Unicode
       character.  Character codes that	cannot be represented as a single byte
       in  UTF-8  (typically if	the value is > 0x7F) use escape	sequences that
       map to more than	one 8-bit character.

       If all operating	systems	would use UTF-8	coding,	mkisofs	would not need
       to  recode  characters  in  file	names.	Unfortunately, Apple uses com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a	Unicode	coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all	 non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual	character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name	used by	Microsoft) used	by the local operating system in use -
       the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language	used by	the user.

       Usually	 character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit	ASCII  characters  and	(on  PC's  and	Mac's)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately	even this does
       not follow ISO standards	that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there	is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the	same character
       code  may  represent a different	character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in	central	Europe,	may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make	matters	more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent character	sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter  code  for	"small e with acute accent" may	be character code 0x82
       on a PC,	code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac	are nonstandard, Unicode codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value	as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and	applications will use the Uni-
       code character set as the basis for file	names in a unique way, it  may
       be  necessary to	specify	which character	set your file names use	in and
       which character set the file names should appear	on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you	want to	use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines the local	character set  you  are	 using	on  your  host
	      machine.	Any character set conversions that take	place will use
	      this character set as the	staring	point. The default input char-
	      acter  sets  are cp437 on	DOS based systems and iso8859-1	on all
	      other systems.

	      If the -J	option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
	      input  character set will	be used	in the Joliet directory. Using
	      the -jcharset option is the same as using	the -input-charset and
	      -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines  the  character  set that	will be	used with for the Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
	      likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
	      mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
	      If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it	is likely that
	      the output character set will be the same	as the input character
	      set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the  HFS	 character set used for	HFS file names decoded
	      from any of the various Apple/Unix  file	formats.  Only	useful
	      when  used  with	-mac-name  option.  See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES for	more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used to create HFS file names from
	      the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
	      the character set	given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
	      to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of character sets	built in to mkisofs.  To get a
       listing,	use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets from iconv(1) may be used  on	systems,  that
       support	iconv(1).   In this case, call iconv -l	to get a list of valid
       character sets from this	coding method.	To  force  an  iconv(1)	 based
       coding, use iconv:name instead of name for the character	set.

       If  using  non iconv(1) based character sets, additional	character sets
       can be read from	file for any of	the character set options by giving  a
       filename	 as  the  argument to the options. The given file will only be
       read if its name	does not match one of the built	in character sets.

       The format of the character set files is	the same as the	mapping	 files
       available  from	http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS	The  format of
       these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte	code (in hex as	0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as	0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the	line is	ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two	(or more) columns in the above	format
       or  comments  lines (starting with the #	character) are ignored without
       any warnings. Any missing input code is	mapped	to  Unicode  character
       0x0000.

       Note  that  there  is  no support for 16	bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or	32 bit
       UNICODE (UTF-32)	coding because this coding  is	not  POSIX  compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding	which is compatible to
       POSIX filenames and supported by	moder  UNIX  implementations  such  as
       Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the	behav-
       iour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO-9660 file names generated from the input	filenames are not con-
       verted from the input character set. The	ISO-9660 character  set	 is  a
       very limited subset of the ASCII	characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with	a  '_'
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A  Macintosh  file  has	two properties associated with it which	define
       which application created the file, the CREATOR and what	data the  file
       contains,  the TYPE.  Both are (exactly)	4 letter strings. Usually this
       allows a	Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch  the  cor-
       rect  application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a	particular file	can be
       found by	using something	like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	 in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files.  For	other files it is possible to base the
       CREATOR and TYPE	on the filename's extension using a mapping file  (the
       -map  option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature	in the
       first few bytes)	of a file (the -magic option). If both	these  options
       are  given,  then  their	order on the command line is important.	If the
       -map option  is	given  first,  then  a	filename  extension  match  is
       attempted before	a magic	number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given first, then a magic number	match is attempted before  a  filename
       extension match.

       If  a  mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is	found then the
       default CREATOR and TYPE	for all	regular	files  can  be	set  by	 using
       entries	in  the	 .mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the  -hfs-creator	and/or
       -hfs-type options, otherwise the	default	CREATOR	and  TYPE  are	'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The  format  of	the mapping file is the	same afpfile format as used by
       aufs.  This file	has five columns for the extension, file  translation,
       CREATOR,	 TYPE  and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#' character are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first	column EXTN defines the	Unix filename extension	to  be
	      mapped.  The  default  mapping  for  any filename	extension that
	      doesn't match is defined with the	"*" character.

