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mkfs.xfs(8)		    System Manager's Manual		   mkfs.xfs(8)

NAME
       mkfs.xfs	- construct an XFS filesystem

SYNOPSIS
       mkfs.xfs	 [  -b	block_size  ]  [  -m  global_metadata_options  ]  [ -d
       data_section_options ] [	-f ] [ -i inode_options	] [ -l log_section_op-
       tions  ]	 [  -n	naming_options	]  [  -p protofile ] [ -q ] [ -r real-
       time_section_options ] [	-s sector_size ] [ -L label ] [	-N ]  [	 -K  ]
       device
       mkfs.xfs	-V

DESCRIPTION
       mkfs.xfs	 constructs an XFS filesystem by writing on a special file us-
       ing the values found in the arguments of	the command line.  It  is  in-
       voked automatically by mkfs(8) when it is given the -t xfs option.

       In its simplest (and most commonly used form), the size of the filesys-
       tem is determined from the disk driver.	 As  an	 example,  to  make  a
       filesystem  with	 an  internal  log on the first	partition on the first
       SCSI disk, use:

	      mkfs.xfs /dev/sda1

       The metadata log	can be placed on another device	to reduce  the	number
       of  disk	 seeks.	  To create a filesystem on the	first partition	on the
       first SCSI disk with a 10000 block log located on the  first  partition
       on the second SCSI disk,	use:

	      mkfs.xfs -l logdev=/dev/sdb1,size=10000b /dev/sda1

       Each  of	the option elements in the argument list above can be given as
       multiple	comma-separated	suboptions if multiple suboptions apply	to the
       same  option.   Equivalently,  each  main  option can be	given multiple
       times with different suboptions.	 For example, -l  internal,size=10000b
       and -l internal -l size=10000b are equivalent.

       In  the	descriptions below, sizes are given in sectors,	bytes, blocks,
       kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes,	etc.  Sizes are	treated	as hexadecimal
       if  prefixed by 0x or 0X, octal if prefixed by 0, or decimal otherwise.
       The following lists possible multiplication suffixes:
	      s	- multiply by sector size (default = 512, see  -s  option  be-
		     low).
	      b	- multiply  by filesystem block	size (default =	4K, see	-b op-
		     tion below).
	      k	- multiply by one kilobyte (1,024 bytes).
	      m	- multiply by one megabyte (1,048,576 bytes).
	      g	- multiply by one gigabyte (1,073,741,824 bytes).
	      t	- multiply by one terabyte (1,099,511,627,776 bytes).
	      p	- multiply by one petabyte (1,024 terabytes).
	      e	- multiply by one exabyte (1,048,576 terabytes).

OPTIONS
       -b block_size_options
	      This option specifies the	fundamental block size of the filesys-
	      tem.   The valid block_size_options are: log=value or size=value
	      and only one can be supplied.  The block size is	specified  ei-
	      ther  as	a base two logarithm value with	log=, or in bytes with
	      size=.  The default value	is 4096	bytes (4 KiB), the minimum  is
	      512,  and	the maximum is 65536 (64 KiB).	XFS on Linux currently
	      only supports pagesize or	smaller	blocks.

       -m global_metadata_options
	      These options specify metadata format options that either	 apply
	      to  the  entire  filesystem  or aren't easily characterised by a
	      specific functionality group. The	valid  global_metadata_options
	      are:

		   crc=value
			  This	is used	to create a filesystem which maintains
			  and checks CRC information in	all  metadata  objects
			  on  disk.  The value is either 0 to disable the fea-
			  ture,	or 1 to	enable the use of CRCs.

			  CRCs enable enhanced error detection due to hardware
			  issues,  whilst  the	format	changes	 also improves
			  crash	recovery algorithms and	the ability of various
			  tools	 to  validate  and repair metadata corruptions
			  when they are	found.	 The  CRC  algorithm  used  is
			  CRC32c,  so  the overhead is dependent on CPU	archi-
			  tecture as some CPUs have hardware  acceleration  of
			  this algorithm.  Typically the overhead of calculat-
			  ing and checking the CRCs is not noticable in	normal
			  operation.

			  By default, mkfs.xfs will enable metadata CRCs.

		   finobt=value
			  This option enables the use of a separate free inode
			  btree	index in each allocation group.	The  value  is
			  either  0  to	 disable the feature, or 1 to create a
			  free inode btree in each allocation group.

