Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
MKISOFS(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	- create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional
       Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively	 a  pre-mastering  program  to	 generate   an
       ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs	is  capable  of	 generating  the  System  Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified	by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	  This
       is  used	 to  further describe the files	in the iso9660 filesystem to a
       unix host, and provides information such	as longer filenames,  uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, block	and character devices.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS  hybrid command line	options	are specified, mkisofs
       will create additional filesystem meta data for	Joliet	or  HFS.   The
       file  content in	this case refers to the	same data blocks on the	media.
       It will generate	a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the Joliet or HFS hy-
       brid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when	 accessed  from	 a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO9660 files when accessed from	other machines.	HFS stands for Hierar-
       chical File System and is the native file system	used on	Macintosh com-
       puters.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660
       for each	file. These extensions provide each file  with	CREATOR,  TYPE
       and  certain  Finder  Flags when	accessed from a	Macintosh. See the HFS
       MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot	of a given directory tree, and generates a bi-
       nary  image  which will correspond to an	ISO9660	or HFS filesystem when
       written to a block device.

       Each file written to the	iso9660	filesystem must	have a filename	in the
       8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even
       if Rock Ridge is	in use.	 This filename is used on systems that are not
       able  to	 make  use  of the Rock	Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in	each directory must be different from the other	 file-
       names  in  the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct
       names by	forcing	the unix filename to upper case	and truncating as  re-
       quired,	but  often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there
       are cases where the truncated names are not all	unique.	  mkisofs  as-
       signs  weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise
       the same	are found the name with	the lower priority is renamed to  have
       a  3 digit number as an extension (where	the number is guaranteed to be
       unique).	 An example of this would be the files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~
       -  the  file  foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1 and the file
       foo.bar would be	written	as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will	attempt	 to  recognise
       files  stored  in a number of Apple/Unix	file formats and will copy the
       data and	resource forks as well as any relevant finder information. See
       the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for	more about formats mk-
       isofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not	designed to communicate	with  the  writer  di-
       rectly.	Most writers have proprietary command sets which vary from one
       manufacturer to another,	and you	need a specialized  tool  to  actually
       burn the	disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest	version	   of	 cdrecord    is	    available	  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know	that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.	Once you start to burn a disc, you  cannot  let	 their	buffer
       empty  before  you  are	done,  or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that	you be able to maintain	an uninterrupted  data
       stream  to  the writer for the entire time that the disc	is being writ-
       ten.

       pathspec	is the path of the  directory  tree  to	 be  copied  into  the
       iso9660	filesystem.  Multiple paths can	be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge the files found in	all of the specified path components  to  form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the paths at points other than the root directory, and it  is  possible
       to graft	files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than what they have in the source filesystem.  This is easiest  to  il-
       lustrate	 with  a  couple of examples.	Let's start by assuming	that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it	in  the	 cdrom
       image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will  include  the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the	file old.lis in	the cdrom image	at /foo/bar/xxx.   The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories	as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist	on the
       cdrom  image  -	the  directories  do  not need to appear in one	of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that	are created on	the  fly  like
       this  will  have	 permissions 0555 and appear to	be owned by the	person
       running mkisofs.	 If you	wish other permissions or owners of the	inter-
       mediate	 directories,	see  -uid,  -gid,  -dir-mode,  -file-mode  and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on	Win9X/NT4 machines when	compiled with  Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page	to Unix	can be replaced	with Win32.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies	the abstract file name.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.  There	is space on the	disc for 128 characters	of in-
	      formation.  This parameter can also be set in the	file  .mkisof-
	      src with APPI=id.	 If specified in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin	with  a	 period.   Usually,  a
	      leading  dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This  options  allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660
	      filenames.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one	dot to appear in iso9660 file-
	      names.  A	leading	dot is not affected by this option, it may  be
	      allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies	the bibliographic file name.  There is	space  on  the
	      disc  for	37 characters of information.  This parameter can also
	      be set in	the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified
	      in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      mkisofs finds a hard link	(a file	with multiple names), then the
	      file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
	      on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is default on UNIX like op-
	      erating  systems.	  Be  careful  when  using  this  option  on a
	      filesystem without unique	inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
	      files containing the wrong content on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do  not  cache  inode and	device numbers.	 This option is	needed
	      whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers.	It  is
	      the  default  on Cygwin.	As the Microsoft operating system that
	      runs below Cygwin	is not	POSIX  compliant,  it  does  not  have
	      unique  inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode	numbers	from a
	      hash algorithm that is not 100% correct.	If mkisofs would cache
	      inodes on	Cygwin,	it would believe that some files are identical
	      although they are	not. The result	in this	case  are  files  that
	      contain  the  wrong content if a significant amount of different
	      files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is  to	 be  archived.
	      This  does not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is used, but the
	      disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and
	      the resulting CD image may be larger than	expected.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the	source path specified to mkisofs.  This	option
	      is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The boot	 image
	      must  be	exactly	 the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB
	      floppy, and mkisofs will use this	size when creating the	output
	      iso9660 filesystem. It is	assumed	that the first 512 byte	sector
	      should be	read from the boot image (it is	essentially  emulating
	      a	 normal	 floppy	 drive).   This	will work, for example,	if the
	      boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

	      If the boot image	is not an image	of a floppy, you need  to  add
	      one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or	-no-emul-boot.	If the
	      system should not	boot off the emulated disk, use	-no-boot.

	      If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images  are
	      sorted  with  low	 priority (+2) to the beginning	of the medium.
	      If you don't like	this, you need to specify a sort weight	 of  0
	      for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start  with  a new set of	"El Torito" boot parameters.  This al-
	      lows to have more	than one El Torito boot	on a CD.  A maximum of
	      63 El Torito boot	entries	may be put on a	single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	 a comma separated list	of boot	images that are	needed
	      to make a	bootable CD for	sparc systems.	Partition  0  is  used
	      for the ISO-9660 image, the first	image file is mapped to	parti-
	      tion 1.  There may be empty fields in the	comma separated	 list.
	      The maximum number of possible partitions	is 8 so	it is impossi-
	      ble to specify more than 7 partition images.  This option	is re-
	      quired  to  make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If	the -B
	      or -sparc-boot option has	been specified,	the  first  sector  of
	      the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk la-
	      bel specifies slice 0 for	the iso9660  image  and	 slice	1  ...
	      slice  7	for the	boot images that have been specified with this
	      option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
	      boot  images  must contain a primary boot	that works for the ap-
	      propriate	sparc architecture. The	rest of	 each  of  the	images
	      usually  contains	 an ufs	filesystem that	is used	primary	kernel
	      boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the boot method found with	 SunOS
	      4.x  and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not	depend on SunOS	inter-
	      nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
	      son,  it should be usable	for any	OS that	boots off a sparc sys-
	      tem.

