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MKISOFS(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  a  iso9660  filesystem with optional	Rock Ridge at-
       tributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ -a ] [	-abstract FILE ] [ -biblio FILE	] [ -b boot_image ]  [
       -c boot_catalog ] [ -copyright FILE ] [ -A application_id ] [ -f	] [ -d
       ] [ -D ]	[ -hide	glob ] [ -hide-joliet glob ] [ -J ] [ -l ] [  -L  ]  [
       -log-file  log_file ] [ -no-split-symlink-components ] [	-no-split-sym-
       link-fields ] [ -p preparer ] [ -print-size ] [ -P publisher ] [	-quiet
       ] [ -r ]	[ -R ] [ -sysid	ID ] [ -T ] [ -v ] [ -V	volid ]	[ -volset ID ]
       [ -volset-size #	] [ -volset-seqno # ] [	-x path	] [ -z ] [ -m  glob  ]
       -o filename pathspec [pathspec]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is effectively a pre-mastering program to generate the iso9660
       filesystem - it takes a snapshot	of a given directory tree, and	gener-
       ates a binary image which will correspond to an iso9660 filesystem when
       written to a block device.

       mkisofs is also capable of generating the System	Use  Sharing  Protocol
       records specified by the	Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This is used
       to further describe the files in	the iso9660 filesystem to a unix host,
       and  provides information such as longer	filenames, uid/gid, posix per-
       missions, and block and character devices.

       Each file written to the	iso9660	filesystem must	have a filename	in the
       8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even
       if Rock Ridge is	in use.	 This filename is used on systems that are not
       able  to	 make  use  of the Rock	Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in	each directory must be different from the other	 file-
       names  in  the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct
       names by	forcing	the unix filename to upper case	and truncating as  re-
       quired,	but  often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there
       are cases where the truncated names are not all	unique.	  mkisofs  as-
       signs  weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise
       the same	are found the name with	the lower priority is renamed to  have
       a  3 digit number as an extension (where	the number is guaranteed to be
       unique).	 An example of this would be the files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~
       -  the  file  foo.bar.~1~  would	 be  written as	FOO.000;1 and the file
       foo.bar would be	written	as FOO.BAR;1

       Note that mkisofs is not	designed to communicate	with  the  writer  di-
       rectly.	Most writers have proprietary command sets which vary from one
       manufacturer to another,	and you	need a specialized  tool  to  actually
       burn  the  disk.	  The cdwrite utility is one such tool that runs under
       Linux and performs this task.  The latest version of cdwrite is capable
       of communicating	with the Phillips/IMS/Kodak, HP	and Yamaha drives that
       have been manufactured before 1997.  Most writers come with  some  ver-
       sion  of	DOS software that allows a direct image	copy of	an iso9660 im-
       age to the writer.  The current version of cdwrite  is  available  from
       sunsite.unc.edu:	 /utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz  Note  that
       cdwrite has not been actively maintained	since 1995.

       The cdrecord utility is another utility capable of  burning  an	actual
       disc.	The   latest   version	 of   cdrecord	 is   available	  from
       ftp://ftp.fokus.gmd.de/pub/unix/cdrecord	Cdrecord is under constant de-
       velopment.

       Also  you  should  know	that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.	Once you start to burn a disc, you  cannot  let	 their	buffer
       empty  before  you  are	done,  or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that	you be able to maintain	an uninterrupted  data
       stream  to  the writer for the entire time that the disc	is being writ-
       ten.

       path is the path	of the directory tree to be copied  into  the  iso9660
       filesystem.   Multiple  paths  can be specified,	and mkisofs will merge
       the files found in all of the specified path  components	 to  form  the
       cdrom image.

       It  is possible to graft	the paths at points other than the root	direc-
       tory, and it is possible	to graft files or directories onto  the	 cdrom
       image  with  names different than what they have	in the source filesys-
       tem.  This is easiest to	illustrate with	a couple of examples.	 Let's
       start  by assuming that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to
       include it in the cdrom image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the	file old.lis in	the cdrom image	 at  /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories	as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist	on the
       cdrom image - the directories do	not need  to  appear  in  one  of  the
       paths.  Any directories that are	created	on the fly like	this will have
       permissions 0555	and appear to be owned by the person running  mkisofs.
       If  you	wish  other permissions	or owners of the intermediate directo-
       ries, the easiest solution is to	create real directories	 in  the  path
       such that mkisofs doesn't have to invent	them.

OPTIONS
       -a     Include  all  files  on  the iso9660 filesystem.	Normally files
	      that contain the characters '~' or  '#'  will  not  be  included
	      (these are typically backup files	for editors under unix).