			  The free inode btree mirrors the existing  allocated
			  inode	 btree	index which indexes both used and free
			  inodes. The free inode btree does not	index used in-
			  odes,	allowing faster, more consistent inode alloca-
			  tion performance as filesystems age.

			  By default, mkfs.xfs will create free	 inode	btrees
			  for  filesystems created with	the (default) -m crc=1
			  option set. When the option -m crc=0	is  used,  the
			  free	inode  btree  feature  is not supported	and is
			  disabled.

       -d data_section_options
	      These options specify the	location, size,	and  other  parameters
	      of  the  data  section  of  the  filesystem. The valid data_sec-
	      tion_options are:

		   agcount=value
			  This is used to specify  the	number	of  allocation
			  groups.  The	data  section of the filesystem	is di-
			  vided	into allocation	groups to improve the  perfor-
			  mance	of XFS.	More allocation	groups imply that more
			  parallelism can be achieved when  allocating	blocks
			  and  inodes. The minimum allocation group size is 16
			  MiB; the maximum size	is just	under 1	TiB.  The data
			  section  of the filesystem is	divided	into value al-
			  location groups (default value is  scaled  automati-
			  cally	based on the underlying	device size).

		   agsize=value
			  This	is  an alternative to using the	agcount	subop-
			  tion.	The value is the desired size of  the  alloca-
			  tion	group  expressed in bytes (usually using the m
			  or g suffixes).  This	value must be  a  multiple  of
			  the  filesystem  block  size,	 and  must be at least
			  16MiB, and no	more than 1TiB,	and may	 be  automati-
			  cally	adjusted to properly align with	the stripe ge-
			  ometry.  The agcount and agsize suboptions are mutu-
			  ally exclusive.

		   name=value
			  This	can be used to specify the name	of the special
			  file containing the filesystem. In  this  case,  the
			  log  section	must  be specified as internal (with a
			  size,	see the	-l option below) and there can	be  no
			  real-time section.

		   file[=value]
			  This	is  used to specify that the file given	by the
			  name suboption is a regular file. The	value  is  ei-
			  ther 0 or 1, with 1 signifying that the file is reg-
			  ular.	This suboption is used only to make a filesys-
			  tem  image.  If  the	value is omitted then 1	is as-
			  sumed.

		   size=value
			  This is used to specify the size of  the  data  sec-
			  tion.	 This  suboption is required if	-d file[=1] is
			  given. Otherwise, it is only needed if the  filesys-
			  tem  should  occupy  less space than the size	of the
			  special file.

		   sunit=value
			  This is used to specify the stripe unit for  a  RAID
			  device  or  a	 logical  volume.  The value has to be
			  specified in 512-byte	block units. Use the su	subop-
			  tion	to specify the stripe unit size	in bytes. This
			  suboption ensures  that  data	 allocations  will  be
			  stripe  unit aligned when the	current	end of file is
			  being	extended and the  file	size  is  larger  than
			  512KiB.  Also	inode allocations and the internal log
			  will be stripe unit aligned.

		   su=value
			  This is an alternative to using sunit.  The su  sub-
			  option is used to specify the	stripe unit for	a RAID
			  device or a striped logical volume. The value	has to
			  be  specified	 in  bytes,  (usually using the	m or g
			  suffixes). This value	must  be  a  multiple  of  the
			  filesystem block size.

		   swidth=value
			  This	is used	to specify the stripe width for	a RAID
			  device or a striped logical volume. The value	has to
			  be  specified	 in  512-byte  block units. Use	the sw
			  suboption to specify the stripe width	size in	bytes.
			  This	suboption  is  required	 if  -d	sunit has been
			  specified and	it has to be  a	 multiple  of  the  -d
			  sunit	suboption.

		   sw=value
			  suboption is an alternative to using swidth.	The sw
			  suboption is used to specify the stripe width	for  a
			  RAID	device or striped logical volume. The value is
			  expressed as a multiplier of the stripe  unit,  usu-
			  ally the same	as the number of stripe	members	in the
			  logical volume configuration,	or  data  disks	 in  a
			  RAID device.