	      For more information also	see the	NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the	actual and all follow-
	      ing boot partitions are mapped to	the previous partition.	If mk-
	      isofs is called with -G image -B ...  all	 boot  partitions  are
	      mapped to	the partition that contains the	iso9660	filesystem im-
	      age and the generic boot image that is located in	the  first  16
	      sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
	      used when	making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
	      will  be	placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
	      sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660 pri-
	      mary  volume  descriptor.	  If this option is used together with
	      the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
	      first 512	bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	hard disk image. The hard disk image must  be-
	      gin with a master	boot record that contains a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	'no emulation' image. The system will load and
	      execute this image without performing any	disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  created "El	Torito"	CD should be marked as
	      not bootable. The	system will provide an emulated	drive for  the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies	the load segment address of the	boot image for no-emu-
	      lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	the number of "virtual"	(512-byte) sectors to load  in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	that a 56-byte table with information  of  the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in	at offset 8 in the boot	file.  If this
	      option is	given,	the  boot  file	 is  modified  in  the	source
	      filesystem,  so  make sure to make a copy	if this	file cannot be
	      easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO	TABLE  section
	      for a description	of this	table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra
	      or the image of a	second session or a higher level session for a
	      multi  session  disk.  The option	-C takes a pair	of two numbers
	      separated	by a comma. The	first number is	the sector  number  of
	      the  first sector	in the last session of the disk	that should be
	      appended to.  The	second number is the starting sector number of
	      the  new session.	 The expected pair of numbers may be retrieved
	      by calling cdrecord -msinfo ...  If the -C  option  is  used  in
	      conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
	      image that is intended to	be a continuation of the previous ses-
	      sion.   If  the -C option	is used	without	the -M option, mkisofs
	      will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
	      second  session  on  a  CDextra. This is a multi session CD that
	      holds audio data in the first session and	a  ISO9660  filesystem
	      in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path and filename	of the boot catalog to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the	source path specified to mkisofs.  This	option
	      is required to make a bootable CD.  This file will  be  inserted
	      into  the	 output	tree and not created in	the source filesystem,
	      so be sure the specified filename	does not conflict with an  ex-
	      isting  file,  as	 it  will  be  excluded.  Usually  a name like
	      "boot.catalog" is	chosen.

	      If the -sort option has not been	specified,  the	 boot  catalog
	      sorted  with  low	 priority (+1) to the beginning	of the medium.
	      If you don't like	this, you need to specify a sort weight	 of  0
	      for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames  imported  from old	session	for compliance
	      with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is
	      not  present, only names with a length > 31 are checked as these
	      files are	a hard violation of the	iso9660	standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check all	 old  sessions	for  compliance	 with  actual  mkisofs
	      iso9660  file naming rules.  This	is a high level	option that is
	      a	combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
	      the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies	 the  Copyright	file name.  There is space on the disc
	      for 37 characters	of information.	 This parameter	 can  also  be
	      set  in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.
	      If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
	      standard,	but it happens to work on many systems.	 Use with cau-
	      tion.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of directories	used to	create	the  image  to
	      mode.   Specifying  this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate DVD-Video compliant UDF file system. This  is  done  by
	      sorting the order	of the content of the appropriate files	and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note	that the sort-
	      ing  only	 works	if  the	DVD-Video filenames include upper case
	      characters only.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the	filesystem.  When this
	      option  is not in	use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock
	      Ridge if enabled,	otherwise the file will	be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of regular files used to create the image  to
	      mode.   Specifying  this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	the gid	read from the source files  to	the  value  of
	      gid.   Specifying	 this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the	output
	      more verbose but may have	other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points	for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all filenames are	checked	for graft points. The filename is  di-
	      vided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of '\\'
	      and '=' characters must be escaped with  '\\'  if	 -graft-points
	      has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge	direc-
	      tory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that  must	 match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 Multiple globs	may be hidden.
	      If glob matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory
	      will  be	hidden.	 In order to match a directory name, make sure
	      the pathname does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
	      hidden  files will still be written to the output	CD image file.
	      Should be	used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
	      more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob.
	      This attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS	 based
	      systems  if  the /A flag is not used for the listing.  glob is a
	      shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any	 part  of  the
	      filename or path.	 In order to match a directory name, make sure
	      the pathname does	not include a trailing '/' character.	Multi-
	      ple globs	may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to get the hidden attribute as
	      above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the Joliet directory.   glob	 is  a
	      shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part	of the
	      filename or path.	  Multiple  globs  may	be  hidden.   If  glob
	      matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order	to match a directory name, make	sure the path-
	      name  does not include a trailing	'/' character.	All the	hidden
	      files will still be written to the output	CD image file.	Should
	      be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the	Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally don't make sense in the Joliet World	as they	list the  real
	      name  and	 the ISO9660 name which	may both be different from the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock	 Ridge
	      tree.  It	seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory	from the Rock Ridge tree.  This	option only makes  the
	      visible tree better to understand	for people who don't know what
	      this directory is	for.  If you need to have no  RR_MOVED	direc-
	      tory  at	all,  you  should use the -D option. Note that in case
	      that the -D option has been specified, the resulting  filesystem
	      is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will	not be readable	on MS-
	      DOS.  See	 also  NOTES  section  for  more  information  on  the
	      RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input  charset  that  defines  the characters used in local file
	      names.  To get a list of valid charset names, call mkisofs  -in-
	      put-charset  help.  To get a 1:1 mapping,	you may	use default as
	      charset name. The	default	initial	values are cp437 on DOS	 based
	      systems  and iso8859-1 on	all other systems.  See	CHARACTER SETS
	      section below for	more details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      Rock  Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHAR-
	      ACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3	and 4.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one  section  and	 file-
	      names are	restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With  level 3, no	restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988)	do ap-
	      ply.