	      The Xlate	column defines the type	of  text  translation  between
	      the  Unix	 and  Macintosh	 file it is ignored by mkisofs,	but is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs  does  not
	      alter  the contents of a file, if	a binary file has its TYPE set
	      as 'TEXT', it may	be read	incorrectly on a Macintosh.  Therefore
	      a	better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The  CREATOR  and	 TYPE  keywords	 must be 4 characters long and
	      enclosed in single quotes.

	      The comment field	is enclosed in double quotes - it  is  ignored
	      by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format  of the magic file is almost	identical to the magic(5) file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines	for reading and	decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This  file  has	four  tab separated columns for	the byte offset, type,
       test and	message.  Lines	starting with the '#'  character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard	unix compress

       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format of the file is described in the magic(5) man	page. The only
       difference here is that for each	entry in the magic file,  the  message
       for the initial offset must be 4	characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4 characters for	the TYPE - white space is optional between  them.  Any
       other  characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (start-
       ing with	a '>') are also	ignored	i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using  the  -magic option may significantly increase processing time as
       each file has to	opened and read	to find	its magic number.

       In summary, for all files,  the	default	 CREATOR  is  'unix'  and  the
       default	TYPE  is 'TEXT'.  These	can be changed by using	entries	in the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a	file is	in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the	format
       has been	selected), then	the CREATOR and	TYPE are taken from the	values
       stored in the Apple/Unix	file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then	 these	values
       override	the default CREATOR and	TYPE.

       A     full     CREATOR/TYPE     database	    can	    be	   found    at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two	parts  called  the  Data  and  Resource	 fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num-
       ber  of	attributes  associated with them - probably the	most important
       are the TYPE and	CREATOR. Again Unix has	no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where	the image is stored in
       the Data	fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that	is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a	Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found	to cope	with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred	to as the finder info).	 Unfortunately,	it  seems  that	 every
       software	 package that stores Macintosh files on	Unix has chosen	a com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports	are:

       CAP AUFS	format
	      Data fork	stored	in  a  file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      .resource	with same filename as data fork. Finder	info in	.find-
	      erinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	stored in a file  with
	      same name	prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
	      file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
	      erinfo  stored  in  subdirectory	.AppleDouble with same name as
	      data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above,	except both forks  and	finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork  stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork and finder info
	      together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename	as data	fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the  finder  info  is
	      stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored	in one file.

       Apple PC	Exchange
	      Used  by	Macintoshes  to	 store Apple files on DOS (FAT)	disks.
	      Data fork	stored	in  a  file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      resource.frk  (or	 RESOURCE.FRK).	 Finder	 info as one record in
	      file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate	 finder.dat  for  each
	      data fork	directory.

	      Note:  mkisofs  needs to know the	native FAT cluster size	of the
	      disk that	the PC Exchange	files are  on  (or  have  been	copied
	      from).  This  size  is  given  by	the -cluster-size option.  The
	      cluster or allocation size can be	found by using the DOS utility
	      CHKDSK.

	      May  not	work  with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
	      with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media containing PC	Exchange files	should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when	they mount HFS disks. Data fork	stored
	      in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource  with  same
	      name.  Finder  info as one record	in file	.HSancillary. Separate
	      .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE
	      Allows Macintoshes to store Apple	files on  SMB  servers.	  Data
	      fork   stored   in   a   file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      resource.frk. Uses the  AppleDouble  format  to  store  resource
	      fork.

       Services	for Macintosh
	      Format  of  files	stored by NT Servers on	NTFS filesystems. Data
	      fork is stored as	"filename". Resource fork  stored  as  a  NTFS
	      stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder	info is	stored
	      as a NTFS	stream called  "filename:Afp_AfpInfo".	These  streams
	      are normally invisible to	the user.

	      Warning:	mkisofs	 only partially	supports the SFM format. If an
	      HFS file or folder stored	on the NT server contains  an  illegal
	      NT  character  in	its name, then NT converts these characters to
	      Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * /	< >  ?
	       |  also	a  space  or period if it is the last character	of the
	      file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by the mkisofs NT	executable. Therefore any  file	 or  directory
	      name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
	      contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or	saved by MacOS X on to a  non-
	      HFS  file	 system	 (e.g. UFS, NFS	etc.), the files are stored in
	      AppleDouble format.  Data	fork stored in a file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in a file	with same name prefixed	with "._". Finder info
	      also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files  on
	      a	 MacOS	X  system.  Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in	a pseudo file with  the	 same  name  with  the	suffix
	      '/rsrc'.	The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X library
	      call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If a file	is found with a	zero length resource  fork  and	 empty
	      finderinfo,  it is assumed not to	have any Apple/Unix encoding -
	      therefore	a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR,	TYPE, date and possibly	 other
       flags  from  the	finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Macintosh
       filename	is set from the	finder info, otherwise the Macintosh  name  is
       based  on  the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section
       below.