			  When a filesystem is created on a logical volume de-
			  vice,	mkfs.xfs will automatically query the  logical
			  volume for appropriate sunit and swidth values.

		   noalign
			  This	option	disables  automatic geometry detection
			  and creates the filesystem without  stripe  geometry
			  alignment even if the	underlying storage device pro-
			  vides	this information.

       -f     Force overwrite when an existing filesystem is detected  on  the
	      device.  By default, mkfs.xfs will not write to the device if it
	      suspects that there is a filesystem or partition	table  on  the
	      device already.

       -i inode_options
	      This  option  specifies  the  inode  size	of the filesystem, and
	      other inode allocation parameters.  The  XFS  inode  contains  a
	      fixed-size  part	and  a	variable-size part.  The variable-size
	      part, whose size is affected by this option, can contain:	direc-
	      tory  data, for small directories; attribute data, for small at-
	      tribute sets; symbolic link data,	for small symbolic links;  the
	      extent  list  for	the file, for files with a small number	of ex-
	      tents; and the root of a tree describing the location of extents
	      for the file, for	files with a large number of extents.

	      The valid	inode_options are:

		   size=value |	log=value | perblock=value
			  The  inode  size  is	specified either as a value in
			  bytes	with size=, a base two	logarithm  value  with
			  log=,	or as the number fitting in a filesystem block
			  with perblock=.  The minimum (and default) value  is
			  256  bytes.	The maximum value is 2048 (2 KiB) sub-
			  ject to the restriction that the inode  size	cannot
			  exceed one half of the filesystem block size.

			  XFS  uses  64-bit inode numbers internally; however,
			  the number of	significant bits in an inode number is
			  affected   by	 filesystem  geometry.	 In  practice,
			  filesystem size and inode size are  the  predominant
			  factors.  The	Linux kernel (on 32 bit	hardware plat-
			  forms) and most applications cannot currently	handle
			  inode	 numbers  greater than 32 significant bits, so
			  if no	inode size  is	given  on  the	command	 line,
			  mkfs.xfs will	attempt	to choose a size such that in-
			  ode numbers will be <	32 bits.  If an	inode size  is
			  specified, or	if a filesystem	is sufficiently	large,
			  mkfs.xfs will	warn if	this will create inode numbers
			  > 32 significant bits.

		   maxpct=value
			  This	specifies  the	maximum	percentage of space in
			  the filesystem that can be allocated to inodes.  The
			  default  value  is 25% for filesystems under 1TB, 5%
			  for filesystems under	50TB and  1%  for  filesystems
			  over 50TB.

			  In  the  default inode allocation mode, inode	blocks
			  are chosen such that inode numbers will  not	exceed
			  32  bits,  which  restricts  the inode blocks	to the
			  lower	portion	of the filesystem. The data block  al-
			  locator  will	 avoid these low blocks	to accommodate
			  the specified	maxpct,	so a high value	may result  in
			  a  filesystem	 with nothing but inodes in a signifi-
			  cant portion of the lower blocks of the  filesystem.
			  (This	restriction is not present when	the filesystem
			  is mounted with the inode64 option on	 64-bit	 plat-
			  forms).

			  Setting the value to 0 means that essentially	all of
			  the filesystem can become inode blocks,  subject  to
			  inode32 restrictions.

			  This value can be modified with xfs_growfs(8).

		   align[=value]
			  This	is used	to specify that	inode allocation is or
			  is not aligned. The value is either 0	or 1,  with  1
			  signifying  that  inodes  are	allocated aligned.  If
			  the value is omitted,	1 is assumed. The  default  is
			  that	inodes	are  aligned.  Aligned inode access is
			  normally  more  efficient  than  unaligned   access;
			  alignment  must  be  established  at	the  time  the
			  filesystem is	created, since inodes are allocated at
			  that	time.  This option can be used to turn off in-
			  ode alignment	when the filesystem needs to be	mount-
			  able by a version of IRIX that does not have the in-
			  ode alignment	feature	(any release  of  IRIX	before
			  6.2, and IRIX	6.2 without XFS	patches).

		   attr=value
			  This	is used	to specify the version of extended at-
			  tribute inline allocation policy to be used.	By de-
			  fault,  this is 2, which uses	an efficient algorithm
			  for managing the available inline  inode  space  be-
			  tween	attribute and extent data.

