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mined(1)		      Unicode text editor		      mined(1)

NAME
       MinEd - powerful	text editor with extensive Unicode and CJK support

SYNTAX
       mined [ -/+options ] [ +line ] [	+/search ] [ files ... ]

       xmined ...
       umined ...

       wined ...

       minmacs ...
       mstar ...
       mpico ...

       ->NEW->	Note: Mined suppresses backup file names from the command line
       file list if they appear	after their base version name as generated  by
       command	line  auto-completion,	in  order  to prevent their accidental
       editing;	thus after file	name "x" the following would be	excluded  from
       the  file  list	(where	N is a number):	"x~", "x;N", "x.~N~", so that,
       e.g., mined x* edits x and x1 but not x~.

DESCRIPTION
       (Note: if there is no dotted line below,	use 8 bit terminal environment
       for proper display of manual page.)
       ......................................................

       Mined is	a text editor with

	Security and safety features
	      o	     ->NEW->  Transparent  editing  of	encrypted files, using
		     filters configurable by file type

	      o	     Systematic	text and file handling safety,	avoiding  loss
		     of	data

	      o	     Backup features, supporting simple	or versioned backup

	      o	     Hard link preservation

	      o	     Optional password hiding

	Interactive features
	      o	     Intuitive user interface

	      o	     Logical  and consistent concept of	navigating and editing
		     text (without ancient line-end  handling  limitations  or
		     insert/append confusion)

	      o	     Supports various control styles:

		     o	    Editing  with  command  control, function key con-
			    trol, or menu control

		     o	    Navigation by cursor keys, control keys, mouse  or
			    scrollbar

	      o	     Concise  and  comprehensive  menus	(driven	by keyboard or
		     mouse)

	      o	     HOP key paradigm doubles the number of  navigation	 func-
		     tions  that  can be most easily reached and remembered by
		     intuitively amplifying or expanding the associated	 func-
		     tion

	      o	     Interactive file chooser and interactive file switcher

	      o	     Proper  handling  of  window size changes in any state of
		     interaction

	Versatile character encoding support
	      o	     Extensive Unicode	support,  including  double-width  and
		     combining	characters, script highlighting, various meth-
		     ods of character input  support  (mapped  keyboard	 input
		     methods,  mnemonic	 and  numeric  input), supporting CJK,
		     Vietnamese, Hebrew, Arabic, and other scripts

	      o	     Character information from	recent Unicode version

	      o	     Extensive accented	 character  input  support,  including
		     multiple accent prefix keys

	      o	     Support for Greek (monotonic and polytonic)

	      o	     Support for Cyrillic accented characters

	      o	     Support of	bidirectional terminals

	      o	     Support of	Arabic ligature	joining	on all terminals

	      o	     East  Asian  character set	support: handling of major CJK
		     encodings (including GB18030 and JIS encodings with  com-
		     bining characters)

	      o	     Support  for a large number of 8 bit encodings (with com-
		     bining characters for Vietnamese, Thai, Arabic, Hebrew)

	      o	     Support of	CJK input methods by enhanced keyboard mapping
		     including	multiple  choice  mappings  (handled by	a pick
		     list menu); characters in the pick	list being  sorted  by
		     relevance of Unicode ranges

	      o	     Han character information with description	and pronuncia-
		     tion

	      o	     Auto-detection of text character  encoding,  edits	 files
		     with  mixed character encoding sections (e.g. mailboxes),
		     transparent handling and auto-detection of	UTF-16 encoded
		     files

	      o	     Auto-detection  of	 UTF-8 / CJK / 8 bit terminal mode and
		     detailed features (like different Unicode width and  com-
		     bining data versions)

	      o	     Comprehensive  and	 flexible (though standard-conformant)
		     set of mechanisms to specify both text and	 terminal  en-
		     codings with useful precedences

	      o	     Flexible combination of any text encoding with any	termi-
		     nal encoding

	      o	     Encoding support tested with: xterm,  mlterm,  rxvt,  cx-
		     term,  kterm, hanterm, KDE	konsole, gnome-terminal, Linux
		     console, cygwin console, mintty, PuTTY

	Text editing features
	      o	     Text layout features:

		     o	    Paragraph wrapping,	also justifying	item lists

		     o	    Auto-indentation  and   Undent   function	(smart
			    Backspace)

		     o	    Smart quotes (with quotation marks style selection
			    and	auto-detection)	and smart dashes

		     o	    ->NEW-> Advanced list support (bullet and numbered
			    lists)

	      o	     Search and	replacement patterns can have multiple lines

	      o	     Cross-session paste buffer	(copy/paste between multiple -
		     even subsequent or	remote - invocations of	mined)

	      o	     Optional Unicode paste buffer mode	with implicit  conver-
		     sion

	      o	     Marker stack for quick return to previous text positions

	      o	     Multiple paste buffers (emacs-style)

	      o	     Optional rectangular copy/paste area

	      o	     Interactive  selection  highlighting  (with mouse or key-
		     board selection), standard	dual-mode Del key behaviour

	      o	     Program editing features, HTML support and	 syntax	 high-
		     lighting, identifier and function definition search, also
		     across files; structure input support

	      o	     Visible indications of special text contents (TAB charac-
		     ters, different line-end types, character codes that can-
		     not be displayed in the current mode)

	      o	     Full binary transparent editing with visible  indications
		     (illegal  UTF-8 or	CJK, mixed line	end types, NUL charac-
		     ters, ...)

	      o	     Print function that works in all text encodings

	      o	     Optional emacs command mode

	Small-footprint	operation, portability and interworking
	      o	     Plain text	mode (terminal)	operation

	      o	     Optimized use of terminal features	for a  wide  range  of
		     terminals,	 including  large terminal support (2015x2015)
		     of	recent xterm and mintty

	      o	     Instant start-up

	      o	     Runs on many platforms (including legacy systems):	Linux,
		     Android,  Raspberry  Pi, Unix (SunOS, BSD,	Mac OS X, QNX,
		     GNU Hurd, HP-UX, IBM AIX,	Irix,  SCO  UnixWare,  Ultrix,
		     Tru64),  DOS  (djgpp),  Windows  (cygwin, Interix,	MSYS),
		     OpenVMS, Haiku

       This manual contains the	main topics

	      o	     Command line options

	      o	     Editing text with mined, an overview

		     o	    Keypad layout

		     o	    The	HOP function

		     o	    Mouse control and Menus

		     o	    Paste buffers

		     o	    Visual selection and Keypad	modes

		     o	    Rectangular	copy/paste

		     o	    Text position marker stack

		     o	    Paragraph justification

		     o	    Auto indentation and Structure input support

		     o	    List support (bullet and numbered lists)

		     o	    Search and replace multiple	lines

	      o	     Overview: input support features

	      o	     Handling files with mined

		     o	    Tags file support

		     o	    ->NEW-> Encrypted files

		     o	    Data safety	and security, ->NEW-> Backup  and  re-
			    covery files and File locking

		     o	    Line end modes and binary-transparent editing

		     o	    File  info:	 Memory	 of  file position and editing
			    style parameters

		     o	    ->NEW-> File chooser and File switcher

		     o	    Version control integration

		     o	    Printing

	      o	     Working with mined

		     o	    Quick Options (Mode	indication) flags

		     o	    Structured editing support

		     o	    Password hiding

		     o	    Visible indication of line contents
	      Language support

	      o	     Character handling	support

		     o	    Combining characters

		     o	    Character information display

		     o	    Character conversion features

		     o	    Smart quotes

	      o	     Character input support

		     o	    Accented and mnemonic input	support

		     o	    Combining character	input

		     o	    Special character input shortcuts

		     o	    Character input mnemonics

		     o	    Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods

	      o	     Character encoding	support

		     o	    Auto-detected character encodings

		     o	    CJK	and mapped 8 bit encoding support

		     o	    Combining characters

	      o	     Unicode support

		     o	    Character input support

		     o	    Encoding conversion	support

		     o	    Bidirectional terminal support

		     o	    Joining characters

	      o	     CJK support

		     o	    CJK	input method support

		     o	    Han	character information display

	      o	     Terminal encoding support Mined Command  reference	 (com-
		     mand and key function assignments)

		     o	    Generic command modifiers (esp. HOP	key)

		     o	    Cursor and screen motion

		     o	    Entering text

			    o	   Input support commands

		     o	    Modifying text

		     o	    Text block and buffer operations

		     o	    Search

		     o	    File operations

		     o	    Menu

		     o	    Miscellaneous

		     o	    MSDOS keyboard functions

		     o	    Emacs mode

		     o	    Windows keyboard mode

		     o	    WordStar mode

	      o	     Configuration of user preferences

	      o	     Environment interworking and configuration	hints

		     o	    Mined runtime support library

		     o	    PC versions

		     o	    VMS	version

		     o	    Android version

		     o	    Terminal environment

			    o	   Locale configuration

			    o	   PC terminals

			    o	   Terminal setup and configuration

			    o	   Terminal interworking problems

		     o	    Keyboard Mapping / Input Method preselection

		     o	    Smart Quotes style configuration

		     o	    Han	info configuration

		     o	    Common paste buffer	configuration

		     o	    Keypad configuration

		     o	    Printing configuration

		     o	    Mined configuration

	      o	     Environment variables

	      o	     Author and	Acknowledgements

       Interactive help	is available with F1.

Command	line options
       Mined can be invoked

	      o	     with or without list of file names

	      o	     reading from a pipe (reading text from standard input)

	      o	     writing into a pipe (writing edited text to standard out-
		     put)

	      o	     using a script that starts	it in a	new window

   Examples
       mined x
	      edits the	file x

       mined x y z
	      edits files x, y,	and z

       cmd | mined
	      edits the	output of program cmd; a file name for saving  can  be
	      given later

       mined x > y
	      takes the	contents of file x and edits it	for writing into y

       mined | mail nn
	      edits a text to be mailed

       cmd1 | mined | cmd2
	      modifies	text  within  a	pipe between program cmd1 (output) and
	      cmd2 (as input)

       minmacs ...
	      runs mined in emacs-compatible command mode (like	mined -e)

       mstar ...
	      runs mined in WordStar-compatible	command	mode (like mined -W)

       mpico ...
	      runs mined in pico-compatible command mode (alpha)

       xmined ...
	      starts a new terminal window (xterm or rxvt, depending  on  cur-
	      rent TERM	variable setting) and invokes mined in it

       umined ...
	      starts  a	 new terminal window in	UTF-8 mode (xterm or rxvt, de-
	      pending on font availability and usage capabilities) and invokes
	      mined in it

       wined ...
	      (in cygwin) starts mined in a window (using the mintty terminal,
	      applying Windows look-and-feel)

       wined.bat ...
	      (in Windows) starts mined	in a window,  using  Windows  keyboard
	      emulation	mode

   Startup options
       +number
	      Mined positions to the given line	number.

       +/expr Mined  initially	searches  for  the  given  search  expression.
	      ->NEW-> The search can be	repeated with F9.

       -v     Mined starts in view only	mode. The text cannot be modified.

       --     Restricted mode (tool mode): no other files  can	be  edited  or
	      otherwise	 affected.   (Also  triggered  if programm name	starts
	      with "r",	e.g. rmined).

       ++     End of options; subsequent file name can start with "-" or "+".

       +@     Apply extended grooming to file  info  file;  drop  entries  for
	      files  that  are	not accessible.	 See File info:	Memory of file
	      position and editing style parameters for	details.

   File	handling
       +x     Make new files executable	(Unix).	 When  cloning	a  file	 (with
	      Save  As or a similar feature), or if permissions	are restricted
	      by the environment (umask	setting	in Unix),  executable  permis-
	      sion is set only where also read permission is set.

       +bX    Select backup mode, where	X is one of:

	      o	     -:	no backup files

	      o	     s:	simple backup files (F~)

	      o	     e:	emacs style numbered backup files (F.~N~)

	      o	     v:	VMS style numbered backup files	(F;N)

	      o	     n:	numbered backup	files (whichever style occurs)

	      o	     a:	automatic backup files (whichever style	occurs)
       See Backup files	for details.

       +zX    Preselect	file chooser sort options, where X is one of:

	      o	     x:	sort by	file name extensions

	      o	     d:	list directories first

   Line	end handling (transparent and transforming)
       -r     Convert  MSDOS  line ends	(CR LF)	to Unix	line ends (LF) (strip-
	      ping CR at line ends).  Can be combined with  -R	or  +R.	  Also
	      sets  line  end  type  for new files to LF for the djgpp version
	      (which defaults to CR LF).

       +r     Convert Unix line	ends (LF) to MSDOS line	ends (CR  LF)  (adding
	      CR  at  line  ends).   Can be combined with -R or	+R.  Also sets
	      line end type for	new files to CR	LF.

       -R     Convert Mac line ends (CR) to Unix line ends (LF).  Can be  com-
	      bined with -r or +r.

       +R     Recognise	Mac line ends (CR) and indicate	them on	display; noth-
	      ing is transformed with this option.  Can	be combined with -r or
	      +r.

       +u-u   Interpret	Unicode	line separator and paragraph separator as nor-
	      mal characters, not line ends (handling them as  line  ends  was
	      previously enabled with -uu and is now on	by default).