       When using the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are  stored  in  the
       optional	System Use or SUSP field in the	ISO-9660 Directory Record - in
       much the	same way as the	Rock Ridge attributes are.  In	fact  to  make
       life  easy,  the	 Apple	extensions  are	 added at the beginning	of the
       existing	Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the	Apple  extensions  you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as	well).

       The  Apple  extensions  require	the  resource  fork to be stored as an
       ISO-9660	associated file. This is just like any normal file  stored  in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem	except that the	associated file	flag is	set in
       the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as  the  data
       fork  (the  file	seen by	non-Apple machines). Associated	files are nor-
       mally ignored by	other OSs

       When using the -hfs option, the TYPE  and  CREATOR  plus	 other	finder
       info,  are  stored  in  a  separate  HFS	 directory, not	visible	on the
       ISO-9660	volume.	 The  HFS  directory  references  the  same  data  and
       resource	fork files described above.

       In  most	 cases,	 it  is	 better	 to use	the -hfs option	instead	of the
       -apple option, as the latter imposes the	 limited  ISO-9660  characters
       allowed	in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the	advan-
       tage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it  may
       be  possible  to	fit more files on a CD - important when	the total size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename	that is	stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is  used	 for  the  HFS part of the CD. However,	not all	the Apple/Unix
       encodings store the HFS filename	with the finderinfo. In	 these	cases,
       the  Unix  filename  is used - with escaped special characters. Special
       characters include '/' and characters with codes	over 127.

       Aufs escapes these characters by	using ":" followed  by	the  character
       code  as	two hex	digits.	Netatalk and EtherShare	have a similar scheme,
       but uses	"%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't	find an	HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any  %xx	or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a	single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken,	as  an	ordinary  Unix
       file with %xx or	:xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	 HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e.	the filenames "aBc" and	 "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then mkisofs will attempt, where	possible, to make  a  unique  name  by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the starting point for the ISO-9660, Joliet and	Rock  Ridge  filenames
       using  the -mac-name option. Normal Unix	files without an HFS name will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin  on
       the Unix	filesystem, but	contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this is the name	that would appear on the HFS part of the CD.  However,
       as  mkisofs  uses  the  Unix  name  as the starting point for the other
       names, then the ISO-9660	name generated will probably  be  SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and  the	 Joliet/Rock  Ridge  would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the
       actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename	 as  the starting point	and the	ISO-9660 name will probably be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and	the Joliet/Rock	Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS file name  to	a  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge  file  name  defaults  to cp10000 (Mac Roman).  The character set
       used can	be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other	 built
       in  HFS	character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),	cp10007	(MacCyrillic),
       cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic)  and  cp10081  (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names	taken from the various
       Apple/Unix formats will not be converted	as they	are assumed to	be  in
       the  correct  Apple  character  set.  Only  the Joliet/Rock Ridge names
       derived from the	HFS file names will be converted.

       The existing mkisofs code will filter out any  illegal  characters  for
       the ISO-9660 and	Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing
       directly	with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names	as is.	But as
       '/'  is	a  legal HFS filename character, the -mac-name option converts
       '/' to a	'_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO-9660	filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh.	However, as the	Macintosh ISO-9660 drivers can
       use Level 2 filenames, then you can use	options	 like  -allow-multidot
       without	problems  on a Macintosh - still take care over	the names, for
       example this.file.name will be converted	to THIS.FILE  i.e.  only  have
       one  '.', also filename abcdefgh	will be	seen as	ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi
       will be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e.	with a '.' at the end -	don't know  if
       this  is	a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid	problem. All filenames
       will be in upper	case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines	will not be able to see	Level 2	filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To  give	 a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level)	folder
       includes	a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume	a cus-
       tom  icon  on  a	 Macintosh, an icon has	to be pasted over the volume's
       icon in the "Get	Info" box of the volume.  This	creates	 an  invisible
       file  called  'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character)	in the
       root folder.

       A custom	folder icon  is	 very  similar	-  an  invisible  file	called
       'Icon\r'	exits in the folder itself.