	      With all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are  restricted
	      to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore	(_). The maxi-
	      mum filename length is restricted	to 31 characters,  the	direc-
	      tory  nesting  level  is	restricted  to	8 and the maximum path
	      length is	limited	to 255 characters.

	      Level 4 officially does  not  exists  but	 mkisofs  maps	it  to
	      ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an	enhanced volume	descriptor with	version	number
	      and file structure version number	set to 2  is  emitted.	 There
	      may be more than 8 levels	of directory nesting, there is no need
	      for a file to contain a dot and the  dot	has  no	 more  special
	      meaning,	file  names  do	 not have version numbers, the maximum
	      length for files and directory is	raised to 207.	If Rock	 Ridge
	      is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length	is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced	volume
	      descriptor which looks similar to	a  primary  volume  descriptor
	      but is slightly different. Be careful not	to use broken software
	      to make ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second  PVD  copy
	      and patching this	putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory	records	in addition to regular iso9660
	      file names.  This	is primarily useful when the discs are	to  be
	      used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The Joliet filenames
	      are specified in Unicode and each	path component can be up to 64
	      Unicode characters long.	Note that Joliet is no standard	- CD's
	      that use only Joliet extensions but no standard Rock  Ridge  ex-
	      tensions	may  usually  only be used on Microsoft	Win32 systems.
	      Furthermore, the fact that the filenames are limited to 64 char-
	      acters  and the fact that	Joliet uses the	UTF-16 coding for Uni-
	      code characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow Joliet filenames to	be up to 103 Unicode characters.  This
	      breaks  the Joliet specification - but appears to	work. Use with
	      caution. The number 103 is derived from: the  maximum  Directory
	      Record  Length (254), minus the length of	Directory Record (33),
	      minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information	(14),  divided
	      by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
	      TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the	ISO9660	 file-
	      name  will  be in	an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
	      even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames	of  up	to  31
	      characters.   If	you use	this option, the disc may be difficult
	      to use on	a MS-DOS system, but this comes	in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use	with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots instead.	 This option will get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics
	      with mkisofs-2.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from	being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path as with option -x).	Technically glob  is  matched  against
	      the  d-_d_name  part of the directory entry.  Multiple globs may
	      be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m	'*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	".o", called "core"  or	 "foo-
	      bar"  to	be  copied  to CDROM. Note that	if you had a directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all	its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in	iso9660	filenames.  This option	forces the  -N
	      option  as the extra name	space is taken from the	space reserved
	      for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many  systems.   Although	a conforming application needs to pro-
	      vide a buffer space of at	least  37  characters,	disks  created
	      with  this option	may cause a buffer overflow in the reading op-
	      erating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies	path to	existing iso9660 image to be merged.  The  al-
	      ternate  form  takes  a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
	      syntax as	the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of the
	      image specified in -M.  Typically	 this  requires	 multi-session
	      capability  for  the  recorder  and cdrom	drive that you are at-
	      tempting to write	this image to.	This option may	only  be  used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from	ISO9660	file names.
	      This  violates  the ISO9660 standard, but	no one really uses the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode to use when creating	new directories	in the iso  fs	image.
	      The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do not include backup files files	on the iso9660 filesystem.  If
	      the -no-bak option is specified, files that contain the  charac-
	      ters '~' or '#' or end in	'.bak' will not	be included (these are
	      typically	backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
	      Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes  recognition  for
	      previous	sessions.  This	helps to show rotten iso9660 extension
	      records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge	 attributes  from  previous  sessions.
	      This  may	 help to avoid getting into trouble when mkisofs finds
	      illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE)  instead.  This  may	 waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in	reading	split SL components (link_size
	      =	component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
	      1997.  It	is questionable	whether	it makes sense at  all.	  When
	      it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have	a serious bug that did
	      create defective CE signatures if	a  symlink  contained  `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't  split  the	 SL  fields, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a	bug in reading split SL	fields
	      (a `/' can be dropped).

	      Note that	this option has	been introduced	by Eric	 Youngdale  in
	      1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
	      it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
	      create  defective	 CE  signatures	if a symlink contained `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is the name of the file to which the  iso9660  filesystem	 image
	      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can correspond directly to the device name of the	 optical  disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output
	      can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive,  in
	      which case the disk partition can	be mounted and examined	to en-
	      sure that	the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad the end of the whole image by	150 sectors (300 kB).  If  the
	      option  -B  is  used,  then there	is a padding at	the end	of the
	      iso9660 partition	and before the beginning of  the  boot	parti-
	      tions.   The  size  of  this padding is chosen to	make the first
	      boot partition start on a	sector number that is  a  multiple  of
	      16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) im-
	      plement read ahead bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs  re-
	      sult in read errors on one or more files that are	located	at the
	      end of a track. They are usually present when the	CD is  written
	      in  Track	at Once	mode or	when the disk is written as mixed mode
	      CD where an audio	track follows the data track.

	      To avoid problems	with  I/O  error  on  the  last	 file  on  the
	      filesystem, the -pad option has been made	the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do  not  Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the
	      the boot partitions start	on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of pathspec directories	and  filenames
	      to  be  added  to	the ISO9660 filesystem.	This list of pathspecs
	      are processed after any that appear on the command line. If  the
	      argument is -, then the list is read from	the standard input.

       -P     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001, use	-publisher in-
	      stead.  This option will get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics  with  mk-
	      isofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	publisher of the  CDROM,  usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the disc for 128 characters of information.  This	parameter  can
	      also  be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	preparer of the	CDROM, usually
	      with a mailing address and phone number.	There is space on  the
	      disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can also
	      be set in	the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.	 If specified in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
	      (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for	Disk  At  Once
	      mode  and	 with  some  CD-R  drives  when	 piping	 directly into
	      cdrecord.	 In this case it is needed to know  the	 size  of  the
	      filesystem  before  the  actual CD-creation is done.  The	option
	      -print-size allows to get	this size from a "dry-run" before  the
	      CD  is actually written.	Old versions of	mkisofs	did write this
	      information (among other information) to stderr.	As this	 turns
	      out  to  be hard to parse, the number without any	other informa-
	      tion is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a  sim-
	      ple shell	script,	redirect stderr	and catch the number from std-
	      out.  This may be	done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ...	`

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No	progress  output  will
	      be provided.