   Character set and character handling
       -u   (character set)
	      Interprets  edited  text as UTF-8, disables UTF and CJK auto de-
	      tection.
	      Synonym of -EU.

       -l   (character set)
	      Interprets edited	text as	Latin-1, disables UTF and CJK auto de-
	      tection.
	      Synonym of -EL.

       +u-u (character handling)
	      Interpret	 text  as  UTF-8, but interpret	Unicode	line separator
	      and paragraph separator as normal	characters, not	line ends.

       -c   (character handling)
	      Selects separated	display	mode for combined characters (separat-
	      ing  base	 character  and	 combining characters).	 This mode can
	      also be toggled from the Options menu or by clicking on the Com-
	      bining  flag  (next to the character encoding flag) in the flags
	      area.

       -b   (character handling)
	      Toggle "poor man's bidi" mode: input support  for	 right-to-left
	      scripts,	based  on  Unicode script ranges.  (Enabled by default
	      unless the terminal is detected to be in bidi mode; so  e.g.  in
	      mlterm, poor man's bidi is disabled by default.)

       -EX  (character set)
	      Where  X	is  one	of B/G/C/J/S/K/H: Selects one of the supported
	      CJK character encodings for  text	 interpretation	 and  disables
	      auto-detection  of CJK encodings.	 For details, see CJK encoding
	      support.	For more details on supported encodings, see the Char-
	      acter  encoding flags listing in the Quick Options (Mode indica-
	      tion) flags section.

       -EX  (character set)
	      Where X is one of	U/L or	another	 1-letter  character  encoding
	      tag:  Selects  Unicode/UTF-8,  Latin-1, or one of	the other sup-
	      ported character encodings for text interpretation.  For details
	      on  supported encodings, see the Quick Options (Mode indication)
	      flags listing.

       -E=charmap     (character set)
	      Where charmap is a character encoding name (as reported  by  the
	      locale charmap command): Selects the respective character	encod-
	      ing for text  interpretation.   For  details  on	locale-related
	      character	encoding configuration,	see Locale configuration.

       -E.suffix (character set)
	      Where  suffix is a character encoding suffix ("codeset") as used
	      in locale	names: Selects the respective character	 encoding  for
	      text  interpretation.   For  details on locale-related character
	      encoding configuration, see Locale configuration.

       -E:flag	 (character set)
	      Where flag is a 2-letter indication used by  mined  to  indicate
	      the  respective  text encoding in	the Encoding flag: Selects the
	      respective character encoding for	text interpretation.  For  de-
	      tails  on	supported encodings and	their flags, see the Quick Op-
	      tions (Mode indication) flags listing.

       -Eu  (buffer encoding)
	      Enables  Unicode	buffer	mode  which   always   maintains   the
	      Copy/Paste  buffer  in Unicode, thus facilitating	conversion be-
	      tween different encodings	being edited.  For details,  see  Uni-
	      code Copy/Paste buffer conversion.

       -E?  (character set)
	      Determine	 the  encoding(s) of the text file(s) given as parame-
	      ters by auto-detection, print out	the information	and quit.

       -E or -E-
	      ->NEW-> Disable text encoding auto-detection and derive it  from
	      the locale environment.

       -KX  (input method handling)
	      Configure	 the  Space  key to perform a certain function in key-
	      board mapping selection menus ("CJK input	method	pick  lists"),
	      where X is one of:
	       'n' to navigate to the next choice (like	cursor-right),
	       'r' to navigate to the next row (like cursor-down),
	       's' to select the current choice	(like Enter).

       -K=im-im	 (input	method selection)
	      Select  input  method  and/or  standby  input  method (for quick
	      switching	with Alt-k).  The syntax is the	same as	 for  the  op-
	      tional environment variable MINEDKEYMAP (see below).

   Terminal mode
       -U   (terminal mode)
	      Toggles  UTF-8  screen  handling	assumption, i.e. selects UTF-8
	      screen handling unless UTF-8 keyboard input is already  selected
	      (by  another  -U	option or environment setting).	 In the	latter
	      case, -U deselects UTF-8 terminal	operation.  This option	should
	      normally not be used as the mode should be configured in the en-
	      vironment	(see Locale configuration).

       +U   (terminal mode)
	      Selects UTF-8 screen handling.  Note that	none of	the options -U
	      or  +U  needs to be used if the environment is correctly config-
	      ured to indicate UTF-8 as	it should (see Unicode handling	/ Ter-
	      minal environment).
	      Also,  mined  performs auto-detection of UTF-8 terminal encoding
	      and UTF-8	terminal features (different width data	versions, han-
	      dling  of	 double-width,	combining  and joining characters), so
	      even if the  environment	is  not	 correctly  configured,	 mined
	      should work without this explicit	terminal mode parameter.

       +UU  (terminal mode)
	      Selects bidirectional terminal support.  This mode implies UTF-8
	      and also assumes that Arabic ligature joining (of	LAM/ALEF  com-
	      binations) is applied; it	will be	handled	by mined accordingly.

       +UU-U	 (terminal mode)
	      Selects  bidirectional  terminal support without Arabic ligature
	      joining (like mintty).

       -cc  (terminal mode)
	      Assumes that the terminal	does not support combining characters.
	      By default - unless otherwise detected - mined assumes that com-
	      bining characters	work on	UTF-8 terminals	and do not work	in CJK
	      terminals.

       +c   (terminal mode)
	      Assumes  that  the terminal supports combining characters.  This
	      is enabled by default for	UTF-8 terminals, and disabled  by  de-
	      fault for	CJK terminals, unless otherwise	detected.

       +EX  (terminal mode)
	      Where  X is one of B/G/C/J/X/S/x/K/H: Assumes a CJK encoded ter-
	      minal in one of the supported CJK	character encodings.  For  de-
	      tails, see CJK encoding support.

       +EX  (terminal mode)
	      Where  X	is one of g/c/j: Assumes a CJK encoded terminal	in one
	      of the CJK character encodings like G/C/J	and also assumes  that
	      the terminal cannot display GB18030 4-byte encodings, CNS	4-byte
	      encodings, EUC-JP	3-byte encodings, respectively.

       +EX  (terminal mode)
	      Where X is one of	U/L or	another	 1-letter  character  encoding
	      tag:  Assumes  a	Unicode/UTF-8 or Latin-1 encoded terminal, re-
	      spectively, or an	8-bit terminal running one of the  other  sup-
	      ported character encodings.  For details on supported encodings,
	      see the Quick Options (Mode indication) flags listing.  For  de-
	      tails  on	 terminal encoding support, see	Terminal encoding sup-
	      port.

       +E=charmap     (terminal	mode)
	      Where charmap is a character encoding name (as reported  by  the
	      locale  charmap  command):  Assumes the terminal to have the re-
	      spective encoding.  For details on locale-related	character  en-
	      coding configuration, see	Locale configuration.

       +E.suffix (terminal mode)
	      Where  suffix is a character encoding suffix ("codeset") as used
	      in locale	names: Assumes the terminal to have the	respective en-
	      coding.	For  details on	locale-related character encoding con-
	      figuration, see Locale configuration.

       +E:flag	 (terminal mode)
	      Where flag is a 2-letter indication used by  mined  to  indicate
	      the  respective  encoding	as text	encoding in the	Encoding flag:
	      Assumes the terminal to have the respective encoding.   For  de-
	      tails  on	supported encodings and	their flags, see the Quick Op-
	      tions (Mode indication) flags listing.

       +E?  (terminal mode)
	      Determine	the terminal encoding and  further  terminal  encoding
	      features	and properties by auto-detection, print	out the	infor-
	      mation and quit.

       -C   (character set and terminal	mode)
	      (Deprecated.)  Turns a subsequent	-E option (with	a  single-let-
	      ter  CJK	tag) effectively into a	combined -E and	+E option.  So
	      mined assumes the	given CJK encoding for both terminal  encoding
	      (unless  overridden  by  UTF-8 terminal auto-detection) and text
	      encoding.	 Can be	used for quick	indication  of	CJK  terminals
	      (e.g. cxterm, kterm, hanterm) if locale environment is not prop-
	      erly set.

       +C   (terminal mode)
	      Displays unknown characters on CJK terminal: Assumes a  CJK  en-
	      coded  terminal  (e.g. cxterm, kterm, hanterm; more specific en-
	      coding specification is advisable), and characters encoded in  a
	      CJK  encoding format are displayed transparently even if they do
	      not map to a valid Unicode character.

       +CC  (terminal mode)
	      Displays invalid characters on CJK  terminal:  Implies  +C,  but
	      even character codes that	do not match the encoding scheme (e.g.
	      wrt. to specified	byte ranges) are written transparently to  the
	      terminal.

       +CCC (terminal mode)
	      Displays	extended  characters  on CJK terminal: Implies +CC and
	      overrides	auto-detection of the terminal capability  to  display
	      CJK  3-byte / 4-byte codes which would by	default	suppress their
	      display if the terminal does not support them.

       +D   (keyboard assignment)
	      Setup xterm (by sending dynamic configuration  codes)  to	 apply
	      two  useful  keyboard  handling  modes:  Del key on small	keypad
	      sends DEL	character rather than an escape	sequence and can  thus
	      be  distinguished	 from the Del key on the big (numeric) keypad.
	      Prepend ESC to character if pressed with the Alt or Meta key  in
	      order  to	enable Alt-commands (e.g. Alt-f	to open	the file menu,
	      Alt-Shift-H to enter HTML	 markers  etc).	  (Unfortunately  this
	      cannot  be  done	by  default as it cannot be undone because the
	      previous state cannot be detected.)  (This xterm setting	should
	      rather be	configured permanently as suggested in the sample file
	      Xdefaults.mined in the Mined runtime support library.)

       +#     ->NEW-> Assume dark terminal background and adjust some  colours
	      accordingly.

       -nc    Suppress usage of	terminal colour	attributes.

   Information display
       +H     ->NEW->  Enable  syntax  highlighting  for  HTML/XML  and	server
	      scripting.

       -H     Disable HTML/XML syntax highlighting.

       +?c    Enable character code information	display	on status line.

       +?X    Enable character code information	display	(implies +?c) with ad-
	      ditional information, where X is one of:

	      o	     s:	Unicode	script

	      o	     n:	Unicode	character name

	      o	     ->NEW-> q:	Unicode	named sequence

	      o	     d:	Unicode	character decomposition

	      o	     m:	mined input mnemonics available	for this character
       Note:  setting  any of these options may	disable	some others as not all
       combinations are	considered useful.

       +?h    Enable full Han character	information display as	a  popup.   In
	      addition	to  the	character description, a set of	pronunciations
	      can be selected with the variable	MINEDHANINFO.

       +?x    Enable compact Han character information on status line.	In ad-
	      dition to	the character description, a set of pronunciations can
	      be selected with the variable MINEDHANINFO.

       +?f    Enable file and position information display on status line (en-
	      abled  by	default).  Note	that when editing a file that does not
	      fit completely in	memory (e.g. large file	on old	system),  this
	      option  may  cause  considerable swapping. In that case, disable
	      the feature with -?f.

       -?X    Deselect the respective +? option.

   Editing behaviour
       -q     ->NEW-> Derive quotation marks  style  from  locale  information
	      (environment  variables  LANGUAGE,  TEXTLANG,  LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,
	      LANG).  See Smart	quotes for details.  Note: if either  LANGUAGE
	      or TEXTLANG is used, -q is assumed implicitly.

       -q=locale
	      ->NEW-> Derive quotation marks style from	given locale.  (-q:lo-
	      cale works too.)

       +q or +q=locale
	      ->NEW-> Like -q but exchange primary and secondary style.

       -q:style
	      ->NEW-> Set given	quotation marks	style  if  available  for  any
	      language,	e.g. -q:"<<>>".	 (-q=style works too.)

       -w     Recognise	 fewer	places	as  word  boundaries for word skip and
	      delete commands.

       -a     Append  mode:  Append  to	 text  buffer  or  external  file  for
	      copy/delete commands instead of replacing	it.

       +j     Set  justification level 1 (or increment level previously	set by
	      environment variable to 1	or 2): Level 1 initially enables auto-
	      matic  word wrap at line end when	typing over right margin.  Can
	      be changed by clicking on	the j/J	flag.

       +jj    Set justification	level 2: Level 2 initially  enables  automatic
	      word  wrap at line end when typing within	paragraph; buggy.  Can
	      be changed by clicking on	the j/J	flag.

       -j     Set justification	level 1	or 2 (other than previously set).  Can
	      be changed by clicking on	the j/J	flag.

       -T     When  moving  vertically	over a Tab character, stay left	of the
	      Tab column range (on the Tab character).	The default depends on
	      the previous position.  Also, stay left on a wide	character when
	      moving vertically	over it.

       +T     When moving vertically over a Tab	character, stay	right  of  the
	      Tab  column  range  (behind the Tab character).  The default de-
	      pends on the previous position.

       -V     Place cursor before pasted region	 after	paste  commands.   (If
	      this option is enabled already, -V acts like -VV.)

       -VV    Like  -V,	 and  disable  emacs-style  paste buffer functions for
	      "delete word" and	"delete	to end of line"	commands (^T, ^K).