			  The  previous	version	1, which has fixed regions for
			  attribute and	extent data,  is  kept	for  backwards
			  compatibility	  with	 kernels  older	 than  version
			  2.6.16.

		   projid32bit[=value]
			  This is used to enable 32bit quota  project  identi-
			  fiers. The value is either 0 or 1, with 1 signifying
			  that 32bit projid are	to be enabled.	If  the	 value
			  is  omitted, 1 is assumed.  (This default changed in
			  release version 3.2.0.)

       -l log_section_options
	      These options specify the	location, size,	and  other  parameters
	      of  the log section of the filesystem. The valid log_section_op-
	      tions are:

		   internal[=value]
			  This is used to specify that the log	section	 is  a
			  piece	 of  the data section instead of being another
			  device or logical volume. The	value is either	 0  or
			  1,  with  1  signifying that the log is internal. If
			  the value is omitted,	1 is assumed.

		   logdev=device
			  This is used to specify that the log section	should
			  reside on the	device separate	from the data section.
			  The internal=1 and logdev options are	 mutually  ex-
			  clusive.

		   size=value
			  This is used to specify the size of the log section.

			  If  the log is contained within the data section and
			  size isn't specified,	mkfs.xfs will try to select  a
			  suitable  log	 size  depending  on  the  size	of the
			  filesystem.	The  actual  logsize  depends  on  the
			  filesystem block size	and the	directory block	size.

			  Otherwise,  the size suboption is only needed	if the
			  log section of the  filesystem  should  occupy  less
			  space	 than  the size	of the special file. The value
			  is specified in bytes	or blocks,  with  a  b	suffix
			  meaning multiplication by the	filesystem block size,
			  as described above. The overriding minimum value for
			  size	is  512	 blocks.   With	 some  combinations of
			  filesystem block size,  inode	 size,	and  directory
			  block	 size, the minimum log size is larger than 512
			  blocks.

		   version=value
			  This specifies the version of	the log.  The  current
			  default  is  2,  which  allows for larger log	buffer
			  sizes, as  well  as  supporting  stripe-aligned  log
			  writes (see the sunit	and su options,	below).

			  The  previous	version	1, which is limited to 32k log
			  buffers and does not support stripe-aligned  writes,
			  is  kept  for	 backwards compatibility with very old
			  2.4 kernels.

		   sunit=value
			  This specifies the alignment	to  be	used  for  log
			  writes.  The	value  has to be specified in 512-byte
			  block	units. Use the su suboption to specify the log
			  stripe  unit	size  in  bytes.   Log	writes will be
			  aligned on this boundary, and	 rounded  up  to  this
			  boundary.   This gives major improvements in perfor-
			  mance	on some	configurations such as software	 RAID5
			  when	the sunit is specified as the filesystem block
			  size.	 The equivalent	byte value must	be a  multiple
			  of the filesystem block size.	Version	2 logs are au-
			  tomatically selected if the log sunit	 suboption  is
			  specified.

			  The su suboption is an alternative to	using sunit.

		   su=value
			  This	is  used  to specify the log stripe. The value
			  has to be specified in bytes,	(usually using	the  s
			  or b suffixes). This value must be a multiple	of the
			  filesystem block size.  Version 2 logs are automati-
			  cally	selected if the	log su suboption is specified.

		   lazy-count=value
			  This	changes	 the method of logging various persis-
			  tent counters	in the superblock.  Under metadata in-
			  tensive  workloads,  these  counters are updated and
			  logged frequently enough that	the superblock updates
			  become  a serialization point	in the filesystem. The
			  value	can be either 0	or 1.

			  With lazy-count=1, the superblock is not modified or
			  logged  on  every change of the persistent counters.
			  Instead, enough information is kept in  other	 parts
			  of the filesystem to be able to maintain the persis-
			  tent counter values without needed to	keep  them  in
			  the superblock.  This	gives significant improvements
			  in performance on some configurations.  The  default
			  value	 is 1 (on) so you must specify lazy-count=0 if
			  you want to disable this feature for	older  kernels
			  which	don't support it.