       -R     Generate	SUSP  and  RR records using the	Rock Ridge protocol to
	      further describe the files on the	iso9660	filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they are usually only useful on the  author's  system,  and  not
	      useful  to  the client.  All the file read bits are set true, so
	      that files and directories are globally readable on the  client.
	      If  any  execute	bit  is	set for	a file,	set all	of the execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If  any search bit is set	for a directory, set all of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All  write  bits are cleared, because the	CD-Rom will be mounted
	      read-only	in any case.  If any of	the special mode bits are set,
	      clear  them,  because  file  locks are not useful	on a read-only
	      file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or  gid
	      0.   When	 used  on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all	files.
	      This is a	result of the lack of file permissions	on  Win32  and
	      the   Cygwin   POSIX  emulation  layer.	See  also  -uid	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and	-new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO9660  filenames  to  in-
	      clude  digits,  upper  case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII
	      characters (resp.	anything except	lowercase characters).
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves  all  files	and directories	into dir in the	image. This is
	      essentially the same as using -graft-points and  adding  dir  in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to	use.

	      dir  may actually	be several levels deep.	It is created with the
	      same permissions as other	graft points.

       -old-root dir
	      This option is necessary when writing a multisession  image  and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using a directory	name not found in the previous session	causes
	      mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without  this  option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodi-
	      fied files and would be forced to	write their data into the  im-
	      age once more.

	      -root  and  -old-root are	meant to be used together to do	incre-
	      mental backups.  The initial session  would  e.g.	 use:  mkisofs
	      -root  backup_1  dirs.  The next incremental backup with mkisofs
	      -root backup_2 -old-root	backup_1  dirs.	  would	 take  another
	      snapshot of these	directories. The first snapshot	would be found
	      in backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but  only  modified  or
	      new files	need to	be written into	the second session.

	      Without  these  options,	new  files would be added and old ones
	      would be preserved. But old ones would  be  overwritten  if  the
	      file was modified. Recovering the	files by copying the whole di-
	      rectory back from	CD would also restore files that were  deleted
	      intentionally.  Accessing	 several  older	versions of a file re-
	      quires support by	the operating system to	choose which  sessions
	      are to be	mounted.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort  file  locations  on	 the media. Sorting is controlled by a
	      file that	contains pairs of filenames and	sorting	offset weight-
	      ing.   If	 the  weighting	 is  higher,  the file will be located
	      closer to	the beginning of the media, if the weighting is	lower,
	      the  file	 will be located closer	to the end of the media. There
	      must be only one space or	tabs character	between	 the  filename
	      and  the	weight and the weight must be the last characters on a
	      line. The	filename is taken to include all the characters	up to,
	      but  not	including  the	last space or tab character on a line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the	end of
	      a	 filename.   This  option  does	not sort the order of the file
	      names that appear	in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts  the	 order
	      in which the file	data is	written	to the CD image	- which	may be
	      useful in	order to  optimize  the	 data  layout  on  a  CD.  See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set  the Sun disk	label name for the Sun disk label that is cre-
	      ated with	the -sparc-boot	option.

       -split-output
	      Split the	output image into several files	of approximately 1 GB.
	      This  helps to create DVD	sized iso9660 images on	operating sys-
	      tems without large file support.	Cdrecord will concatenate more
	      than  one	file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To make
	      -split-output work, the -o filename option  must	be  specified.
	      The  resulting  outout  images  will be named: filename_00,file-
	      name_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size	to #  sectors.
	      This  allows  you	to pipe	the output of the tar program into mk-
	      isofs and	to create a iso9660 filesystem without the need	of  an
	      intermediate  tar	 archive file.	If this	option has been	speci-
	      fied, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file	with the  name
	      STREAM.IMG.   The	maximum	size of	the file (with padding)	is 200
	      sectors less than	the specified media size. If -no-pad has  been
	      specified,  the  file size is 50 sectors less than the specified
	      media size.  If the file is smaller,  then  mkisofs  will	 write
	      padding. This may	take a while.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesystems
	      only and may not used  together  with  multi-session  or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies	 a  comma separated list of filesystem images that are
	      needed to	make a bootable	CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that	partition 1 is used for	the ISO-9660  image  and  that
	      partition	 2  is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may	not be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image	file is	mapped
	      to  partition  0.	  There	may be empty fields in the comma sepa-
	      rated list, and list entries for	partition  1  and  2  must  be
	      empty.   The  maximum  number  of	supported partitions is	8 (al-
	      though the Solaris x86 partition table could support  up	to  16
	      partitions),  so	it is impossible to specify more than 6	parti-
	      tion images.  This option	is required to make a bootable CD  for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If  the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first	sector
	      of the resulting image will contain a PC fdisk label with	a  So-
	      laris  type  0x82	 fdisk partition that starts at	offset 512 and
	      spans the	whole CD.  In addition,	 for  the  Solaris  type  0x82
	      fdisk  partition,	 there	is a SVr4 disk label at	offset 1024 in
	      the first	sector of the CD.  This	disk label specifies  slice  0
	      for  the	first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used
	      to boot the PC and slice 1 for the iso9660 image.	 Slice 2 spans
	      the  whole  CD  slice  3	... slice 7 may	be used	for additional
	      filesystem images	that have been specified with this option.