       +V     Place cursor behind pasted region	 after	paste  commands.   (If
	      this option is enabled already, +V acts like +VV.)

       +VV    Like  +V,	 and  enable  emacs-style  paste  buffer functions for
	      "delete word" and	"delete	to end of line"	commands (^T, ^K).

       +[     Initially	enable rectangular paste buffer	mode.  See Rectangular
	      copy/paste.

       -[     Initially	disable	rectangular paste buffer mode.

       +V:X or -V:X
	      ->NEW->  Enable/disable  visual  selection behaviour, where X is
	      one of

	      o	     k:	keep selection when searching

	      o	     c:	automatically copy after mouse selection

   Keyboard function mode selection
       +eX    Select emulation mode, especially	control	key function  mapping,
	      where X is one of

	      o	     e:	emacs mode

	      o	     s:	WordStar mode

	      o	     w:	Windows	keyboard mode

	      o	     W:	 Windows behaviour (keyboard mode, CRLF	for new	files,
		     cmd.exe with ESC !)

	      o	     p:	pico mode

	      o	     m:	mined default

       -e     Select emacs mode. This assigns functions	to control  keys,  M-X
	      commands	(ESC commands, using the "meta"	key as emacs calls the
	      Alt prefix) and C-X commands as defined  by  the	emacs  editor.
	      Also  the	emacs paste buffer ring	and cut/paste behaviour	is en-
	      abled.

       -W     Select WordStar mode. This configures WordStar command key  lay-
	      out and enables many functions of	the ^K,	^O, and	^Q menus.

       -kX    Select keypad modes, where X is one of

	      o	     m:	mined keypad mode.

	      o	     s	or  S:	Shift-select mode: Shifted keypad keys (cursor
		     keys, PgUp/PgDn/Home/End) start or	extend text  selection
		     (with visual highlighting)	and visual selection behaviour
		     is	slightly adapted to common usage; in addition,	Shift-
		     HOP  is  mapped  to  the Copy function.  Unshifted	keypad
		     keys retain their default mined functions.

	      o	     w:	Windows	keypad mode;  implies  -kS  (also  implied  by
		     +ew):

	      o	     c:	 Home  and End keys of small ("editing") keypad	invoke
		     Mark/Copy to paste	buffer (overriding selected  mode  for
		     them)

	      o	     C:	 Home  and  End	 keys of big ("numeric") keypad	invoke
		     Mark/Copy to paste	buffer (overriding selected  mode  for
		     them)

       +t     (Deprecated.) Windows keypad mode, like -kw.

       +tt    (Deprecated.) Shift-select mode, like -kS.

       -k (as single-letter option)
	      Switch  the Home and End key functions of	the two	keypads	(small
	      keypad, numeric keypad), i.e. exchange the two keypads with  re-
	      spect  to	 these	keys.	This  assigns the more usual functions
	      "goto line beginning", "goto line	end" to	the Home and End  keys
	      of  the right keypad.  The (assumedly more useful) mined default
	      is to assign the frequently used paste buffer  functions	(mark,
	      copy) to these keys.
	      In  turn,	the assigned functions of the Home and End keys	of the
	      small keypad ("editing keypad") are  exchanged  to  provide  the
	      other function than on the right keypad, respectively - provided
	      the terminal and its configuration support this distinction.
	      Also Alt-Home/End	are assigned the respective other functions on
	      each keypad so the most useful keypad functions should always be
	      quite easily available.
	      Regardless of this switching, mined tries	to map fixed functions
	      to  modified Home	and End	keys: Ctrl-Home/End for	line begin/end
	      movement (both keypads), Shift-Home/End  for  the	 paste	buffer
	      copy  functions (small keypad) - provided	the terminal, its mode
	      and configuration	support	distinction of modified	keypad keys.
	      See also the section on Keypad layout for	a motivating  overview
	      of the mined keypad assignment features and options.
	      About  terminal support and configuration, see Keypad configura-
	      tion for further hints.

       +k     Enforce usage of terminal	"keypad	mode" which switches  the  nu-
	      meric keypad to send "application	keypad"	escape sequences. This
	      is normally not needed. On certain terminals, mined  will	 auto-
	      matically	 use  this mode	(e.g.  Linux console), and in terminal
	      emulators	it is usually not needed unless	you are	running	a mis-
	      configured X windows system in which case	you can	enable distin-
	      guished keypad functions by using	the NumLock  function  of  the
	      keyboard and switching on	this option.

       +Bp    ->NEW->  Backspace  should apply "plain backspacing" rather than
	      "smart backspacing", i.e.	no auto-undent	and  only  delete  one
	      combining	 character  of	a combined character; without this op-
	      tion, use	Control-Backspace for the "plain" function; with  this
	      option, use Shift-Control-Backspace for the "smart" function.

       -B     (Deprecated.)  Enforce the Del control character to delete left,
	      Backspace	to move	left.  Should normally not be used, see	"Auto-
	      matic backspace mode adaptation" below.

   Appearance
       -QX    Select menu border style,	where X	is one of

	      o	     s:	simple border,

	      o	     r:	rounded	corners,

	      o	     f:	fat border,

	      o	     d:	double border,

	      o	     a:	 ASCII border (can be combined with another option -Qs
		     or	-Qr),

	      o	     v:	VT100 alternate	character set graphics border,

	      o	     @:	block border (deprecated),

	      o	     1:	(or another digit) add a margin	between	 menu  borders
		     and contents (can be combined with	any other -Q option),

	      o	     B:	->NEW->	full menu background

	      o	     b:	->NEW->	transparent menu background

	      o	     p:	->NEW->	plain menu borders (no lines)

	      o	     P:	->NEW->	very plain: no menu borders

	      o	     Q:	 stylish  selection bar	for navigating menu items, see
		     image (can	be combined with another option	-Qs or -Qr  or
		     -Qf or -Qd).

	      o	     q:	disable	stylish	selection bar
       Mined  sets an appropriate default based	on its assumptions of the ter-
       minal capabilities.

       -O     Disable script colour highlighting (for Greek, Cyrillic...).

       +O     Enable script  colour  highlighting  (for	 Greek,	 Cyrillic...).
	      (Disabled	by default in dark terminals.)

       -f     Restrict	usage  of graphic characters: use cell-grained scroll-
	      bar, simple menu borders,	no fancy menu bar for highlighting the
	      selected menu item.

       -ff    Further  restrict	 usage	of  graphic characters:	no Unicode box
	      drawing graphic characters for menu borders.

       -fff   Further restrict usage of	graphic	characters: no graphic charac-
	      ters (including VT100 graphics) for menu borders.

       -F     Assume  a	 screen	 font with limited coverage of special symbols
	      and restrict usage of special marker characters for  display  of
	      line  indications.  (This	 is needed e.g.	for KDE	konsole	or for
	      xterm using TrueType fonts.)
	      Interpretation of	the MINEDUTF* environment  variables  is  sup-
	      pressed.

       -FF    Assume  a	screen font with even more limited coverage of special
	      symbols and restrict usage of special characters for  indication
	      of selected menu items.  Also, trigger substitution display of a
	      number of	special	characters in text (like in non-Unicode	termi-
	      nals).

       +F     Revert  the  effect  of one -F option (e.g. preconfigured	in the
	      environment variable MINEDOPT) or	a corresponding	assumption  of
	      mined about the specific terminal	which would limit font usage.

       +FF    Fully enable usage of characters for special indications.

   Further mode	selection, interface and display behaviour
       -N     Set  Tab size to either value of 8, 4, ->NEW-> 2.	 The effective
	      Tab size can be changed while editing with the ESC T command  or
	      from the Options menu.

       -+N    Set  Tab	spacing	expansion mode to either size or 8, 4, ->NEW->
	      2.  In this mode,	a TAB input character will be expanded	to  an
	      appropriate  number  of  spaces.	To enter a real	Tab character,
	      type Ctrl-V Tab (^V^I).  The effective Tab size can  be  changed
	      while  editing  with the ESC T command or	from the Options menu.
	      Tab expansion mode can be	changed	while editing with the HOP ESC
	      T	command	or from	the Options menu.

       -P     Hide  passwords;	enables	 hidden	display	of one word behind the
	      string "assword" in a line (to  accommodate  for	"password"  or
	      "Password"):  hidden  characters	are  indicated	by reverse "*"
	      characters.  By default, this mode is activated when  editing  a
	      file whose name starts with ".".

       +P     Unhide passwords;	always display them.

       +ZZ    Virtual bold stropping: displays keywords	of Algol-like program-
	      ming languages in	bold while transparently editing them in  all-
	      capital  letters	("upper	stropping"), which is started with en-
	      tering only one capital letter.  Implicitly enabled on file name
	      suffix .a68 (disable with	-ZZ).

       +Z_    Underline	strop style: use underlined instead of bold for	strop-
	      ping.  To	activate virtual underline  stropping,	use  both  op-
	      tions: +ZZZ_.

       -LN    (N is a number) Define mouse wheel movement to scroll by N lines
	      (default 3).  Ctrl-mouse-wheel always scrolls by 1 line.	Shift-
	      mouse-wheel  scrolls  by	1  page.  Mouse-wheel on the scrollbar
	      scrolls by half a	page.

       +M:    ->NEW-> Enable file tabs header display (above menu  line	 which
	      is also enabled).

       -M:    ->NEW-> Disable file tabs	header display.

       -M     Suppress	display	 of menu header	line (including	flags).	 Pull-
	      down and pop-up menus can	still be  opened  with	keyboard  com-
	      mands.  Mouse control remains enabled.

       -MM    Suppress	display	of menu	header line (including flags) and dis-
	      able quick menu (right-click on  text).	Pull-down  and	pop-up
	      menus can	still be opened	with keyboard commands,	the quick menu
	      can still	be opened with Alt-space or ESC	space.

       -MM+M  Disable quick menu but leave menu	header and flags line enabled.

       +*     Enable enhanced mouse control: Menu items	can be navigated  with
	      the  mouse  without  button  pressed.   Enabled  by  default for
	      mintty, xterm, gnome-terminal, cygwin console.

       -*     Disable enhanced mouse control (if enabled by default or by pre-
	      vious option), otherwise disable mouse support altogether.

       -**    Disable mouse support altogether.

       -oN    Select  scrollbar	display	mode.  N=0 disables the	scrollbar (may
	      speed up editing on slow remote lines), N=1 enables cell-grained
	      scrollbar	display, N=2 (default) enables finer-grained scrollbar
	      display on a UTF-8 terminal.

       -oo    Selects  old  (until  2000.14)  left/right  click	 behaviour  on
	      scrollbar.

       -o     Disables the scrollbar.

       +o     Enables the scrollbar.

       -p     Enables  distinguished  display  of line ends and	paragraph ends
	      with different symbols.

       -X     Disables display of the filename in the window title bar.

       -s     Stay with	cursor in top line after page down or bottom line  af-
	      ter page up instead of center line.

       -S     Use scrolling for	page up/down.

       -dN    Apply delay between lines	of page	output to achieve visually ef-
	      fective display build-up which may help to quickly focus on  the
	      new  cursor  position  (the  screen output is displayed starting
	      from the cursor position,	proceeding to the screen edges).
		   If N	lies between '0' and '9',  the	respective  number  of
	      milliseconds is applied between display of two lines.  If	N='0',
	      still an output flush is performed.  If N='-', no	delay  at  all
	      is applied though	still the order	of display output is from cur-
	      sor position to edges.
		   Default: '-'; configuration is currently  disabled  in  the
	      Unix version as 'usleep' doesn't seem to be very portable.

       +p     Enables  support	for proportional display fonts.	 This does not
	      really work, however, with e.g. xterm or SunOS shelltool as they
	      do  not  reliably	 position  characters  after using control se-
	      quences.

       All options are also looked for in the  environment  variable  MINEDOPT
       (or MINED for compatibility).
       On  the command line, options containing	wildcard characters ("?", "*")
       may need	to be quoted (if matching files	starting with "-" or  "+"  ex-
       ist).

Editing	text with mined
       Mined is	always in insert mode. Commands	are single control characters,
       double key commands starting with ESCAPE, and a collection of  function
       keys  (for  various  types of keyboards and terminals). As a specialty,
       note the	prefixing 'HOP KEY' which amplifies or expands the  effect  of
       certain	commands  "just	 as  you would expect";	this provides for more
       command flexibility without having to remember too many keys. It	is de-
       scribed in a separate section below.

   Keypad layout
       Control	key  layout for	basic movement functions is topographic	on the
       left-hand side of the keyboard (an idea originating from	early editors,
       when  keyboards	didn't have cursor keypads).  (Although	using a	cursor
       block is	more comfortable, a simple set of control key  assignments  is
       useful  as  a  fallback on terminals or remote connections with reduced
       functionality.)

       The right-hand cursor block of typical keyboards	is assigned  the  most
       important movement and paste buffer functions.