       Probably	 the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can use,
       is to format a blank HFS	floppy disk on a Mac, paste  an	 icon  to  its
       "Get Info" box. If using	Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

		  mount	-t hfs /dev/fd0	/mnt/floppy

       The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file	system by  default.  Then  run
       mkisofs using something like:

		  mkisofs --cap	-o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If  you	are not	using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the
       icon file from the floppy. However, care	has to be taken, as  the  icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy	-m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where  '^V^M'  is  control-V followed by	control-M. Then	run mkisofs by
       using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir	icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using	custom folder icons is very similar  -
       paste  an  icon	to  folder's "Get Info"	box and	transfer the resulting
       'Icon\r'	file to	the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the	icon files from	the ISO-9660 and Joliet	trees.

       To give a custom	icon to	a Joliet CD, follow the	instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD	bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS	 CD requires an	Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
       bootable	HFS partition and the necessary	System,	Finder,	etc. files.

       A driver	can be obtained	from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our  case)  must  contain  a
       suitable	System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a  partition  to be	bootable, it must have its boot	block set. The
       boot block is in	the first two  blocks  of  a  partition.  For  a  non-
       bootable	 partition  the	 boot block is full of zeros. Normally,	when a
       System file is copied to	partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot	 block
       is  filled  with	 a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't
       know the	full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will	work OK.

       Therefore,  the	utility	apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
       the first HFS partition it finds	on the given CD-ROM and	this  is  used
       for the HFS partition created by	mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver	from an	Apple CD and copying Apple software to
	      your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
	      License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the	-boot-info-table option	is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file specified by the -b	option by inserting a 56-byte  "boot  informa-
       tion  table" at offset 8	in the file.  This modification	is done	in the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily  recreated!	This file contains pointers which may not be easily or
       reliably	obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table	is as follows; all  integers  are  in  section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA	of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA	of boot	file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in	bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit	words in the boot file
       starting	at byte	offset 64.  All	 linear	 block	addresses  (LBAs)  are
       given in	CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs	looks  for  the	 .mkisofsrc file, first	in the current working
       directory, then in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which	the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series	of lines of the	form TAG=value , and in	this way you can spec-
       ify  certain  options.	The  case of the tag is	not significant.  Some
       fields in the volume header are not settable on the command  line,  but
       can  be	altered	through	this facility.	Comments may be	placed in this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should	describe the application  that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters of information.  The	related	Joliet entry is	limited	to  64
	      characters.  May be overridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The  copyright information, often	the name of a file on the disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37  characters of	information.  The related Joliet entry is lim-
	      ited to 18 characters.  May be overridden	using  the  -copyright
	      command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract  information, often	the name of a file on the disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is	space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters  of  information.	The related Joliet entry is limited to
	      18 characters.  May be overridden	using  the  -abstract  command
	      line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information, often the name of a file	on the
	      disc containing a	bibliography.  There is	space in the disc  for
	      37  characters of	information.  The related Joliet entry is lim-
	      ited to 18 characters.  May be overridden	using the -bilio  com-
	      mand line	option.

       PREP   This  should  describe the preparer of the CDROM,	usually	with a
	      mailing address and phone	number.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is
	      limited to 64 characters.	 May be	overridden using the  -p  com-
	      mand line	option.

       PUBL   This  should describe the	publisher of the CDROM,	usually	with a
	      mailing address and phone	number.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry is
	      limited to 64 characters.	 May be	 overridden  using  the	 -pub-
	      lisher command line option.

       SYSI   The  System Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the -sysid  com-
	      mand line	option.

       VOLI   The  Volume Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the  -V  command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters of information.  The	related	Joliet entry is	limited	to  64
	      characters.   May	 be  overridden	using the -volset command line
	      option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4  charac-
	      ters.   May  be  overridden  using  the  -hfs-type  command line
	      option.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh	files. Must be exactly 4 char-
	      acters.	May  be	overridden using the -hfs-creator command line
	      option.

       mkisofs can also	be configured at compile time with defaults  for  many
       of these	fields.	 See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in	the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become	the  root  directory  of  the  CD  ISO
       image, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir  where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by	root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write	a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a  sim-
       ple ISO-9660 filesystem with the	tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size	333000 | \
       cdrecord	dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir  that  con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on	just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map	mapping	cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO-9660', from the	source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known  Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other	files are given	CREATOR	and TYPE based
       on their	magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have  the
       name  README, but have different	contents when seen as a	ISO-9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or	HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory	cd_dir on  the
       CD  along  with the three README	files -	but only one will be seen from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs	-J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs	-hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix	\
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the	file README.hfs	will be	seen as	README on the HFS CD  and  the
       other  two  README  files  will be hidden. Similarly for	the Joliet and
       ISO-9660/RockRidge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible	with  combina-
       tions of	the hide options ...