	      A	Solaris	x86 boot CD uses a 1024	byte sized primary  boot  that
	      uses  the	 El-Torito  no-emulation  boot	mode  and  a secondary
	      generic boot that	is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G	genboot	must be	specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set  the	SVr4  disk  label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
	      created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	the system ID.	There is space	on  the	 disc  for  32
	      characters  of  information.   This parameter can	also be	set in
	      the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.	If specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate	a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which
	      can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help  establish
	      the  correct  file  names.  There	is also	information present in
	      the file that indicates the major	and minor  numbers  for	 block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
	      -T  option.   If you are creating	a multi-session	image you must
	      use the same name	as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The  default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF sup-
	      port is currently	in alpha status	and for	this reason, it	is not
	      possible	to  create  UDF	 only images.  UDF data	structures are
	      currently	coupled	to the Joliet structures, so  there  are  many
	      pitfalls	with  the  current implementation. There is no UID/GID
	      support, there is	no POSIX permission support, there is no  sup-
	      port  for	 symlinks.  Note that UDF wastes the space from	sector
	      ~20 to sector 256	at the beginning of the	disk  in  addition  to
	      the spcae	needed for real	UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	 the  uid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      uid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option  -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version
	      numbers from the filesystem.  If the option  is  not  specified,
	      mkisofs  creates a version number	of 1 for all files.  File ver-
	      sions are	strings	in the range ;1	to ;32767 This option  is  the
	      default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "Untranslated"	filenames,  completely	violating  the
	      iso9660 standards	described above. Forces	on  the	 -d,  -l,  -N,
	      -allow-leading-dots,  -relaxed-filenames,	-allow-lowercase, -al-
	      low-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags.	It  allows  more  than
	      one  '.'	character in the filename, as well as mixed case file-
	      names.  This is useful on	HP-UX system, where the	built-in  CDFS
	      filesystem  does	not recognize ANY extensions. Use with extreme
	      caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do not translate the characters '#' and '~'  which  are  invalid
	      for  iso9660 filenames.  These characters	are though invalid of-
	      ten used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the	ISO9660	standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	 the  volume  ID  (volume name or label) to be written
	      into the master block.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	 This parameter	can also be set	in the
	      file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If	specified in both places,  the
	      command  line version is used.  Note that	if you assign a	volume
	      ID, this is the name that	will be	used as	the mount  point  used
	      by the Solaris volume management system and the name that	is as-
	      signed to	the disc on a Microsoft	Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	the volset ID.	There is space on  the	disc  for  128
	      characters  of  information.   This parameter can	also be	set in
	      the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.	If specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the	volume set size	to #.  The volume set size is the num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a	CD volume set.	A volume set is	a col-
	      lection  of  one	or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create	a set numbered
	      CD's  that  are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set
	      of CD's.	Volume Sets are	rather used to record a	big  directory
	      tree  that  would	 not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a
	      Volume Set contains a description	of  all	 the  directories  and
	      files  that  are recorded	on the volumes where the sequence num-
	      bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
	      the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently	does not support a -volset-size	that is	larger
	      than 1.

	      The option -volset-size must be specified	 before	 -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the	 volume	 set sequence number to	#.  The	volume set se-
	      quence number is the index number	of the current CD in a CD set.
	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice	on the command line, extra de-
	      bug information will be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from	being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete pathname that  results  from  concatenating	 the  pathname
	      given as command line argument and the path relative to this di-
	      rectory.	Multiple paths may be excluded.	 Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE: The	-m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are	wrong.	Both now work identical	and use	filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
	      transparent  decompression,  such	as Linux 2.4.14	or later.  You
	      must specify the -R or -r	options	to enable RockRidge, and  gen-
	      erate compressed files using the mkzftree	utility	before running
	      mkisofs.	Note that transparent  compression  is	a  nonstandard
	      Rock  Ridge  extension.	The resulting disks are	only transpar-
	      ently readable if	used on	Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need	to call	mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an  ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic	and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with Apple's extensions.	Similar	to the
	      -hfs option, except that the Apple  Extensions  to  ISO9660  are
	      added  instead of	creating an HFS	hybrid volume.	Former mkisofs
	      versions did include Rock	Ridge attributes by default if	-apple
	      was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
	      more. If you like	to have	Rock Ridge  attributes,	 you  need  to
	      specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	file based on the filename's extension.	A filename  is	mapped
	      only  if	it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's	 magic
	      number  (usually	the first few bytes of a file).	The magic_file
	      is only used if a	file is	not one	of the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
	      -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more de-
	      tails.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats.	See the	HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
	      more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
	      MacBinary	and AppleSingle	files is to open and read them.	There-
	      fore  this  option may increase processing time. It is better to
	      use one or more double dash  options  given  below  if  the  Ap-
	      ple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New	HFS Desktop files will
	      be created when the CD is	used on	a Macintosh (and stored	in the
	      System  Folder).	 By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the  starting  point  for	 the  ISO9660,
	      Joliet  and  Rock	 Ridge	file names. See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may	make the CD bootable on	a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an HFS partition table.	By default, no partition table
	      is generated, but	some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need	an HFS
	      partition	 table	on  the	CDROM to be able to recognize a	hybrid
	      CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use  the	QuickTime  2.0	Autostart  feature  to
	      launch  an  application  or document. The	given filename must be
	      the name of a document or	application located at the  top	 level
	      of  the  CD.  The	filename must be less than 12 characters. (Al-
	      pha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units	of  PC
	      Exchange	files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
	      INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob	from the HFS volume. The file or directory will	 still
	      exist  in	 the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would  exclude  all files	ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
	      the HFS volume. Note that	if you had a directory called "foobar"
	      it  too  (and  of	course all its descendants) would be excluded.
	      The glob can also	be a path name relative	to the source directo-
	      ries given on the	command	line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude just the file or directory	called "html" from the
	      "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
	      the  tree	 will  not be excluded.	 Should	be used	with the -hide
	      and/or -hide-joliet options.  In	order  to  match  a  directory
	      name,  make  sure	 the  pathname does not	include	a trailing '/'
	      character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is  as-
	      signed  to  the  disc on a Macintosh and replaces	the volid used
	      with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon position information, if it exists,	from  the  Ap-
	      ple/Unix	file.	The  icons will	appear in the same position as
	      they would on a Macintosh	desktop. Folder	location and  size  on
	      screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	This option may	become set  by
	      default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the location, size on screen, scroll	positions, folder View
	      etc. for the root	folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP  boot image file. Up	to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
	      (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters	used in	HFS file names
	      when  used  with	the  -mac-name option.	The default charset is
	      cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections	below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
	      the HFS file names. Defaults to the input	charset. See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS	volume that is locked.
	      This option leaves the volume unlocked so	 that  other  applica-
	      tions  (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
	      LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about	using this op-
	      tion.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given	directory (folder). This is usually the	System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name	of the
	      directory	 must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
	      if the given pathspec is ./cddata	and  the  required  folder  is
	      called System Folder, then the whole path	name is	"./cddata/Sys-
	      tem Folder" (remember to use quotes if the  name	contains  spa-
	      ces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override	certain	parameters used	to create the HFS file system.
	      Unlikely to be  used  in	normal	circumstances.	See  the  lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for	 AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for	CAP Apple/Unix
	      file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  is	disabled, unless other double dash options are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK	Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for	Macintosh files	(NT only) (Al-
	      pha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs	processes  file	 names	in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for	all  languages,	 8-bit
       characters  are	not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent	all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.	UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that it only supports	a sub-
       set of all codes	and that 16-bit	characters are not compliant with  the
       POSIX filesystem	interface.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to	use the	complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit	 char-
       acter  is  represented by one or	more 8-bit characters.	If a character
       is coded	in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and  North  America)  is
       maps 1:1	to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.	If a character
       is coded	in 7-Bit ASCII (used in	USA and	other  countries  with	limted
       character  set)	is maps	1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16	or UTF-8 coded Unicode
       character.  Character codes that	cannot be represented as a single byte
       in  UTF-8  (typically if	the value is > 0x7F) use escape	sequences that
       map to more than	one 8-bit character.