       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies	 the  abstract	file name.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.  There	is space on the	disc for 128 characters	of in-
	      formation.  This parameter can also be set in the	file  .mkisof-
	      src with APPI=id.	 If specified in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies	the bibliographic file name.  This parameter can  also
	      be set in	the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified
	      in both places, the command line version is used.

       -b boot_image
	      Specifies	the path and filename of the boot  image  to  be  used
	      when  making  an	"El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
	      relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.	  This	option
	      is  required  to make a bootable CD.  The	boot image must	be ex-
	      actly the	size of	either a 1.2, 1.44, or a 2.88 meg floppy,  and
	      mkisofs  will  use  this	size  when creating the	output iso9660
	      filesystem. It is	assumed	that the first 512 byte	sector	should
	      be  read from the	boot image (it is essentially emulating	a nor-
	      mal floppy drive).  This will work, for example, if the boot im-
	      age is a LILO based boot floppy.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is needed when mkisofs is used to create the image
	      of a second session or a higher level session for	a  multi  ses-
	      sion  disk.  The option -C takes a pair of two numbers separated
	      by a comma. The first number is the sector number	of  the	 first
	      sector  in  the last session of the disk that should be appended
	      to.  The second number is	the starting sector number of the  new
	      session.	The expected pair of numbers may be retrieved by call-
	      ing cdrecord -msinfo ...	the -C option may only be uses in con-
	      junction with the	-M option.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path and filename	of the boot catalog to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the	source path specified to mkisofs.  This	option
	      is required to make a bootable CD.  This file will be created by
	      mkisofs in the source filesystem,	so be sure the specified file-
	      name does	not conflict with an existing file, as it will be qui-
	      etly overwritten!	Usually	a name like "boot.catalog" is chosen.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies	 the  Copyright	file name.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.  This
	      violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to	work  on  many
	      systems.	Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.  This violates the ISO9660 standard, but
	      it works on many systems.	 Use with caution.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the	filesystem.  When this
	      option is	not in use, symbolic links will	be entered using  Rock
	      Ridge if enabled,	otherwise the file will	be ignored.

       -hide glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge	direc-
	      tory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that  must	 match
	      any  part	of the filename	or path.  Multiple globs may be	hidden
	      (up to 1000).  If	glob matches a directory, then the contents of
	      that  directory will be hidden.  All the hidden files will still
	      be written to the	output CD image	file.  Should be used with the
	      -hide-joliet option.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
	      shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any	 part  of  the
	      filename	or  path.   Multiple globs may be hidden (up to	1000).
	      If glob matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory
	      will  be	hidden.	 All the hidden	files will still be written to
	      the output CD image file.	 Should	be used	with the -hide option.

       -l     Allow full 32 character filenames.  Normally the	ISO9660	 file-
	      name  will  be in	an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
	      even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames	of  up	to  32
	      characters.   If	you use	this option, the disc may be difficult
	      to use on	a MS-DOS system, but this comes	in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use	with caution.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory	records	in addition to regular iso9660
	      file names.  This	is primarily useful when the discs are	to  be
	      used  on	Windows-NT  or Windows-95 machines.   The Joliet file-
	      names are	specified in Unicode and each path component can be up
	      to 64 Unicode characters long.

       -L     Allow  filenames to begin	with a period.	Usually, a leading dot
	      is replaced with an underscore in	order to maintain MS-DOS  com-
	      patibility.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from	being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path as with option -x).	Technically glob  is  matched  against
	      the  d-_d_name  part of the directory entry.  Multiple globs may
	      be excluded (up to 1000).	 Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m	'*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all	files ending in	".o", called "core"  or	 "foo-
	      bar"  to	be  copied  to CDROM. Note that	if you had a directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all	its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing.  A file is exluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      Specifies	path to	existing iso9660 image to be merged.  The  al-
	      ternate  form  takes  a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
	      syntax as	the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of the
	      image specified in -M.  Typically	 this  requires	 multi-session
	      capability  for  the  recorder  and cdrom	drive that you are at-
	      tempting to write	this image to.	This option may	only  be  used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit  version numbers from ISO9660 file names.  This may violate
	      the ISO9660 standard, but	no one really uses the version numbers
	      anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space,	but  the  SunOS	 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in	reading	split SL components (link_size
	      =	component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a	bug in reading split SL	fields
	      (a `/' can be dropped).

       -o filename
	      is  the  name  of	the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image
	      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can  correspond  directly	to the device name of the optical disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output
	      can  also	be a block special device for a	regular	disk drive, in
	      which case the disk partition can	be mounted and examined	to en-
	      sure that	the premastering was done correctly.