       Keypad assignment features:

	      o	     Mined  optimizes  keypad  usage  for most frequently used
		     functions,	especially paste buffer	functions in  addition
		     to	navigation functions, by making	them easily accessible
		     on	the keypad.

		     o	    For	 this  purpose,	 mined	distinguished  between
			    Home/End  keys  on	the  numeric keypad and	on the
			    small keypad (whenever possible with the terminal)
			    in	order  to  avoid the waste of resources	by the
			    usually redundant  mapping	of  these  two	keypad
			    blocks.

		     o	    Note:  this	means that on the big ("numeric") key-
			    pad	 the  mined  keypad  function  assignment  for
			    Home/End  deviates from their more usual meanings.
			    This is deliberately designed to  enhance  support
			    of	quick  copy/paste  with	these easily reachable
			    keys, while	 line  movement	 can  also  easily  be
			    achieved with HOP cursor-left or HOP cursor-right,
			    respectively.
			    This keypad	function assignment gives you the best
			    benefit  of	 keypad	 usage	and is thus considered
			    much more useful than the "standard	assignment".

		     o	    The	Del and	Backarrow  keys	 perform  their	 usual
			    dual-mode  function;  if a visual selection	is ac-
			    tive, they delete the selection (with a Cut	to the
			    paste  buffer),  if	 there is no visual selection,
			    they delete	the next or  previous  character,  re-
			    spectively.

	      small ("editing")	keypad and big ("numeric") keypad:
	      +-------+-------+-------+	   +-------+-------+-------+
	      |	Insert|	Home  |	PgUp  |	   | (7)   |  (8)  | (9)   |
	      |	Paste |LineBeg|	      |	   | Mark  |   ^   | PgUp  |
	      +-------+-------+-------+	   +-------+-------+-------+
	      |	Delete|	End   |	PgDn  |	   | (4)   |  (5)  | (6)   |
	      |Del/Cut|LineEnd|	      |	   |  <-   |  HOP  |  ->   |
	      +-------+-------+-------+	   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (1)   |  (2)  | (3)   |
					   | Copy  |   v   | PgDn  |
					   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (0)	   | (.)   |
					   | Paste	   |Del/Cut|
					   +-------+-------+-------+

	      o	     The  centrally  placed  HOP key is	a prefix modifier that
		     can be used  for  intuitive  modification	of  navigation
		     functions	and  for  useful  alternatives of paste	buffer
		     functions.

	      big ("numeric") keypad after HOP:
					   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (7)   |  (8)  | (9)   |
					   |go Mark|Scr	top|FileBeg|
					   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (4)   |  (5)  | (6)   |
					   |LineBeg|	   |LineEnd|
					   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (1)   |  (2)  | (3)   |
					   |Append |Scr	bot|FileEnd|
					   +-------+-------+-------+
					   | (0)	   | (.)   |
					   |Cross-paste	   |+Append|
					   +-------+-------+-------+

	      See The HOP function below for alternative keys to trigger it.

	      o	     Mined offers additional function  mappings	 for  modified
		     keypad  keys,  both for providing unambiguous mappings in
		     any case and to handle the	deviation of its benefit-opti-
		     mized Home/End keypad mapping from	frequent expectations,
		     and an option to customize	Home/End:

		     o	    Alt-Home/End are mapped to the Home/End  functions
			    of	the other keypad, respectively.	So by default,
			    on the numeric keypad they invoke the line naviga-
			    tion functions.

		     o	    The	 -k option exchanges Home/End functions	of the
			    small and numeric keypads  with  each  other,  and
			    switches  Alt-Home/End  to also invoke the "other"
			    function, respectively:  keypad  function  assign-
			    ments:

		     o	    (cf	 Windows keypad	mode below) Ctrl-Del is	always
			    mapped to character	deletion, while	 Shift-Del  is
			    mapped  to	the paste buffer Cut function, regard-
			    less of the	visual selection.

		     o	    (cf	Windows	keypad mode below)  Ctrl-Home/End  are
			    always  mapped  to	line  navigation, while	Shift-
			    Home/End are mapped	to the paste buffer  functions
			    Mark/Copy, regardless of the -k option.

		     o	    Alt-Del  is	mapped to the respective "other" func-
			    tion, depending on visual selection.

		     o	    Note: Keypad function assignments as described de-
			    pend  on  terminal	support	to distinguish all in-
			    volved keys	and modifiers which  is	 unfortunately
			    not	always the case.
			    Terminal support for proper	distinction of differ-
			    ent	keypads	and modified keys may be  enhanced  by
			    appropriate	 terminal  configuration, see the sec-
			    tion on Keypad configuration.
			    ->NEW-> With xterm since 280, all desired distinc-
			    tions  between  different keypads as well as modi-
			    fied keypad	keys are achieved (by using the	 modi-
			    fyKeyboard resource	mode in	combination with VT220
			    Keyboard and Application Keypad modes).

	      o	     Two Keypad	modes (see below) change the function  assign-
		     ment of the keypads.

		     o	    In	Shift-select mode (option -kS),	Shift-modified
			    keypad keys	activate or extend a visual  text  se-
			    lection; also Shift-5 (on keypad) performs Copy to
			    paste buffer.

		     o	    In Windows keypad mode (option -kw),  additionally
			    non-shifted	keypad keys are	changed	to perform the
			    more common	functions, at the price	of losing  the
			    easy  Home/End  assignment	to invoke Mark/Copy to
			    paste buffer (which	can however be overridden with
			    options  -kc and -kC).  See	Keypad modes below for
			    an overview.

   The HOP function
       This function, triggered	by any of the HOP keys,	amplifies  or  expands
       functions  as  listed  below.  To  achieve the combined function, first
       press any key that is assigned the HOP function,	then any key  assigned
       the base	function from the table	below.
       Note:  To  enable  using	the HOP	function also on keyboards that	do not
       support the keypad "5" or "*" keys (e.g.	 small notebooks  without  nu-
       meric  keypad),	a  few	alternative  HOP keys are provided: Control-Q,
       Shift-TAB, the Menu or Windows keys (if running Linux), or (providing a
       dual-mode function) the Control-G and ESC keys.

       HOP char	left
	      move cursor to beginning of current line

       HOP char	right
	      move cursor to end of current line

       HOP line	up
	      move cursor to top of screen

       HOP line	down
	      move cursor to bottom of screen

       HOP scroll up
	      scroll half a screen up

       HOP scroll down
	      scroll half a screen down

       HOP page	up
	      move to beginning	of file

       HOP page	down
	      move to end of file

       HOP word	left
	      move cursor to previous ";" or "."

       HOP word	right
	      move cursor to next ";" or "."

       HOP delete tail of line/line end
	      delete whole line

       HOP delete whole	line
	      delete tail of line

       HOP delete previous character
	      delete beginning of line

       HOP set mark
	      go to mark

       HOP search
	      search for current identifier

       HOP search next
	      repeat previous (last but	one) search

       HOP copy/cut
	      copy or cut, but append to buffer

       HOP save	buffer
	      save buffer, but append to file

       HOP paste buffer
	      paste  "inter-window  buffer", which is the last saved buffer by
	      any invocation of	mined on the same machine by the same user.

       HOP edit	next file
	      edit last	file

       HOP edit	previous file
	      edit first file

       HOP exit	current	file
	      exit mined

       HOP suspend
	      suspend without writing file

       HOP show	status line
	      toggle permanent status line

       HOP enter HTML tag
	      embed copy area in HTML tags

       While a pull-down or pop-up menu	is open, any HOP key or	the Space  key
       or  the	middle	mouse  button toggles the HOP amplifier/expander for a
       function	subsequently invoked in	the menu;  the	menu  redisplays  with
       function	names changed where applicable.

   Character-oriented navigation and editing
       From the	traditional restriction	of Unix	tools to the line as a unit of
       operation, other	editors	are stuck in a line-oriented movement and  in-
       sertion	paradigm which implies some weird and counter-intuitive	behav-
       iour.
	    Mined handles the end-of-line position like	any ordinary character
       during  movement	 and  editing operations.  Also	search and replacement
       strings can contain line	ends.

   Mouse control and menus
       All versions of mined (Unix, DOS/Windows) support mouse operation.
	    Mouse control operates on pull-down	and pop-up menus,  flags,  the
       text area, the bottom line, and the scroll bar, in order	to provide the
       most useful functions and menu-driven command selection at hand.

       Summary of mouse	functions:

	      In text area:

		     o	    left click moves the text cursor to	the mouse  po-
			    sition

		     o	    Shift-left click (works in mintty) extends the se-
			    lection

		     o	    left click-drag-release selects a  text  area  and
			    (with  option  auto-copy)  copies  it to the paste
			    buffer; ->NEW-> using Alt while  dragging  (moving
			    the	mouse) toggles rectangular selection

		     o	    double-click  (actually click on current position)
			    ->NEW-> word selection (->NEW-> within timeout)

		     o	    middle click display the text status line  or,  if
			    permanent  file status is enabled, display charac-
			    ter	information

		     o	    right click	pops up	the quick menu

		     o	    mouse wheel	scroll scrolls by N lines (default  3,
			    adjust  with  option  -L)  Ctrl-mouse-wheel	always
			    scrolls by 1 line.	Shift-mouse-wheel scrolls by 1
			    page.   Note: Mouse-wheel on the scrollbar scrolls
			    by half a page.

	      On scroll-bar:

		     o	    left click moves one page towards the mouse	 posi-
			    tion  (as seen from	the current scrollbar position
			    marker)
			    or (with option -oo) moves one page	down

		     o	    middle click moves to text position	in file	corre-
			    sponding to	relative mouse position	on scrollbar

		     o	    left  click-drag  moves  text  position in file by
			    moving relative mouse position on scrollbar

		     o	    right click	moves one page away from the mouse po-
			    sition  (as	 seen from the current scrollbar posi-
			    tion marker)
			    or (with option -oo) moves one page	up

		     o	    mouse wheel	scroll scrolls by half a page

	      On bottom	line (status line):

		     o	    left click moves one page down

		     o	    middle click displays the text status line or,  if
			    permanent  file status is enabled, display charac-
			    ter	information

		     o	    right click	moves one page up

	      On pull-down menu	header (in left	menu area of upper line):

		     o	    left or right click	or mouse  wheel	 scroll	 opens
			    menu

		     o	    middle  click  opens  menu with HOP-modified func-
			    tions

	      On flag indication (in right flag	area of	upper line):

		     o	    middle click toggles flag

		     o	    left click opens flag menu if menu is  open:  tog-
			    gles  flag	(effectively  allowing double-click to
			    toggle)

		     o	    right click	or mouse wheel scroll opens flag menu

	      On open menu

		     o	    mouse wheel	scroll navigates in menu

		     o	    mouse movement (without holding button)  navigates
			    in	menu  -	 enabled  by default in	mintty,	xterm,
			    gnome-terminal, cygwin console; may	be  controlled
			    with  -*  /	+* command line	options	mouse movement
			    right/left (well beyond menu border) navigates  to
			    neighbour  menu  mouse movement right (a few posi-
			    tions) on submenu item opens submenu

		     o	    left click invokes menu item pointed to  with  the
			    mouse

		     o	    left  or  right  drag  (holding  button down after
			    opening the	menu) navigates	in menu

		     o	    left or right release (after mouse	dragging)  in-
			    vokes selected menu	item

		     o	    middle click toggles HOP modifier

		     o	    Ctrl-mouse-wheel switches to next or previous menu

	    Configuration hint:	To enable mouse	operation in a Windows console
       window, deactivate "QuickEdit mode" in the properties menu.

   Menus
       Mined provides three kinds of menus, all	 can  be  opened  with	either
       mouse  clicks  or commands.  The	menus offer the	most important editing
       functions (apart	from simple movement).	Some menus  have  their	 items
       grouped into sections, some of which have subtitles.
       The  HOP	 flag  can be toggled while a menu is open with	any of the HOP
       key, ^G,	Space, or the middle mouse button.  When a pull-down  menu  is
       opened  with  the  middle  mouse	button,	the HOP	variation is initially
       triggered, offering the HOP variations of the menu items.
       The three menu groups are used as follows:

	      o	     A pull-down menu is opened	by clicking the	mouse  on  the
		     menu  header (in the left part of the top screen line) or
		     scrolling the mouse wheel on this header.
		     Shortcut: Each pull-down menu can also be opened with ESC
		     or	 Alt  and  the small initial letter of the menu	header
		     (Alt-f or ESC f for the file menu etc.).

	      o	     A flag menu is opened by clicking the right mouse	button
		     on	a flag indication in the flags area (right part	of the
		     top screen	line) or scrolling the mouse wheel on it.  The
		     flag  menus  have	optional markers in front of each item
		     showing which items are currently active.
		     Shortcut: The Info	menu, Input Method (Keyboard  Mapping)
		     menu, Smart Quotes	menu, Encoding menu can	also be	opened
		     with Alt-F10, Alt-I, Alt-K, Alt-Q,	or Alt-E, respectively
		     (or use an	ESC prefix instead of an Alt- modifier respec-
		     tively).

	      o	     The pop-up	menu is	placed above the text area and can  be
		     opened with a right-click or Alt-Space (ESC Space).

	Menu navigation
       When a menu is open, the	cursor-left or cursor-right keys cycle through
       the pull-down and flag  menus.	Alt-cursor-left	 and  Alt-cursor-right
       navigate	 quickly  between  the	two  sets  of menus (pull-down or flag
       menus).
       When a submenu is open, cursor-left goes	back to	the parent menu,  cur-
       sor-right opens its next	menu to	the right.