       If all operating	systems	would use UTF-8	coding,	mkisofs	would not need
       to  recode  characters  in  file	names.	Unfortunately, Apple uses com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a	Unicode	coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all	 non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual	character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name	used by	Microsoft) used	by the local operating system in use -
       the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language	used by	the user.

       Usually	 character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit	ASCII  characters  and	(on  PC's  and	Mac's)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately	even this does
       not follow ISO standards	that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there	is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the	same character
       code  may  represent a different	character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in	central	Europe,	may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make	matters	more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent character	sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter  code  for	"small e with acute accent" may	be character code 0x82
       on a PC,	code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac	are nonstandard, Unicode codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value	as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and	applications will use the Uni-
       code character set as the basis for file	names in a unique way, it  may
       be  necessary to	specify	which character	set your file names use	in and
       which character set the file names should appear	on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you	want to	use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines the local	character set you are using on your  host  ma-
	      chine.   Any  character set conversions that take	place will use
	      this character set as the	staring	point. The default input char-
	      acter  sets  are cp437 on	DOS based systems and iso8859-1	on all
	      other systems.

	      If the -J	option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
	      input  character set will	be used	in the Joliet directory. Using
	      the -jcharset option is the same as using	the -input-charset and
	      -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines  the  character  set that	will be	used with for the Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
	      likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
	      mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
	      If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it	is likely that
	      the output character set will be the same	as the input character
	      set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the  HFS	 character set used for	HFS file names decoded
	      from any of the various Apple/Unix  file	formats.  Only	useful
	      when  used  with	-mac-name  option.  See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES for	more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used to create HFS file names from
	      the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
	      the character set	given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
	      to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of character sets	built in to mkisofs.  To get a
       listing,	use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets can be	read from file for any of the  charac-
       ter  set	 options  by giving a filename as the argument to the options.
       The given file will only	be read	if its name does not match one of  the
       built in	character sets.

       The  format of the character set	files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte	code (in hex as	0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as	0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the	line is	ignored.

       Any  blank line,	line without two (or more) columns in the above	format
       or comments lines (starting with	the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code	is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit	UNICODE	 (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE	(UTF-32)  coding  because  this	coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding	which is compatible to
       POSIX filenames and supported by	moder UNIX implementations such	as So-
       laris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the	behav-
       iour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file	names generated	from the input filenames are not  con-
       verted  from  the  input	 character set.	The ISO9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII	characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will	be replaced with a '_'
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file	has two	properties associated  with  it	 which	define
       which  application created the file, the	CREATOR	and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter	strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application	etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by	using something	like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	in all the various Ap-
       ple/Unix	encoded	files.	For other files	it is  possible	 to  base  the
       CREATOR	and TYPE on the	filename's extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic	option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is	 given	first,	then a filename	extension match	is at-
       tempted before a	magic number match. However, if	the -magic  option  is
       given  first,  then a magic number match	is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default	CREATOR	and TYPE for all regular files can be set by using en-
       tries in	the .mkisofsrc file or using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type
       options,	otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

       The  format  of	the mapping file is the	same afpfile format as used by
       aufs.  This file	has five columns for the extension, file  translation,
       CREATOR,	 TYPE  and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#' character are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first	column EXTN defines the	Unix filename extension	to  be
	      mapped.  The  default  mapping  for  any filename	extension that
	      doesn't match is defined with the	"*" character.

	      The Xlate	column defines the type	of  text  translation  between
	      the  Unix	 and  Macintosh	 file it is ignored by mkisofs,	but is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs  does  not
	      alter the	contents of a file, if a binary	file has it's TYPE set
	      as 'TEXT', it may	be read	incorrectly on a Macintosh.  Therefore
	      a	better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The  CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and en-
	      closed in	single quotes.

	      The comment field	is enclosed in double quotes - it  is  ignored
	      by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format  of the magic file is almost	identical to the magic(5) file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines	for reading and	decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This  file  has	four  tab separated columns for	the byte offset, type,
       test and	message.  Lines	starting with the '#'  character  are  comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard	unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format of the file is described in the magic(5) man	page. The only
       difference here is that for each	entry in the magic file,  the  message
       for the initial offset must be 4	characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4 characters for	the TYPE - white space is optional between  them.  Any
       other  characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (start-
       ing with	a '>') are also	ignored	i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using  the  -magic option may significantly increase processing time as
       each file has to	opened and read	to find	it's magic number.

       In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix'	 and  the  de-
       fault  TYPE  is	'TEXT'.	  These	can be changed by using	entries	in the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a	file is	in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the	format
       has been	selected), then	the CREATOR and	TYPE are taken from the	values
       stored in the Apple/Unix	file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then	 these	values
       override	the default CREATOR and	TYPE.

       A   full	  CREATOR/TYPE	 database   can	 be  found  at	http://www.an-
       gelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two	parts called the Data and Resource  fork.  Ei-
       ther  may  be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num-
       ber  of	attributes  associated with them - probably the	most important
       are the TYPE and	CREATOR. Again Unix has	no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where	the image is stored in
       the Data	fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that	is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a	Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found	to cope	with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred	to as the finder info).	 Unfortunately,	it  seems  that	 every
       software	 package that stores Macintosh files on	Unix has chosen	a com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports	are:

       CAP AUFS	format
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	in  subdirectory  .re-
	      source  with same	filename as data fork. Finder info in .finder-
	      info subdirectory	with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	stored in a file  with
	      same name	prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
	      file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
	      erinfo  stored  in  subdirectory	.AppleDouble with same name as
	      data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above,	except both forks  and	finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork  stored  in a file. Resource fork and finder info to-
	      gether in	subdirectory .rsrc with	same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the  finder  info  is
	      stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored	in one file.