       -n naming_options
	      These  options  specify  the version and size parameters for the
	      naming (directory) area of the filesystem. The valid  naming_op-
	      tions are:

		   size=value |	log=value
			  The  block  size  is	specified either as a value in
			  bytes	with size=, or as a base two  logarithm	 value
			  with	log=.  The block size must be a	power of 2 and
			  cannot be less than the filesystem block size.   The
			  default size value for version 2 directories is 4096
			  bytes	(4 KiB), unless	the filesystem block  size  is
			  larger than 4096, in which case the default value is
			  the filesystem block size.  For version  1  directo-
			  ries	the  block  size is the	same as	the filesystem
			  block	size.

		   version=value
			  The naming (directory) version value can be either 2
			  or  'ci', defaulting to 2 if unspecified.  With ver-
			  sion 2 directories, the directory block size can  be
			  any  power  of 2 size	from the filesystem block size
			  up to	65536.

			  The version=ci option	enables	ASCII only case-insen-
			  sitive  filename  lookup  and	version	2 directories.
			  Filenames are	case-preserving, that  is,  the	 names
			  are  stored  in directories using the	case they were
			  created with.

			  Note:	Version	1 directories are not supported.

		   ftype=value
			  This feature allows the inode	type to	be  stored  in
			  the  directory  structure so that the	readdir(3) and
			  getdents(2) do not need to look up the inode to  de-
			  termine the inode type.

			  The  value is	either 0 or 1, with 1 signifiying that
			  filetype information will be stored in the directory
			  structure. The default value is 0.

			  When	CRCs are enabled via -m	crc=1, the ftype func-
			  tionality is always enabled. This feature can	not be
			  turned off for such filesystem configurations.

       -p protofile
	      If  the  optional	 -p protofile argument is given, mkfs.xfs uses
	      protofile	as a prototype file and	takes its directions from that
	      file.   The  blocks  and	inodes specifiers in the protofile are
	      provided for backwards compatibility, but	are otherwise  unused.
	      The  syntax  of  the  protofile is defined by a number of	tokens
	      separated	by spaces or newlines. Note that the line numbers  are
	      not  part	of the syntax but are meant to help you	in the follow-
	      ing discussion of	the file contents.

		   1	   /stand/diskboot
		   2	   4872	110
		   3	   d--777 3 1
		   4	   usr	   d--777 3 1
		   5	   sh	   ---755 3 1 /bin/sh
		   6	   ken	   d--755 6 1
		   7		   $
		   8	   b0	   b--644 3 1 0	0
		   9	   c0	   c--644 3 1 0	0
		   10	   fifo	   p--644 3 1
		   11	   slink   l--644 3 1 /a/symbolic/link
		   12	   :  This is a	comment	line
		   13	   $
		   14	   $

	      Line 1 is	a dummy	string.	 (It was formerly  the	bootfilename.)
	      It  is  present  for backward compatibility; boot	blocks are not
	      used on SGI systems.

	      Note that	some string of characters must be present as the first
	      line  of	the proto file to cause	it to be parsed	correctly; the
	      value of this string is immaterial since it is ignored.

	      Line 2 contains two numeric  values  (formerly  the  numbers  of
	      blocks and inodes).  These are also merely for backward compati-
	      bility: two numeric values must appear at	 this  point  for  the
	      proto  file to be	correctly parsed, but their values are immate-
	      rial since they are ignored.

	      The lines	3 through 11 specify the  files	 and  directories  you
	      want  to include in this filesystem. Line	3 defines the root di-
	      rectory. Other directories  and  files  that  you	 want  in  the
	      filesystem  are  indicated  by  lines  4	through	 6 and lines 8
	      through 10. Line 11 contains symbolic link syntax.

	      Notice the dollar	sign ($) syntax	on line	7. This	syntax directs
	      the  mkfs.xfs  command to	terminate the branch of	the filesystem
	      it is currently on and then continue from	the  directory	speci-
	      fied by the next line, in	this case line 8.  It must be the last
	      character	on a line.  The	colon on line 12 introduces a comment;
	      all characters up	until the following newline are	ignored.  Note
	      that this	means you cannot have a	file in	a prototype file whose
	      name  contains  a	 colon.	  The  $  on  lines  13	and 14 end the
	      process, since no	additional specifications follow.