	    There are three methods to navigate	within a menu:

	      o	     With the keyboard:	open menu as described above, navigate
		     with cursor keys or by typing the first letter of the de-
		     sired  menu item (which cycles through all	items starting
		     with that letter, or containing a word starting with that
		     letter); activate menu item with Enter key.

	      o	     With  mouse  clicks:  open	 menu with click (and release)
		     mouse button, switch to other menu	 with  another	click,
		     click on item to activate it. The mouse wheel may be used
		     to	navigate menu items.

	      o	     With mouse	dragging: open menu with mouse button (left or
		     right), browse menus and items with button	held down, ac-
		     tivate selected item with releasing mouse button.
       Methods may be mixed, e.g. open a menu with either mouse	click or  key-
       board, navigate with mouse wheel, then select with Enter.

       When  selecting	a  menu	item, in most cases the	associated function is
       carried out and the menu	closed afterwards.  In some cases,  an	option
       is toggled and the menu stays open (esp.	in Info	menu: Han info pronun-
       ciation selection, character information	"with" attributes selection).

	    Scrollable menus: In a low-height terminal (e.g. 24	lines),	longer
       menus  (especially the Encoding menu and	the Input Method menu) may not
       fit on the terminal. All	menus are scrollable with cursor keys, includ-
       ing Page	Down/Up, Home, End keys.
       When the	window size is changed,	open menus are closed in order to pre-
       vent resizing and repositioning problems; this is  planned  to  be  en-
       hanced in a future version.

	Hints
	    Note:  Your	 mouse	driver	or Windows system may be configured to
       generate	multiple (e.g. 3) mouse	wheel events on	one mouse wheel	 move-
       ment (e.g. with Windows). An option -L1 could compensate	for that scal-
       ing (as mined applies a mouse wheel factor by itself which is 3 by  de-
       fault).

	    Layout  configuration: See Menu display below for configuration of
       menu appearance.

	    Configuration hint:	On Unix, in order to make Alt work as a	 modi-
       fier,  set  the xterm resource metaSendsEscape to true and the rxvt re-
       source meta8 to false as	suggested in the example file  Xdefaults.mined
       in  the	Mined runtime support library.	(With older versions of	xterm,
       setting eightBitInput to	false may be required instead; this xterm  op-
       tion  doesn't  actually disable 8 bit input as its name might suggest.)
       With xterm, this	setting	can also be enforced dynamically with  the  +D
       option.

   Interoperable and multiple paste buffers
	System paste buffer / Clipboard
       ->NEW->	In  the	 Windows/cygwin	version, Shift-Ins inserts the Windows
       clipboard rather	than the mined paste buffer. Copy to paste buffer  al-
       ways  fills paste buffer	and the	clipboard, too.	 ->NEW-> In this case,
       the lineend type	is not copied from the clipboard (i.e. typically CRLF)
       but adapted to the current line.

	Inter-window paste buffer
       Mined  can  perform copy/paste operations within	different editing ses-
       sions (parallel or subsequent invocations of mined):  The  command  HOP
       Ins (e.g. ^G ^P)	will insert the	most recent paste buffer copied	or cut
       in any of the user's mined sessions.  This can also work	remotely in  a
       network;	to configure this features, see	Common paste buffer configura-
       tion.

	Multiple paste buffers
       Mined provides emacs-style multiple paste buffers that are organised as
       a buffer	ring. Every buffer cut or copy operation (that places the text
       between the marked and the current position to the  buffer)  creates  a
       new  buffer  and	 stacks	 it  to	 the  list of buffers.	If the feature
       "deleted	word/line appends to buffer" is	 enabled  (+VV)	 the  commands
       delete-end-of-line  (^K),  delete-word  (^T) and	delete-end-of-sentence
       (currently emacs	mode only) append to the top buffer (disabled with the
       option -VV).
       To  paste  a non-top-most buffer, paste the most	recent buffer first as
       usual, then use the buffer-ring command (Alt-Ins	or Ctrl-F4, or M-y  in
       emacs  mode) to exchange	the pasted text	with the previous buffer. This
       can be repeated,	going down the stack of	buffers, and  at  its  bottom,
       starting	over from the top again.

   Keypad modes	and Visual selection
       Mined highlights	text selection visually, with both mouse selection and
       keyboard	selection.

	Keypad modes
	      o	     In	Shift-select mode (enabled with	 option	 -kS),	Shift-
		     modified  keypad  keys start or extend visual text	selec-
		     tion; otherwise the keypad	functions are not modified, so
		     that  e.g.	  the  useful  quick  Mark/Copy	selection with
		     Home/End keys can still be	used.
		     Note: terminal support to	report	Shift-modified	cursor
		     keys is required to enable	this feature.
		     The  option  adjusts  some	other interactive responses as
		     well to match common selection practice:

		     o	    auto-copy (after click-and-drag) is	disabled

		     o	    Shift-mouse-left-click extends the	selection  (if
			    supported by terminal)

		     o	    mouse-right-click  does  not  extend the selection
			    before opening the menu

		     o	    in addition, Shift-HOP is mapped to	the Copy func-
			    tion
	      Shift selection keypad functions are as follows:

	      Shift-Left
		     select character left

	      Shift-Right
		     select character right

	      Shift-Control-Left
		     select word left

	      Shift-Control-Right
		     select word right

	      Shift-Up
		     select line up

	      Shift-Down
		     select line down

	      Shift-Control-Up
		     select to previous	beginning of paragraph

	      Shift-Control-Down
		     select to next beginning of paragraph

	      Shift-Home
		     select to beginning of line

	      Shift-End
		     select to end of line

	      Shift-Control-Home
		     select to beginning of text

	      Shift-Control-End
		     select to end of text

	      Shift-PgUp
		     select to previous	page

	      Shift-PgDn
		     select to next page

	      Shift-5 (on keypad)
		     copy selected text	to paste buffer

	      o	     In	Windows	keypad mode (enabled with option -kw, also im-
		     plied by Windows emulation	option +ew), additionally non-
		     shifted  keypad keys are changed to perform the more com-
		     mon functions, at the price of losing the	easy  Home/End
		     assignment	to invoke Mark/Copy to paste buffer (which can
		     however be	overridden with	 options  -kc  for  the	 small
		     ("editing")  keypad  and -kC for the big ("numeric") key-
		     pad).  Also,  some	 Control-modified  keys	 change	 their
		     function assignment to match more common usage.
		     Keypad  functions	include	 the Shift selection functions
		     above and add the following functions:

	      Home   move cursor to previous beginning of line

	      End    move cursor to next end of	line

	      Control-Left
		     move cursor to previous beginning of word

	      Control-Right
		     move cursor to next end of	word

	      Control-Up
		     move cursor to previous beginning of paragraph

	      Control-Down
		     move cursor to next beginning of paragraph

	      Control-Home
		     move cursor to beginning of text

	      Control-End
		     move cursor to end	of text

	      Control-Backarrow
		     delete word left

	      Control-Del
		     delete word right

	      HOP Control-Backarrow
		     delete to beginning of line

	      HOP Control-Del
		     delete to end of line

       Shift-select mode (-kS) may become the default in a future version.

       Visual selection	is toggled by the following actions:

	      o	     Start visual selection highlighting:

		     o	    mouse click	(then drag)

		     o	    Mark command (Home key, Control-space, or Mark/Se-
			    lect from quick menu or Edit menu)

		     o	    (in	Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor	keys

	      o	     Extend visual selection highlighting:

		     o	    mouse drag

		     o	    keyboard navigation

		     o	    (in	Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor	keys

		     o	    mouse click

		     o	    (in	Shift-select mode) Shift-mouse-click

	      o	     Hide visual selection highlighting:

		     o	    modify text

		     o	    (unless  in	 Windows keypad	mode) Copy (End	key or
			    from quick menu or Edit menu)

		     o	    Mark twice (e.g. press Home	Home)

		     o	    (unless in Windows keypad mode) mouse release (af-
			    ter	drag, with auto-copy option)

		     o	    Find  (except  Find	 matching parenthesis) (except
			    with "keep on search" option)

		     o	    Goto text position

		     o	    Open file

	      o	     Re-enable selection highlighting  and  continue  previous
		     selection:

		     o	    "continue Select" from menu

		     o	    (in	Shift-select mode) Shift-cursor	keys

		     o	    (in	Shift-select mode) Shift-mouse-click
       Selection behaviour can be tuned	with a few options in the Paste	buffer
       menu.

       Note: The actual	behaviour of the paste buffer functions	acting on  the
       text  selection	(Copy,	Cut) are not affected by the visual selection;
       they work alike even if the selection is	hidden.
       The Delete key is the only function that	is actually modified by	visual
       selection, following a dual-mode	behaviour consistent with most contem-
       porary text editors: if a non-empty  visual  selection  is  active,  it
       deletes	the selected area (Cut to paste	buffer), otherwise, it deletes
       the next	character.

   Rectangular copy/paste
       Rectangular copy/paste area mode	can be toggled	on  the	 Paste	buffer
       flag  (see  also	description of Quick Options (Mode indication) flags),
       in the Paste buffer menu, with HOP Mark while already on	 marked	 posi-
       tion, or	preselected with the option +[.
       ->NEW->	Rectangular selection can also be toggled temporarily by using
       Alt with	the left mouse button while moving the mouse  for  drag-selec-
       tion.   Note, however, that a subsequent	paste will apply the untoggled
       mode.
       Note: Rectangular area is a property of the copy/paste function,	not of
       the paste buffer.
       Note:  The  result of rectangular paste may not be quite	as expected in
       these cases:

	      o	     The paste buffer contains lines of	different length.

	      o	     The border	of the paste area (in either the text  or  the
		     paste  buffer)  contains  characters  of different	width,
		     like TAB, double-width, or	isolated combining characters,
		     or	even incomplete	character codes.

   Text	position markers
       A  default marker for quick use and additional ->NEW-> 16 numbered text
       markers are available.
       Marker 0	has a special function:	1. it is set when opening  a  file  at
       the  memorized  position,  2. whenever a	new current marker is set, the
       previous	one is pushed to marker	0.
       For keyboard commands to	set and	move to	markers, see Text marker navi-
       gation in the Command reference below.

   Text	position marker	stack
       In  addition to the explicit text markers, mined	implicitly maintains a
       marker stack to support navigation and orientation when browsing	files.
       Whenever	 a command moves the position by a far distance	(Go to marker,
       Go to line, Go to file beginning/end, Go	to next/previous file,	Search
       functions  including Search identifier definition across	files, Replace
       with confirm), the current position is  first  pushed  to  this	stack.
       Later, in order to return to the	previous position, use the command ESC
       Enter (Alt-Enter) to move along the positions in	the marker stack.  The
       command	HOP  ESC  Enter	 (HOP Alt-Enter) moves again forward along the
       stack.

   Paragraph justification / word wrap
       Manual paragraph	line/word wrap is invoked  with	 the  justify  command
       (ESC  j	or  ESC	 J);  it  justifies  the  current paragraph (wraps its
       lines/words) according to the effective margins and paragraph  termina-
       tion mode.
       Clever  justification:  With ESC	j, mined automatically determines left
       margins depending on the	current	paragraph and line contents. Heuristic
       detection of numbered items will	trigger	automatic indentation.
       Normal justification: With ESC J, mined justifies strictly according to
       the margin values currently configured.
       See commands listing below "ESC j" for margin setting commands.

       Paragraph termination modes: Two	different definitions of paragraph end
       are available.

	      o	     The  primary  mode	 is  to	add a space at the end of each
		     line when the paragraph continues and  to	end  the  line
		     without space where the paragraph ends. This seems	an in-
		     tuitive way and as	a big advantage	over other approaches,
		     it	is transparent with respect to visual formatting, i.e.
		     no	text property is required  that	 would	affect	visual
		     layout of the text.
		     Note:  Additional	visual support of paragraph end	detec-
		     tion is available with the	mined option -p	 that  distin-
		     guishes paragraph/line end	display.

	      o	     The  other	word-wrap mode is to add an empty (blank-only)
		     line after	each paragraph.	Obviously  this	 imposes  more
		     additional	requirements on	text formatting	discipline and
		     reduces freedom of	text layout.
       The mode	in effect is indicated in the Quick Options (Mode  indication)
       flags  display;	see  description  of  Quick  Options (Mode indication)
       flags.

   Auto	indentation
       By default, mined acts in auto-indent mode: When	you enter  a  newline,
       the following line will be filled with the same prefix of space charac-
       ters (Space or Tab) as the current one.	This  option  can  be  toggled
       from  the Options menu.	A new line without auto	indentation can	be en-
       tered with the ^O command.

	    Auto indentation is	automatically suppressed if  text  is  entered
       very fast (by heuristic detection of input speed) in order to allow un-
       modified	copy and paste using terminal mouse functions.

   ->NEW->
       Advanced	list support (bullet and numbered lists) A new paragraph  (ac-
       cording	to  the	 currently selected paragraph end mode,	or considering
       Unicode paragraph separators) after a  bullet  or  numbered  item  will
       clone  the bullet or auto-increment the numbering.  The undent function
       (smart Backspace) considers list	bullets	or  numberings,	 removing  the
       last level.
       Note: An	item paragraph is considered to	start at a bullet or numbering
       even if the previous line does not terminate a paragraph.