       Apple PC	Exchange
	      Used  by	Macintoshes  to	 store Apple files on DOS (FAT)	disks.
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	 in  subdirectory  re-
	      source.frk  (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as one	record in file
	      finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat  for  each  data
	      fork directory.

	      Note:  mkisofs  needs to know the	native FAT cluster size	of the
	      disk that	the PC Exchange	files are  on  (or  have  been	copied
	      from).  This  size  is  given  by	the -cluster-size option.  The
	      cluster or allocation size can be	found by using the DOS utility
	      CHKDSK.

	      May  not	work  with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available
	      with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media containing PC	Exchange files	should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when	they mount HFS disks. Data fork	stored
	      in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource  with  same
	      name.  Finder  info as one record	in file	.HSancillary. Separate
	      .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE
	      Allows Macintoshes to store Apple	files on  SMB  servers.	  Data
	      fork  stored  in	a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory re-
	      source.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource	fork.

       Services	for Macintosh
	      Format of	files stored by	NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
	      fork  is	stored	as  "filename".	Resource fork stored as	a NTFS
	      stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder	info is	stored
	      as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
	      are normally invisible to	the user.

	      Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.	If  an
	      HFS  file	 or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
	      NT character in its name,	then NT	converts these	characters  to
	      Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
	       | also a	space or period	if it is the  last  character  of  the
	      file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by  the  mkisofs	NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
	      name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
	      contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS	X on to	a non-
	      HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the	files  are  stored  in
	      AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in	a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
	      also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix	encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
	      a	MacOS X	system.	Data fork stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with	 the same name with the	suffix
	      '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available	via a MacOS X  library
	      call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If  a  file  is found with a zero	length resource	fork and empty
	      finderinfo, it is	assumed	not to have any	Apple/Unix encoding  -
	      therefore	a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs	will attempt to	set the	CREATOR, TYPE, date and	possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,	the  Macintosh
       filename	 is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on	the Unix filename - see	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE	NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the	 -apple	option,	the TYPE and CREATOR are stored	in the
       optional	System Use or SUSP field in the	ISO9660	Directory Record -  in
       much  the  same	way  as	the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the	beginning of  the  ex-
       isting  Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get
       the Rock	Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the	resource  fork	to  be	stored	as  an
       ISO9660	associated  file.  This	is just	like any normal	file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple	machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by	other OSs

       When  using  the	 -hfs  option,	the TYPE and CREATOR plus other	finder
       info, are stored	in a  separate	HFS  directory,	 not  visible  on  the
       ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the	same data and resource
       fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the  -ap-
       ple  option,  as	 the latter imposes the	limited	ISO9660	characters al-
       lowed in	filenames. However, the	Apple extensions do give the advantage
       that  the  files	 are packed on the disk	more efficiently and it	may be
       possible	to fit more files on a CD - important when the total  size  of
       the source files	is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename	that is	stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part	of the CD. However, not	all the	Apple/Unix en-
       codings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the
       Unix filename is	used - with escaped special characters.	Special	 char-
       acters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters	by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk	and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses	"%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't	find an	HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx ==	two hex	digits)	converted to a	single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS	 directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or	:xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	HFS filenames appear to	support	upper and lower	case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a	unique name by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames us-
       ing the -mac-name option. Normal	Unix files without an  HFS  name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange)	file is	stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix	filesystem, but	contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is	the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix	name as	 the  starting	point  for  the	 other
       names,  then  the  ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the ac-
       tual  data  (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename	as the starting	point and the ISO9660 name  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and	the Joliet/Rock	Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix	name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not	the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any	HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults	to cp10000 (Mac	 Roman).   The	character  set
       used  can be specified using the	-input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character	sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007	(MacCyrillic),
       cp10029	(MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names	taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be	converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character set.	Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge  names  de-
       rived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter	out any	illegal	characters for
       the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as	mkisofs	expects	to be  dealing
       directly	with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names	as is.	But as
       '/' is a	legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       '/' to a	'_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the Apple extensions	are used, then only the	ISO9660	filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh.	However, as the	Macintosh ISO9660 drivers  can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems	on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example	this.file.name	will  be converted to THIS.FILE	i.e. only have
       one '.',	also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH	but  abcdefghi
       will  be	seen as	ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a	'.' at the end - don't know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem.	All  filenames
       will be in upper	case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines	will not be able to see	Level 2	filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD	a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes	a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume	a cus-
       tom icon	on a Macintosh,	an icon	has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon	is  very  similar  -  an invisible file	called
       'Icon\r'	exits in the folder itself.

       Probably	the easiest way	to create a custom icon	that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank	HFS floppy disk	on a Mac, paste	an icon	to its
       "Get Info" box. If using	Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

		  mount	-t hfs /dev/fd0	/mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as	a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

		  mkisofs --cap	-o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then	you can	use the	hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from	the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy	-m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M.	Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir	icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom	folder icons is	very similar -
       paste an	icon to	folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       'Icon\r'	file to	the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the	icon files from	the ISO9660 and	Joliet trees.

       To give a custom	icon to	a Joliet CD, follow the	instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD	bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or  compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable	HFS partition and the necessary	System,	Finder,	etc. files.

       A driver	can be obtained	from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The  HFS	 partition  (i.e.  the hybrid disk in our case)	must contain a
       suitable	System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have it's boot block  set.  The
       boot  block  is	in  the	 first	two  blocks of a partition. For	a non-
       bootable	partition the boot block is full of zeros.  Normally,  when  a
       System  file is copied to partition on a	Macintosh disk,	the boot block
       is filled with a	number of required settings -  unfortunately  I	 don't
       know the	full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will	work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also	extracts the boot  block  from
       the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by	mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver	from an	Apple CD and copying Apple software to
	      your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
	      License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the	-boot-info-table option	is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file  specified	by the -b option by inserting a	56-byte	"boot informa-
       tion table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in  the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily  or
       reliably	obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table is as follows; all integers	are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA	of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA	of boot	file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in	bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit	words in the boot file
       starting	 at  byte  offset  64.	 All linear block addresses (LBAs) are
       given in	CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc	file, first in the current working di-
       rectory,	 then  in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which	the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series	of lines of the	form TAG=value , and in	this way you can spec-
       ify certain options.  The case of the tag  is  not  significant.	  Some
       fields  in  the volume header are not settable on the command line, but
       can be altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed  in  this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The  application identifier should describe the application that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of	information.   May  be overridden using	the -A command
	      line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name	of a file on the  disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of	information.   May  be	overridden  using  the
	      -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract  information, often	the name of a file on the disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is	space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters  of  information.	 May be	overridden using the -abstract
	      command line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic	information, often the name of a file  on  the
	      disc  containing a bibliography.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of	information.   May  be	overridden  using  the
	      -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This  should  describe the preparer of the CDROM,	usually	with a
	      mailing address and phone	number.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
	      -p command line option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the	CDROM, usually with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
	      -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The  System Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the -sysid  com-
	      mand line	option.