AUTHOR
       Eric  Youngdale	<ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the
       first versions (1993 ...	1998) of the mkisofs utility.	The  copyright
       for old versions	of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the	SCSI transport library and its
       adaptation layer	to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1997)	of the
       utility.	 Joerg Schilling is the	primary	maintainer  since  1999,  this
       makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1997-2010 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997	... 2001.

       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie.

       libfile	code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to	 allow
       mkisofs	to  read  the  previous	 session when creating a multi session
       image.

       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools	for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a  complete copy	of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of	a mis-
       nomer,  since it	not only creates the filesystem, but it	also populates
       it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a  UNIX  tool  that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not	well known.

       If  mkisofs  is	creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes
       and the directory nesting level of the source  directory	 tree  is  too
       much  for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs  will do deep directory relocation.  This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You  cannot  avoid this directory in the	directory tree that is visible
       with ISO-9660 but it it automatically hidden in the Rock	Ridge tree.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely  follows  the	 official  Sparc CD boot requirements from the
       Boot prom in Sun	Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions	for Sparc sys-
       tems  use  a boot loader	called SILO that unfortunately is not Sparc CD
       boot compliant.	It is annoyingly to see	that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix  SILO  but instead provide a	completely unneeded "patch" to mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Does not properly	read relocated	directories  in	 multi-session
	      mode when	adding data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
	      include the deep directory.

	      Repeat by: create	first session with deep	 directory  relocation
	      then add new session with	a single dir that differs from the old
	      deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session	from TRANS.TBL

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how  I	 expect	 the  modified
       libhfs  routines	to work, however there may be situations that either I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore  I	can't guarantee	that mkisofs will work as expected (although I
       haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features  work	 fine,
       however,	some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although	 HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e.	the filenames "aBc" and	 "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then mkisofs will attempt, where	possible, to make  a  unique  name  by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names	that share the first 31	characters have	_N' (N
       == decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to  generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above for the method and	syntax involved). It is	not possible to	use  a
       new name	for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded file called "oldname" is	to added to the	CD, then you  can  not
       use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs	will  be  unable  to  decode "oldname".	However, you can graft
       Apple/Unix encoded files	or directories as long as you do  not  attempt
       to give them new	names as above.

       When  creating  an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C,
       only files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e.  mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous	sessions to the	HFS volume.

       However,	 if  each  session is created with the -part option, then each
       session will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In  this
       case,  it  is worth using the -V	or -hfs-volid option to	give each ses-
       sion a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear  on  the
       Desktop with the	same name.

       Symbolic	 links	(as with all other non-regular files) are not added to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO-9660 volumes containing  the
       same data. In some cases	(e.g. DVD sized	volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be significantly	larger.	As an HFS volume  gets	bigger,	 so  does  the
       allocation block	size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).
       For a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD  it  will
       be about	70Kb.

       The  maximum number of files in an HFS volume is	about 65500 - although
       the real	limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a	Unix machine by	 using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it is set as locked.  The option	 -hfs-unlock  will  create  an	output
       image  that is unlocked - however no changes should be made to the con-
       tents of	the volume (unless you really know what	you are	doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS	volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix	name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not	the  Macintosh
       name.

       Although	 mkisofs  does	not  alter the contents	of a file, if a	binary
       file has	its TYPE set as	'TEXT',	it may be read incorrectly on a	Macin-
       tosh. Therefore a better	choice for the default TYPE may	be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with Mac-
       OS 8.1).	 DOS media containing PC Exchange files	should be  mounted  as
       type msdos (not vfat) when using	Linux.

       The  SFM	 format	 is  only partially supported -	see HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or	-generic-boot  options
       with the	-boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot or -chrp-boot options.

       mkisofs	should	be able	to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although
       this has	not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui	interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	is  available  as  part	  of   the   cdrecord	package	  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils	from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree	 is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING	LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the	development  of	 mkisofs,  you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de

       If you definitly	found a	bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The  interfaces	provided by mkisofs are	designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As	mkisofs	depends	on interfaces provided by the underlying oper-
       ating  system,  the  stability  of  the	interfaces  offered by mkisofs
       depends on the interface	stability  of  the  OS	interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may	enforce	modified interfaces in mkisofs.

Version	3.0			  2010/11/24			    MKISOFS(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HFS OPTIONS | CHARACTER SETS | HFS CREATOR/TYPE | HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS | HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES | HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS | HFS BOOT DRIVER | EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE | CONFIGURATION | EXAMPLES | AUTHOR | NOTES | BUGS | HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | MAINTAINER | HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER | INTERFACE STABILITY

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