	Structure input	commands
       A pair of parentheses with matched indentation can be entered  by  pre-
       fixing  a  parenthesis  character with HOP.  For	example, HOP "{" would
       enter a pair of "{" "}",	both auto-indented  on	their  respective  new
       line. Other pairs are "(" ")", "[" "]", "<" ">".
	    HOP	"/" enters an indented Javadoc comment frame.

	Back-Tab (Undent function / reverse indent)
       Smart  backspacing:  A  Backarrow key from a position that is only pre-
       ceded by	white space on the line	and on the line	above will revert  the
       input  position	to  the	previous matching indentation level.  To avoid
       auto-undentation	("Delete single"), use Ctrl-Backarrow or F5  Backarrow
       to  delete only one character left, or toggle auto-indentation off from
       the Options menu.
       Note: In	xterm, Ctrl-Backarrow only works if configured in your X  con-
       figuration,  see	 the example configuration file	Xdefaults.mined	in the
       Mined runtime support library.
       Note:->NEW-> Configuration option plain_BS (command  line  option  +Bp)
       switches	the Backarrow key from smart backspacing to plain backspacing,
       i.e. no auto-undent and only delete one combining character of  a  com-
       bined   character.    Use   Shift-Control-Backarrow  to	perform	 smart
       backspacing then.

	Tab expansion
       With one	of the options -+8, -+4, -+2, a	Tab key	input will be expanded
       to an appropriate number	of Space characters instead of inserting a Tab
       character. You can still	insert a literal  Tab  character  with	Ctrl-V
       Tab.

   Search and replace multiple lines
       Mined has overcome the typical Unix tool	limitation of line orientation
       in search operations.  Search and replacement patterns can contain  em-
       bedded  newlines.   Enter  a newline (linefeed character) in the	search
       string with ^V^J	or \n (or \r to	match CRLF newlines).  (In some	 cases
       there  are  still display problems; then	update the screen with the ESC
       "." command.)

   Header line underlining
       The command HOP "-" (e.g. Ctrl-G	-) underlines the header  line	before
       the  cursor  position with as many "-" characters as needed; it applies
       to the current line unless the cursor is	at a line beginning  in	 which
       case it applies to the previous line.

   Automatic backspace mode adaptation
       There is	much confusion about what character codes are delivered	by the
       Backarrow and Del keyboard keys in different operating environments and
       configurations.	For proper operation, the "stty	erase CHAR" configura-
       tion should generally be	set correctly to reflect the actual code emit-
       ted  by	the terminal.  Mined detects this setting and adjusts its han-
       dling accordingly, so that the "Backarrow" key should normally work  as
       expected	(delete	a character left).

Overview: input	support	features
   Character input
       Mined  provides	several	methods	to support input of special characters
       that may	not be easily available	on the keyboard.

	      o	     Accented and mnemonic input support defines Accent	prefix
		     keys to compose accent combinations with subsequently en-
		     tered characters.

	      o	     It	also provides Character	 input	mnemonics  for	easily
		     memorisable  input	of a wide range	of characters, includ-
		     ing most composed Unicode characters.

	      o	     Input support commands include a quick shortcut for  two-
		     character mnemonics.

	      o	     Input  support  commands also provide for character input
		     by	hexadecimal / octal / decimal character	code  or  Uni-
		     code  value,  including  support  for subsequent entry of
		     multiple numeric characters according to ISO 14755.

	      o	     Keyboard mapping switching	the keyboard  to  support  an-
		     other script.  This feature also provides CJK input meth-
		     ods.

   Structured input
	      o	     HTML tag  input  (starting/closing	 or  embedding	marked
		     text).

	      o	     Auto indentation and Back-Tab.

	      o	     Structure	input  commands:  Input	 of  indented matching
		     parentheses and Javadoc frames.

	      o	     Paragraph justification (line/word	wrap).

	      o	     Header line underlining

   Special features
	      o	     Smart quotes automatic transformation of entered straight
		     quote  marks  into	typographic quotation marks (style can
		     be	selected in flags area)	or  apostrophe,	 separate  ac-
		     cents  as	appropriate  typographic  symbols,  as well as
		     smart dashes and other smart text replacements.

	      o	     Right-to-left script input	support.

Handling files with mined
   Tags	file support / Identifier and file lookup
       The ESC t command moves to the definition of an	identifier  (on	 which
       the  cursor  should  be	placed)	 using the tags	file (generated	by the
       ctags command).	HOP ESC	t prompts for an identifier.  (Also  available
       from  search or popup menu.)  If	a new file is opened for this purpose,
       the current file	is saved automatically.
       As a special function, if ESC t is typed	on an include statement	 (line
       beginning  with	"#include"  or	"include"),  the included file will be
       opened.
       Note: Like with a number	of positioning commands, ESC t places the cur-
       rent position on	the position marker stack before going to the location
       of the identifier definition. The command ESC Enter  (Alt-Enter)	 moves
       back to that position, also saving the current file if needed first.

   ->NEW->
       Encrypted files Mined edits encrypted files transparently.
       For  reading  or	writing	an encrypted file, a respective	filter is used
       as configured in	the runtime configuration file $HOME/.minedrc. See the
       sample  configuration file in the Mined runtime support library for de-
       tails. It contains pre-configured entries for using  GnuPG  (for	 files
       ending  with  ".gpg"  or	 ".pgp")  or  openssl  (for  files ending with
       ".ssl").
       Mined does not currently	provide	handling for passwords or  passphrases
       for file	encryption. Therefore, any passwords or	passphrases needed for
       encrypted file access will either have to be entered on	every  access,
       or  password  or	passphrase files may be	used as	offered	by the respec-
       tive decryption and encryption commands of GnuPG	and openssl.  See  the
       sample configuration file for examples.
       Note:  If manual	password input is used with openssl, be	careful	to re-
       member the password which is newly assigned  every  time	 the  file  is
       written.
       Note:  When  editing  an	 encrypted  file,  the backup file will	be en-
       crypted,	too. Decrypted content is exchanged  with  the	filters	 using
       pipes,  so no intermediate decrypted version is stored on the file sys-
       tem. Copy/paste text blocks are not encrypted,  though,	but  they  are
       readable	 for the current user only anyway (on any nontrivial file sys-
       tem). The same applies for a recovery file that mined writes  in	 emer-
       gency cases to save the edited text.

   Data	safety and security
       Mined  has  a  robust and defensive concept of handling edited text and
       file contents in	case of	any kind of program or system errors.

	Backup files
       With command line option(s) +b, mined saves a backup copy of  any  file
       being  overwritten (like	saving the file	being edited, saving to	a dif-
       ferent file, copying the	paste buffer to	a file).   It  supports	 three
       backup  file  name conventions and a few	combined modes to select among
       them:

       +b-    no backup	files

       +bs    simple backup files: filename~

       +be    emacs style numbered backup files: filename.~N~ where N are  in-
	      creasing version numbers

       +bv    VMS  style numbered backup files:	filename;N (using the original
	      notation of the VMS operating system)  where  N  are  increasing
	      version numbers

       +bn    numbered backup files, either emacs or VMS syntax, whichever al-
	      ready exists (with a higher version number)

       +ba    automatic	backup files, either numbered if numbered backups (ei-
	      ther style) already exist, or simple

       Note: In	order to preserve possibly existing hard links to the file be-
       ing edited, it is actually copied, not just renamed for the backup ver-
       sion  (like  with  joe,	vim,  or emacs with option backup-by-copying).
       Note: In	mined 2011.19, +ba (automatic simple/numbered backup)  is  the
       default,	 and +b	is a shortcut for +ba.	This is	subject	to change in a
       future version, however.	 Note: To select your preference, use the run-
       time  configuration  file $HOME/.minedrc, or include the	respective op-
       tion in the environment variable	MINEDOPT, or set the environment vari-
       able  VERSION_CONTROL (compatible with usage by emacs and cp), with the
       following mapping:

       VERSION_CONTROL
	      $HOME/.minedrc command line option

       none or off
	      backup_mode - +b-	- no backups

       numbered	or t
	      backup_mode e +be	- emacs	style numbered backups

       existing	or nil
	      backup_mode a +ba	- automatic backup mode

       simple or never
	      backup_mode s +bs	- simple backups

       backup_mode n
	      +bn - numbered backups (automatic	style)

       backup_mode v
	      +bv - VMS	style numbered backups

       Note: To	place backup files in a	different directory than the  original
       file,  use  the environment variable BACKUP_DIRECTORY or	BACKUPDIR.  It
       can be either an	absolute pathname (e.g.	 $HOME/.backups) or a relative
       pathname	 (e.g.	.~)  in	which case backup files	are stored relative to
       the respective working directory	of mined.  Note: On  VMS,  backup  op-
       tions are ignored as VMS	handles	backup files natively.

	File locking
       Mined checks and	maintains interoperable	lock files, which are symbolic
       links mentioning	the user and machine currently editing the  file  (not
       on  MSDOS  and  VMS).   If  the user tries to modify the	text of	a file
       locked by somebody else,	mined informs the  user	 and  changes  editing
       mode  to	 view-only.   The  lock	can be overridden (removed or ignored)
       from the	File menu.
       Mined implements	workarounds for	network	file systems that do not  sup-
       port  handling  lock  files or symbolic links properly: cygwin symbolic
       links that appear as  plain  text  files	 on  Samba/CIFS	 mounted  file
       shares,	->NEW->	 and  lock  files  that	could be created but cannot be
       deleted due to weird permission configuration of	a network file share.

	Edited text / Recovery files
       Every care has been taken to prevent loss of the	edited text in case of
       save  errors  or	accidental quit	commands etc; mined always prompts be-
       fore discarding any modified text, even when editing without an associ-
       ated  filename  (in  which  case	 other	popular	editors	ignore loss of
       edited text).
       There are three cases, however, in which	edited text would be lost:

	      o	     if	the user explicitly discards edited text (e.g.	ESQ  q
		     and not answering the "Save?" question with "y")

	      o	     if	 mined is sent an external terminating signal (e.g. on
		     terminal I/O error); two exceptions are the SIGKILL  sig-
		     nal  (which  cannot  be  caught by	a program) and SIGTERM
		     (see below)

	      o	     in	the rare case that mined should	fail with an  internal
		     signal (e.g. if out of memory)
       In  these  cases,  mined	 can  save  the	edited text in a recovery file
       dir/#name# (when	editing	file dir/name);	in the explicit	case, this  is
       only  done  if  the  answer to the "Save?" question is "r" (to "recover
       later").	 If the	edited file is later opened, and a recovery file still
       exists  (which is newer than the	file being opened), mined will display
       a notice. In the	File menu, there is the	option	to  recover  the  text
       from  the recovery file.	 Note: The recovery file is interoperable with
       emacs (as are the use cases); however, mined is superior	 here  because
       emacs  mangles  non-ASCII  characters in	recovery files.	 Mind, though,
       that interoperability with respect to recognising  recovery  files  de-
       pends  on consistent configuration of their location; see the directory
       configuration option below.  Note: If mined is sent an explicit SIGTERM
       signal it tries to terminate normally instead, writing modified text to
       the file	being edited, including	interactive handling if	needed.	 Note:
       After  catching	a  signal,  mined  also	tries an emergency save	of the
       edited text into	a "panic file" in  one	of  the	 directories  $TMPDIR,
       $TMP, $TEMP, /usr/tmp, or /tmp (whichever variable is defined first and
       directory is writable in	this order; or similar directories  under  VMS
       or  MSDOS).  The	file contains the edited text, identical to the	recov-
       ery file.  It is	written	first, before the recovery file, to provide  a
       quick  save  attempt e.g. if the	system is crashing and the file	system
       of the edited file is no	longer available.  Note:  If  possible,	 mined
       also  tries  to continue	normally after panic handling (unless multiple
       external	signals	are nested).  Note: To place recovery files in a  dif-
       ferent  directory  than the original file, use the environment variable
       AUTO_SAVE_DIRECTORY or AUTOSAVEDIR or BACKUP_DIRECTORY or BACKUPDIR  as
       described for backup files above.

	Overwriting files and ->NEW->
       Change  monitoring If any command is issued to write to a file not pre-
       viously read in (after change of	file name  or  working	directory,  or
       with a Copy to file command), mined prompts for confirmation.
       ->NEW->	Also,  if  mined  detects  that	the file being edited has been
       changed,	it displays a notice and asks for confirmation before  saving.
       To this aim, mined checks the modification time,	->NEW->	file size, de-
       vice and	inode (in case the file	got replaced by	rename/move/mount  op-
       erations).   This  is  checked  if mined	is notified of refocussing the
       window (if supported by the terminal), and after	shell commands (ESC !,
       ESC c, ESC z).

	File access permissions
       When  creating  a new file, its access permissions are set according to
       the default behaviour set in the	user  environment  (umask  setting  in
       Unix).  However,	when cloning a file (with Save As / Set	Name / ESC n /
       ESC d), file access permissions of the originally opened	file are  pre-
       served and cloned.
       The  +x command line option adds	executable permission to newly created
       files but only to those users that are also given  read	permission  by
       the rules above.