       VOLI   The  Volume Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the  -V  command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters of information.  May	be overridden using the	 -volset  com-
	      mand line	option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The  default TYPE	for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-type  command  line  op-
	      tion.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh	files. Must be exactly 4 char-
	      acters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-creator	 command  line
	      option.

       mkisofs	can  also be configured	at compile time	with defaults for many
       of these	fields.	 See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in	the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become	the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir  where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by	root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write	a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a  sim-
       ple iso9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size	333000 | \
       cdrecord	dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir  that  con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create a HFS	hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on	just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map	mapping	cd_dir

       To  create a CD with the	'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the	source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known  Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other	files are given	CREATOR	and TYPE based
       on their	magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have  the
       name  README,  but have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or	HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory	cd_dir on  the
       CD  along  with the three README	files -	but only one will be seen from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs	-J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs	-hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix	\
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the	file README.hfs	will be	seen as	README on the HFS CD  and  the
       other  two  README  files  will be hidden. Similarly for	the Joliet and
       ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible	with  combina-
       tions of	the hide options ...

AUTHOR
       mkisofs	is  not	based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because we
       must generate a complete	 copy of an existing filesystem	on a  disk  in
       the   iso9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of	a mis-
       nomer, since it not only	creates	the filesystem,	but it also  populates
       it  as  well.   However,	the appropriate	tool name for a	UNIX tool that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not	well known.

       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or	<eric@andante.org>  wrote  the
       first  versions	(1993 ... 1998)	of the mkisofs utility.	 The copyright
       for old versions	of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.   Joerg  Schilling	 wrote	the SCSI transport library and
       it's adaptation layer to	mkisofs	and newer parts	(starting  from	 1999)
       of the utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C)	1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg
       Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson  1997,  1998,  1999,	 2000,
       2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile	code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to	 allow
       mkisofs	to read	the previous session when creating a multi session im-
       age.

       If mkisofs is creating a	filesystem image with  Rock  Ridge  attributes
       and  the	 directory  nesting  level of the source directory tree	is too
       much for	ISO-9660, mkisofs will do deep directory relocation.  This re-
       sults  in  a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid	this directory.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely  follows  the	 official  Sparc CD boot requirements from the
       Boot prom in Sun	Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions	for Sparc sys-
       tems  use  a boot loader	called SILO that unfortunately is not Sparc CD
       boot compliant.	It is annoyingly to see	that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix  SILO  but instead provide a	completely unneeded "patch" to mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Any files	that have hard links to	files not in  the  tree	 being
	      copied  to  the  iso9660	filesystem will	have an	incorrect file
	      reference	count.

       o      Does not check for SUSP record(s)	in "." entry of	the  root  di-
	      rectory to verify	the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

	      This  problem  is	present	when reading old sessions while	adding
	      data in multi-session mode.

       o      Does not properly	read relocated	directories  in	 multi-session
	      mode when	adding data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
	      include the deep directory.

	      Repeat by: create	first session with deep	 directory  relocation
	      then add new session with	a single dir that differs from the old
	      deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session	from TRANS.TBL

       o      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED  in	 multi-session
	      mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have	had  to	 make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work,	however	there may be situations	that either  I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore I can't guarantee that mkisofs will	work as	expected  (although  I
       haven't	had  a major problem yet). Most	of the HFS features work fine,
       however,	some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although	HFS filenames appear to	support	upper and lower	case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a	unique name by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names	that share the first 31	characters have	_N' (N
       ==  decimal number) substituted for the last few	characters to generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above  for the method and syntax	involved). It is not possible to use a
       new name	for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded	file  called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not
       use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode	"oldname". However, you	can graft  Ap-
       ple/Unix	 encoded files or directories as long as you do	not attempt to
       give them new names as above.

       When creating an	HFS volume with	the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous	sessions to the	HFS volume.

       However,	if each	session	is created with	the -part  option,  then  each
       session	will appear as separate	volumes	when mounted on	a Mac. In this
       case, it	is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give  each  ses-
       sion  a	unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear	on the
       Desktop with the	same name.

       Symbolic	links (as with all other non-regular files) are	not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure	ISO9660	volumes	containing the
       same data. In some cases	(e.g. DVD sized	volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be  significantly larger. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the al-
       location	block size (the	smallest amount	of space a file	 can  occupy).
       For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation	block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will
       be about	70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -  although
       the real	limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting hybrid volume can	be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it  is set as locked.  The option -hfs-unlock will create an output im-
       age that	is unlocked - however no changes should	be made	 to  the  con-
       tents of	the volume (unless you really know what	you are	doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS	volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although	mkisofs	does not alter the contents of a  file,	 if  a	binary
       file  has it's TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on	a Mac-
       intosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media	containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat)	when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially	supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the	-boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create	HFS hybrid images over	4Gb,  although
       this has	not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui	interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	 is   available	  as   part   of  the  cdrecord	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils	from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree	 is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING	LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the	development of mkisofs,	and/or
       mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

		 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The	mail  address  of  the
       list is:

		 cdwrite@lists.debian.org

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly	found a	bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

Version	2.01			  14 Feb 2003			    MKISOFS(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HFS OPTIONS | CHARACTER SETS | HFS CREATOR/TYPE | HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS | HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES | HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS | HFS BOOT DRIVER | EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE | CONFIGURATION | EXAMPLES | AUTHOR | NOTES | BUGS | HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | MAINTAINER | HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=mkisofs&sektion=8&manpath=FreeBSD+8.1-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help