	      File specifications provide the following:

		* file mode
		* user ID
		* group	ID
		* the file's beginning contents

	      A	6-character string defines the mode  for  a  file.  The	 first
	      character	 of  this  string defines the file type. The character
	      range for	this first character is	-bcdpl.	 A file	may be a regu-
	      lar file,	a block	special	file, a	character special file,	direc-
	      tory files, named	pipes (first-in, first out  files),  and  sym-
	      bolic links.  The	second character of the	mode string is used to
	      specify setuserID	mode, in which case it	is  u.	 If  setuserID
	      mode  is	not  specified,	 the second character is -.  The third
	      character	of the mode string is used to specify  the  setgroupID
	      mode,  in	 which case it is g.  If setgroupID mode is not	speci-
	      fied, the	third character	is -.  The remaining characters	of the
	      mode  string  are	 a three digit octal number. This octal	number
	      defines the owner, group,	and other  read,  write,  and  execute
	      permissions for the file,	respectively.  For more	information on
	      file permissions,	see the	chmod(1) command.

	      Following	the mode character string are two decimal  number  to-
	      kens that	specify	the user and group IDs of the file's owner.

	      In  a  regular  file, the	next token specifies the pathname from
	      which the	contents and size of the file are copied.  In a	 block
	      or  character  special file, the next token are two decimal num-
	      bers that	specify	the major and minor device  numbers.   When  a
	      file  is	a symbolic link, the next token	specifies the contents
	      of the link.

	      When the file is a directory, the	mkfs.xfs command  creates  the
	      entries  dot  (.)	 and  dot-dot  (..) and	then reads the list of
	      names and	file specifications in a recursive manner for  all  of
	      the  entries in the directory. A scan of the protofile is	always
	      terminated with the dollar ( $ ) token.

       -q     Quiet option. Normally mkfs.xfs prints  the  parameters  of  the
	      filesystem to be constructed; the	-q flag	suppresses this.

       -r realtime_section_options
	      These  options  specify the location, size, and other parameters
	      of the real-time section of  the	filesystem.  The  valid	 real-
	      time_section_options are:

		   rtdev=device
			  This is used to specify the device which should con-
			  tain the real-time section of	the  filesystem.   The
			  suboption value is the name of a block device.

		   extsize=value
			  This	is  used  to specify the size of the blocks in
			  the real-time	section	of the filesystem. This	 value
			  must be a multiple of	the filesystem block size. The
			  minimum allowed size is the filesystem block size or
			  4 KiB	(whichever is larger); the default size	is the
			  stripe width for striped volumes or 64 KiB for  non-
			  striped  volumes; the	maximum	allowed	size is	1 GiB.
			  The real-time	extent size should be carefully	chosen
			  to match the parameters of the physical media	used.

		   size=value
			  This	is  used  to specify the size of the real-time
			  section.  This suboption is only needed if the real-
			  time	section	 of  the filesystem should occupy less
			  space	than the size of the partition or logical vol-
			  ume containing the section.

		   noalign
			  This	option disables	stripe size detection, enforc-
			  ing a	realtime device	with no	stripe geometry.

       -s sector_size
	      This  option  specifies  the  fundamental	 sector	 size  of  the
	      filesystem.   The	 sector_size is	specified either as a value in
	      bytes with size=value or as a  base  two	logarithm  value  with
	      log=value.   The	default	 sector_size is	512 bytes. The minimum
	      value for	sector size is 512; the	maximum	is 32768 (32 KiB). The
	      sector_size  must	be a power of 2	size and cannot	be made	larger
	      than the filesystem block	size.

       -L label
	      Set the filesystem label.	 XFS filesystem	labels can be at  most
	      12  characters  long;  if	 label	is  longer than	12 characters,
	      mkfs.xfs will not	proceed	with creating the  filesystem.	 Refer
	      to  the  mount(8)	and xfs_admin(8) manual	entries	for additional
	      information.

       -N     Causes the file system parameters	to be printed out without  re-
	      ally creating the	file system.

       -K     Do not attempt to	discard	blocks at mkfs time.

       -V     Prints the version number	and exits.

SEE ALSO
       xfs(5), mkfs(8),	mount(8), xfs_info(8), xfs_admin(8).

BUGS
       With a prototype	file, it is not	possible to specify hard links.

								   mkfs.xfs(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SEE ALSO | BUGS

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