   Special file	types
	Character or block device files
       ->NEW-> Mined rejects reading from or writing to	a device file in order
       to prevent being	blocked.  Exception: /dev/clipboard on cygwin.

	FIFO files
       Mined can edit a	FIFO file (named pipe) like any	 other	file.	Before
       mined  can  finish loading from the pipe, another process needs to have
       written to it and then close it.	 Before	mined can finish saving	to the
       pipe, another process needs to have opened it for reading.

	Pipe input
       When  invoked  within  a	 pipe, redirecting input, mined	loads its text
       buffer from standard input.  ->NEW->  Mined  does  not  manipulate  the
       screen  mode  before data is available from the pipe, so	to some	extent
       it can interwork	even with screen programs providing its	input.

	Pipe output
       In the "Editing for standard output" mode (i.e. when invoked  within  a
       pipe,  redirecting  output), only one "file save" operation can be per-
       formed writing to standard output.  If more than	 one  such  operations
       are  issued  (e.g.  using the ESC w / F2	, F3, or suspend command) only
       the first one will write	the text buffer	to standard output; any	subse-
       quent one is treated as usual (with empty file name).  ->NEW-> If mined
       exits after writing to a	pipe, it does not manipulate the  screen  mode
       after  beginning	to write, so to	some extent it can interwork even with
       screen programs taking its output.

   Line	end modes and binary-transparent editing
       Mined is	binary transparent. It can handle all types of line ends (Unix
       (LF),  DOS  (CRLF),  Mac	 (CR, with option +R), ->NEW-> ISO 8859/EBCDIC
       Next Line (NL, not after	auto-detection of text encoding), and  Unicode
       separators  (LS,	 PS)) simultaneously in	the same editing session. They
       are indicated by	different visible line end indications.	Files  without
       trailing	line end can be	edited and created (using the delete character
       right function on the last line end). NUL  characters  are  handled  as
       virtual	line  ends.  Lines  too	 long  for internal handling are split
       transparently (with a "none" virtual line end).
	    Character codes that are illegal in	the  currently	selected  text
       encoding	 are  maintained transparently and are clearly indicated (e.g.
       illegal UTF-8 sequences in Unicode text).
	    Files with mixed encoding (e.g. UTF-8 / 8  bit  sections)  can  be
       edited comfortably.
	    Input:  To	enter a	NUL character, use ^V #	0 or ^V	< NUL or Ctrl-
       Space > (if the keyboard	supports Ctrl-Space).

   File	info: Memory of	file position and editing style	parameters
       On every	file saving command, mined remembers the last  text  position,
       paragraph justification margins (only if	automatic paragraph justifica-
       tion is active),	selected Smart Quotes style and	Input Method (Keyboard
       Mapping),  and  TAB display width.  File	info memory is relative	to the
       working directory, using	a hidden file info file	(.@mined - mined  also
       handles	its  DOS  short	name @MINED~1 where it occurs, to provide some
       interoperability	with the DOS version of	mined);	previously  used  file
       marker  files  (@mined.mar) will	be migrated and	cleared	from duplicate
       entries.

	    Note: File information is stored every time	 the  user  invokes  a
       command	to  save  the  file (even if no	write is performed because the
       text has	not been edited).  When	editing	that file again	(from the same
       working directory), mined will automatically move to that position (and
       set text	marker 0 to it).

	File info grooming
       Mined checks and	removes	duplicate entries (from	previous versions)  in
       the  file  info	file.	With option +@,	mined also checks whether file
       info entries correspond to actual files that exist and are  visible  to
       the  user;  it will otherwise remove such entries.  Mined can be	called
       with this option	alone and will then exit  after	 file  info  grooming.
       Mind,  however,	that files may be invisible only temporarily (e.g. due
       to unmounted file systems, or unplugged USB drives), and	will get their
       info entries removed then, too.

   File	chooser
       To  select  a  filename	for a file operation (e.g. open, save, insert,
       write buffer), mined opens an interactive file chooser that presents  a
       listing	of  files  and	directories  in	the current directory (for the
       change directory	command, only directories are shown).  The list	can be
       navigated and manipulated in these ways:

	      o	     cursor keys (including page down/up, end/begin)

	      o	     mouse movement and	scroll

	      o	     entering  a  filename prefix which	navigates to the first
		     file matching it

	      o	     TAB will usually copy the current filename	into the edit-
		     ing  field	 (if it	was partially matching a file name, it
		     is	thus completed,	similar	to file	completion on the com-
		     mand line but case-insensitively)

	      o	     TAB on a directory	will navigate the file chooser into it

	      o	     TAB or HOP	while the filename editing field is containing
		     wildcards interprets the entered file name	as  a  pattern
		     and switches to a filtered	file listing (recognising "*",
		     "?", "[abc-x]", "[^abc-x]"	wildcard expressions,  no  es-
		     capes)

	      o	     Enter  on a directory will	navigate the file chooser into
		     it	(unless	for the	ESC d command in which case it is  se-
		     lected)

	      o	     Enter on a	selected (or entered) filename will choose the
		     name
       Also, a filename	can be typed in	directly (being	interpreted as a file-
       name  prefix interactively). The	filename or prefix is displayed	in the
       title bar of the	popup file chooser menu.  When entering	file or	direc-
       tory  names, the	leading	~ notation to refer to one's home directory is
       accepted.  Note:	The full path name of the currently  displayed	direc-
       tory is shown as	the first entry	in the file chooser menu.  Note: A few
       sorting options are offered in the "Options" - "File  sort  options..."
       submenu.	  They	can  also  be preselected with the command line	option
       +zX. See	the file chooser options  for  details.	  Note:	 In  the  file
       chooser,	 filenames  are	 interpreted in	Unicode	(UTF-8 encoding) while
       file name parameters given on the command line are interpreted  in  the
       terminal	 encoding. This	may lead to inconsistent handling of non-ASCII
       filenames. Use the ESC ?	command	to display the file name using	native
       encoding.  Note:	On some	file systems, retrieving directory information
       can be slow.  ->NEW-> Mined handles this	and  provides  feedback	 about
       delayed	operation,  retrieves directory	information lazy by page being
       displayed, and flushes display of the file chooser by line  to  provide
       visual feedback about the file information being	retrieved.

   ->NEW->
       File tabs Mined provides	virtual	file tabs above	the header line, list-
       ing file	names as opened	via command line or file chooser. By  clicking
       a  file	name  in  the file tabs	panel, or hold-and-move	the mouse over
       them, you can change the	file being edited. If  the  current  file  has
       been modified it	will be	saved first.

   File	switcher
       The  File switcher presents a list of active files to select from, com-
       prising files supplied on the command line, and files opened  or	 saved
       later.	Invoke the File	switcher with Alt-# or ESC #, or Alt-F3	or ESC
       F3, or from the File menu. The Close file command (from the File	 menu)
       closes  the  current file and removes its name from the list.  The list
       can be navigated	and manipulated	in these ways:

	      o	     cursor keys (including page down/up, end/begin)

	      o	     mouse movement and	scroll

	      o	     entering a	filename prefix	which navigates	to  the	 first
		     file matching it

	      o	     Enter on a	selected (or entered) filename will choose the
		     name
       To reload the current file and stay (approximately) at the current  po-
       sition, use ESC Enter (Alt-Enter) after reloading.

   Page	length
       The  command ESC	P sets the number of lines that	mined assumes to be on
       a page. So the status line can contain the page number to make  finding
       the  current position in	a print-out easy. Also the Goto	Line/% command
       (^G etc.) accepts a final
	'p' or 'P' in which cases it positions to the top of the  given	 page.
       This  information  will	be associated and stored with the file name if
       file position memory is enabled;	see File info: Memory of file position
       and editing style parameters above.

   Restricted mode (tool mode)
       Restricted mode is triggered with
		 <code>mined --	[ filenames ...	]
	or (if installed)
		 <code>rmined [	filenames ... ]
	In restricted mode, only the file opened when mined was	started	can be
       edited, no commands changing file name reference, involving other files
       (copy/paste), or	escaping to a shell command will be allowed.

   Version control integration
       From  the  File	menu, checkout and checkin commands are	available that
       invoke "co" or "ci" scripts, respectively (which	 must  reside  in  the
       user's  command	search	path).	 This offers a gateway to ClearCase or
       other version control systems; mined applies automatic save  or	screen
       update as appropriate.

   Printing
       From  the  File menu, a print command is	available that prints the text
       currently being edited.	If the script uprint is	installed and  config-
       ured  properly, printing	works in any selected character	encoding.  See
       Printing	configuration for further details.

       In Windows, mined uses notepad /p for printing.
       Note: The font size interactively configured in	notepad	 also  affects
       the  print  size; with a	fixed-width font, a font size of not more than
       10pt gives you at least 80 characters per line; if  72  characters  per
       line are	enough,	you can	use 11pt font size.

Working	with mined
   Quick Options (Mode indication) flags
       The  right  side	of the top menu	bar displays a number of one-letter or
       two-letter indications for certain modes; the associated	flag menus can
       be  opened from here with a mouse right-click, or the modes can be tog-
       gled quickly with a middle-click.   (Keyboard  shortcuts	 for  handling
       flags and menus are also	available.)

	      o	     Information display mode

		     o		 "?": this flag	menu offers options for	perma-
			    nent File info, Char info, or Han character	infor-
			    mation  display.  For Char info and	Han info, fur-
			    ther options can be	selected to configure the  in-
			    formation shown.
			    (Note  that	 in extreme situations,	permanent File
			    info display might cause swappping (when editing a
			    file  that does not	fit completely in memory, e.g.
			    large file on old system). In that	case,  disable
			    the	feature.)

	      o	     (In non-Latin-1 text and terminal mode only) Input	Method
		     (Keyboard Mapping)

		     o		 "--": no keyboard mapping is active.

		     o		 "...":	a two-letter input  method  tag	 indi-
			    cates  that	 an  according keyboard	mapping	is ac-
			    tive, mapping keyboard input to characters of  the
			    selected  Unicode  script  range,  or using	a more
			    complex CJK	input method involving "pick list" se-
			    lection  menus.   See  Keyboard  Mapping and Input
			    Methods below.

		     o		 Right mouse button on this indication opens a
			    menu  for  selection  of the desired keyboard map-
			    ping.

		     o		 Left mouse button on this indication  toggles
			    between the	current	and the	previous selected key-
			    board mapping.

	      Note: In the open	Input method menu,
		     the last column indicates the source of the input	method
		     with a short tag as follows:

		     o		 "U":  generated  from	Unicode	data file Uni-
			    codeData.txt

		     o		 "H":  generated  from	Unihan	database  Uni-
			    han.txt

		     o		 "C": transformed from cxterm input table

		     o		 "M":  transformed  from  input	 method	of the
			    m17n project

		     o		 "Y": transformed from yudit keyboard  mapping
			    file

		     o		 "V": transformed from vim keymap file

		     o		 "X": transformed from X keyboard mapping file

	      o	     Smart Quotes

		     o		 Two quote marks are displayed that act	as au-
			    tomatic "smart quotes": When you type a  <<">>  or
			    <<'>> character (straight double or	single quote),
			    it is replaced by  an  opening  or	closing	 typo-
			    graphic  quote  mark  (double  or  single, respec-
			    tively), depending on the text context.

		     o		 Right mouse button on these indications opens
			    a  menu  for  selection  of	 the desired quotation
			    marks style.

		     o		 Left mouse button on this indication  toggles
			    between  the  current  and	the previous style se-
			    lected with	the menu.

	      o	     Character encoding	(used for text interpretation)

		     o		 A two-letter character	encoding tag indicates
			    the	 text  encoding	currently assumed for display.
			    Changing the encoding changes  the	interpretation
			    of	the  text which	is otherwise handled transpar-
			    ently; it does not recode the text.

		     o		 Right mouse button on these indications opens
			    a  menu  for  selection  of	 the desired quotation
			    marks style.

		     o		 Left mouse button on this indication  toggles
			    between  the current and the previous selected en-
			    coding.

	      Note: See
		     Character encoding	support	below for a list of  encodings
		     that are auto-detected.