       -P publisher_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	publisher of the  CDROM,  usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the disc for 128 characters of information.  This	parameter  can
	      also  be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	preparer of the	CDROM, usually
	      with a mailing address and phone number.	There is space on  the
	      disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can also
	      be set in	the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.	 If specified in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated filesystem size and exit. This option is	needed
	      for Disk At Once mode and	with some CD-R drives when piping  di-
	      rectly  into  cdrecord.	In  this case it is needed to know the
	      size of the filesustem before the	actual	CD-creation  is	 done.
	      The  option -print-size allows to	get this size from a "dry-run"
	      before the CD is actually	written.

       -R     Generate SUSP and	RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
	      further describe the files on the	iso9660	filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they  are	 usually  only	useful on the author's system, and not
	      useful to	the client.  All the file read bits are	set  true,  so
	      that  files and directories are globally readable	on the client.
	      If any execute bit is set	for a file, set	 all  of  the  execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If any search bit	is set for a directory,	set all	of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All write	bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will  be  mounted
	      read-only	in any case.  If any of	the special mode bits are set,
	      clear them, because file locks are not  useful  on  a  read-only
	      file  system, and	set-id bits are	not desirable for uid 0	or gid
	      0.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	the system ID.	This parameter can also	be set in  the
	      file  .mkisofsrc	with  SYSI=system_id.	If  specified  in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL	in each	directory on the CDROM,	 which
	      can  be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to	help establish
	      the correct file names.  There is	also  information  present  in
	      the  file	 that  indicates the major and minor numbers for block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	 the  volume  ID  to be	written	into the master	block.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      VOLI=id.	 If specified in both places, the command line version
	      is used.	Note that if you assign	a volume ID, this is the  name
	      that  will be used as the	mount point used by the	Solaris	volume
	      management system	and the	name that is assigned to the disc on a
	      Windows or Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	 the volset ID.	 This parameter	can also be set	in the
	      file .mkisofsrc  with  VOLS=volset_id.   If  specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the	volume set size	to #.  The volume set size is the num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a	CD set.	 The -volset-size  option  may
	      be  used to create CD's that are part of e.g. a Operation	System
	      installation set of CD's.	 The option -volset-size must be spec-
	      ified before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the	 volume	 set sequence number to	#.  The	volume set se-
	      quence number is the index number	of the current CD in a CD set.
	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from	being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete  pathname  that  results  from  concatenating the pathname
	      given as command line argument and the path relative to this di-
	      rectory.	Multiple paths may be excluded (up to 1000).  Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing.  A file is exluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -z     Generate	special	 SUSP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.   This is only of use and interest	for hosts that support
	      transparent decompression.  This is an experimental feature, and
	      no hosts yet support this, but there are ALPHA patches for Linux
	      that can make use	of this	feature.

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc	file, first in the current working di-
       rectory,	 then  in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which	the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a  series of lines of the form TAG=value, and in	this way you can spec-
       ify certain options.  The case of the tag  is  not  significant.	  Some
       fields  in  the volume header are not settable on the command line, but
       can be altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed  in  this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The  application identifier should describe the application that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of	information.   May  be overridden using	the -A command
	      line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name	of a file on the  disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of	information.   May  be	overridden  using  the
	      -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract  information, often	the name of a file on the disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is	space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters  of  information.	 May be	overridden using the -abstract
	      command line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic	information, often the name of a file  on  the
	      disc  containing a bibliography.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of	information.   May  be	overridden  using  the
	      -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This  should  describe the preparer of the CDROM,	usually	with a
	      mailing address and phone	number.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
	      -p command line option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the	CDROM, usually with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
	      -P command line option.

       SYSI   The  System Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the -sysid  com-
	      mand line	option.

       VOLI   The  Volume Identifier.  There is	space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of	information.  May be overridden	using the  -V  command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters of information.  May	be overridden using the	 -volset  com-
	      mand line	option.

       mkisofs	can  also be configured	at compile time	with defaults for many
       of these	fields.	 See the file defaults.h.

AUTHOR
       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools	for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a complete  copy	of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  iso9660 filesystem.	 The name mkisofs is probably a	bit of a  mis-
       nomer,  since it	not only creates the filesystem, but it	also populates
       it as well.

       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or	 <eric@andante.jic.com>	 wrote
       both  the  Linux	 isofs9660  filesystem and the mkisofs utility,	and is
       currently maintaining them.  The	copyright for the mkisofs  utility  is
       held by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.

BUGS
       Any files that have hard	links to files not in the tree being copied to
       the iso9660 filessytem will have	an incorrect file reference count.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui	interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	is  available  for  anonymous  ftp  from   tsx-11.mit.edu   in
       /pub/linux/packages/mkisofs and many other mirror sites.

Version	1.12b5			  17 Feb 1998			    MKISOFS(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CONFIGURATION | AUTHOR | BUGS | FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS | AVAILABILITY

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