	      Note: For	hints on preselecting preferred
		     text  encoding  (as well as terminal encoding) and	a note
		     on	adjusting the available	encodings and configuring  the
		     Encoding menu, see	Locale configuration.

		     o		 "U8": Unicode/ISO 10646 character set / UTF-8
			    encoding

		     o		 "16" or "61": Unicode character set /	UTF-16
			    encoding  (big-endian  or  little-endian,  respec-
			    tively)
			    In contrast	to the other encodings,	UTF-16 has  no
			    separate  entry  in	the Character encoding menu as
			    its	internal  handling  is	UTF-8  and  cannot  be
			    switched while editing; these two flag values only
			    indicate that the file being edited	was  found  to
			    be encoded and will	be saved in UTF-16.

		     o		 "L1":	Western	 "Latin-1" character set / ISO
			    8859-1

		     o		 "WL": Windows Latin character	set  /	"code-
			    page" 1252 (superset of Latin-1)

		     o		 "L9":	Western	 "Latin-9" character set (with
			    Euro sign) / ISO 8859-15

		     o		 "Cy": Cyrillic	character set /	KOI8-RU	encod-
			    ing	(Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian)
	      submenu more NE Eurasian:

		     o		 "Ru":	Cyrillic  /  Russian  KOI8-R encoding;
			    used if locale environment indicates this as  ter-
			    minal  encoding,  not  in  menu,  use "Cy" instead
			    which combines KOI8-R and KOI8-U

		     o		 "Uk": Cyrillic	/ Ukrainian  KOI8-U  encoding;
			    used  if locale environment	indicates this as ter-
			    minal encoding, not	 in  menu,  use	 "Cy"  instead
			    which combines KOI8-R and KOI8-U

		     o		 "I5": Cyrillic	/ ISO 8859-5 encoding

		     o		 "WC": Cyrillic	/ Windows Cyrillic encoding

		     o		 "Tj": Cyrillic	/ Tadjikistan encoding

		     o		 "Kz": Cyrillic	/ Kazachstan encoding

		     o		 "GP": Georgian	character set (not Cyrillic) /
			    Georgian-PS	encoding

		     o		 "AR": ->NEW-> Armenian	character set  /  ARM-
			    SCII encoding
	      submenu Greek/Semitic:

		     o		 "I7": Greek / ISO 8859-7 encoding

		     o		 "I6": Arabic /	ISO 8859-6 encoding

		     o		 "Ar":	Arabic	/ MacArabic encoding (superset
			    of ISO 8859-6)

		     o		 "I8": Hebrew /	ISO 8859-8 encoding

		     o		 "He": Hebrew /	Windows	codepage 1255  (super-
			    set	of ISO 8859-8)
	      submenu more Latin:

		     o		 "MR": Mac-Roman character encoding

		     o		 "PC":	PC  DOS	 character encoding ("codepage
			    437")

		     o		 "PL": PC Latin	character encoding  ("codepage
			    850")

		     o		 "LN"  where  N	 is  2..8  or  "0": Latin-N or
			    Latin-10 encodings / ISO 8859-2/3/4/9/10/13/14/16
	      CJK encodings:

		     o		 "B5": Traditional  Chinese  character	set  /
			    Big5 encoding with HKSCS extensions, extends CP950

		     o		 "GB":	Simplified  Chinese  character	set  /
			    GB18030 encoding, extends CP936, includes GBK  en-
			    coding, includes GB	2312 / EUC-CN encoding

		     o		 "CN": Traditional Chinese character set / CNS
			    / EUC-TW encoding (including 4-byte	code points)

		     o		 "JP": Japanese	character set /	EUC-JP	encod-
			    ing	(including 3-byte code points)

		     o		 "JX":	->NEW->	 Japanese character set	/ EUC-
			    JIS-2004 (X	0213) encoding

		     o		 "32": ->NEW-> Japanese	character set  /  Win-
			    dows  "Shift_JIS" encoding / CP932 (including sin-
			    gle-byte mappings to Halfwidth Forms)

		     o		 "SX":	->NEW->	 Japanese  character   set   /
			    Shift_JIS-2004 (X 0213) encoding

		     o		 "KR":	Korean	Unified	Hangul character set /
			    UHC	encoding / CP949, includes KS C	5601  /	 KS  X
			    1001 / EUC-KR encoding

		     o		 "Jh": Korean Johab character set and encoding
	      Further Asian encodings:

		     o		 "VI":	Vietnamese  character set / VISCII en-
			    coding

		     o		 "TV": Vietnamese character set	/ TCVN	encod-
			    ing

		     o		 "WV":	->NEW->	 Vietnamese  character	set  /
			    CP1258 encoding

		     o		 "TI": Thai character set / TIS-620 encoding

	      o	     Combining display (available only if the current text en-
		     coding contains combining characters)

		     o		 "c": combined display mode

		     o		 "`":  separated display mode: combining char-
			    acters are separated from their base character and
			    displayed with coloured background

	      o	     HOP key active

		     o		 "H": HOP applies to next command

		     o		 "h": HOP not active

	      o	     Edit mode vs. View	only mode

		     o		 "E": text is being edited

		     o		 "V":  text  is	being viewed (modification in-
			    hibited)

		     o		 Note: this is not related  to	a  file	 being
			    read-only;	if you "edit" and modify the text of a
			    read-only file, you	will have to save to a differ-
			    ent	file name (or discard)

	      o	     Paste buffer (double flag)

		     o		 "%": normal copy/paste	mode

		     o		 "[": rectangular copy/paste mode

		     o		 "=":  cut/copy	 replaces  (overwrites)	 paste
			    buffer

		     o		 "+": cut/copy appends to paste	buffer

		     o		 "%" or	"[", "=" or "+": as above,  and	 indi-
			    cates  Unicode  paste  buffer mode (in non-Unicode
			    text encoding)

	      o	     Auto-indent mode

		     o		 ">>": auto-indentation	 enabled:  entering  a
			    newline  indents  the following line like the cur-
			    rent one

		     o		 "|": auto-indentation disabled

	      o	     TAB expand	mode and TAB width ->NEW->

		     o		 "N": (where N is 2 or 4 or 8) TAB is inserted
			    literally, TAB width is as indicated

		     o		 "N": (where N is 2 or 4 or 8) TAB is expanded
			    to spaces, TAB width is as indicated

	      o	     Automatic paragraph justification levels

		     o		 "j": justification only  on  request  (ESC  j
			    command)

		     o		 "j": justification is performed whenever text
			    is entered beyond the right	margin

		     o		 "J": justification is performed whenever text
			    is	inserted and the line exceeds the right	margin
			    (slightly buggy)

	      o	     Paragraph termination definition effective	for justifica-
		     tion

		     o		 " ":  non-blank line end terminates paragraph
			    (blank space at line end continues paragraph)

		     o		 "<<": empty line terminates paragraph

   Scrollbar
       By default, mined displays a scrollbar at the right  side.  It  may  be
       used  for position indication within the	text and for relative or abso-
       lute positioning	with the three mouse buttons.
       In a UTF-8 terminal, mined uses Unicode character cell vertical eighths
       characters U+2581..U+2587 for a fine-grained scrollbar display. If your
       Unicode font doesn't include those block	characters, you	may switch  to
       the cell-grained	scrollbar with the -o1 option.

   Text	position marker	stack
       On  commands  that  jump	away from the current position (HOP Mark, File
       Begin/End, Search, Search identifier definition,	Search current charac-
       ter, Goto Line/%, Goto Next/Previous File), the current position	is re-
       membered	in a position stack.  The command ESC Enter goes backward, HOP
       ESC  Enter  forward  in	this "stack", even if this means switching the
       file being edited.

   Structured editing support
	HTML support: syntax highlighting and tag entry/matching
       HTML tag	entry: With the	ESC H commands,	opening	and closing HTML  tags
       can  be	entered	 or (with HOP) a marked	area can be enclosed into HTML
       tags.
       Syntax highlighting: HTML tags and  comments,  ->NEW->  attributes  and
       values  can  be highlighted, or dimmed to set them back from the	actual
       text contents; if mined detects a dark terminal background (works  with
       xterm  and  mintty),  it	 adds a	highlighting background	to improve the
       contrast.  Other	highlighting modes apply  to  HTML  comments  and  JSP
       code.   This  option  is	 activated  if	the file name suffix is	one of
       .html, .htm, .xhtml, .shtml, .mhtml, .sgml,  .xml,  .xul,  .xsd,	 .xsl,
       .xslt,  .wsdl,  .dtd;  it  can be toggled from the Options menu.	 Addi-
       tional highlighting of embedded server-side scripting is	 activated  if
       the file	name suffix is one of  .jsp, .php, .asp, .aspx.
       HTML/XML	 syntax	 highlighting  can  be enabled with option +H or using
       Preference configuration	per file-type.
       HTML tag	matching: With the ESC ( or ESC	) command, mined searches  for
       the opening / closing HTML tag corresponding to the current one.
       Note:  While  you  edit within a	line and change	its HTML ending	status
       (by entering or deleting	'<' or '>'), the display status	of  subsequent
       lines is	not changed. (You may refresh the display with ESC ".")
       Configuration  hint:  The  colour  used for displaying HTML tags	can be
       configured with the environment variable	MINEDHTML using	 an  ANSI  se-
       quence, e.g. MINEDHTML=34 (the default).

	Search structure match
       With  the ESC ( or ESC )	commands, mined	searches for a matching	end of
       various structures, like	opening/closing	 HTML/XML  tags	 (see  above),
       matching	 parentheses  or brackets, matching comments (/* */), matching
       conditional macros (#if...), mail messages (in a	 mailbox  file),  MIME
       attachments.   See  the	ESC ( command in the command reference for de-
       tails.

	Structure input
       A structure template with opening and closing ends can be inserted with
       the  structured input feature. HOP followed by one of { , ( , [ , < en-
       ters a corresponding bracket pair,  HOP	/  enters  a  Javadoc  comment
       frame. HOP - enters an underlining line matching	the previous line.

       Visual structure	input is supported by Auto indentation

   Password hiding
       With the	option -P, mined hides one word	(separated by white space) be-
       hind the	string "assword" in a line (to accommodate for	"password"  or
       "Password")  and	 displays reverse "*" instead.	Password hiding	can be
       disabled	with +P.
       By default (without any P option), password hiding  is  activated  when
       editing a file whose file name starts with "." (Unix "hidden" file con-
       vention).

   Virtual bold/underline stropping
       With the	option +ZZ, mined displays all-capital words  in  bold	lower-
       case  and  supports their input using only a first capital letter, then
       small letters to	input a	word in	all-upper-case.	 This  is  to  support
       editing computer	programs in Algol-like languages in their typical pub-
       lication	look.  Use +Z_ for underline stropping,	disable	with -ZZ.  En-
       abled by	default	if the filename	ends with ".a68".

   Long	line splitting
       Mined  has an internal line length limit	(> ca. 1024 characters).  When
       opening a file, longer lines are	split. This is	handled	 transparently
       as  virtual  "none"  line ends are used and indicated.  When saving the
       file, lines will	be joined again.

   Visible indication of line contents and display
       Various options are available to	indicate line control characters  (Tab
       and  line-feed)	as  well as shifted line display (of lines longer than
       the screen width).  (So you can see how many dummy blank	 spaces	 there
       are before the line ends	or how many superfluous	blank spaces precede a
       Tab character.)
	    Environment	variables can be used  to  modify  these  indications.
       See Display layout for details.
	    Default indications	and according configuration variables:

       <<     /	[U+23CE] LF (Unix-type line end)
	      customize	 indication  with MINEDRET or MINEDUTFRET (may contain
	      up to 3 characters to configure different	appearance behind  the
	      line end)

       <<     /	[U+23CE] CRLF (MSDOS-type two-character	line end)
	      (<micro> on black	and white terminals)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDDOSRET or MINEDUTFDOSRET

       <<     /	[U+23CE] CR (Mac-type line end)
	      (@ on black and white terminals)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDMACRET or MINEDUTFMACRET
	      transparently handled and	displayed with +R command line option

       o      NUL character (pseudo line end)

       ~      "none"  line  end	(virtual line end as used to split input lines
	      too long for internal handling; will be  joined  into  a	single
	      line when	saving the file)

       <<     ->NEW-> NL (U+0085, ISO 8859/EBCDIC Next Line)

       <<     /	[U+23CE] LS (U+2028, Unicode line separator)

       <paragraph>
	      PS (U+2029, Unicode paragraph separator)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA

       <paragraph>
	      end of paragraph (if enabled by -p)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA

       .      no-break space (Unicode character	U+00A0)

       >>     line extending the end of	the screen line
	      (move cursor right to shift line display)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT

       <<     line shifted out left of the screen line
	      (move cursor left	to shift line display back)
	      customize	indication with	MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT

       .      position spanned by Tab character
	      customize	 indication  with MINEDTAB or MINEDUTFTAB (may contain
	      up to 3 characters to configure different	appearance within  the
	      Tab span)

       Configuration: Display colour of	the indications	is by default red or a
       dimmed foreground colour; this can  be  changed	with  the  environment
       variable	 MINEDDIM, display colour for Unicode line end indications and
       other  special  (esp.  invalid)	character   indications	  with	 <span
       class=env>MINEDSPECIAL.	Their  values should be	the numeric part of an
       ANSI terminal control sequence, e.g. 31 for  red,  "33;44"  for	yellow
       text  on	 blue background.  MINEDDIM can	also be	set to an integer per-
       centage value (e.g. MINEDIM="50%") to have mined	apply  dim  colour  to
       the  indications;  the  colour value is computed	from the current fore-
       ground and background colours (if the terminal  supports	 their	detec-
       tion).
       For  more  details and recommended settings see the example script file
       profile.mined in	the Mined runtime support library.  Default values are
       compiled	 in  and  can  be overridden by	setting	the variables to empty
       values.

       Note: With the -F option, mined limits usage of special characters  for
       line  indication	and suppresses the interpretation of the MINEDUTF* en-
       vironment variables.

   Function key	help bars
       For quick reference of functions	attached to  function  keys,  modified
       function	keys, and other	modified keys (as used for accent prefix func-
       tions), a number	of help	bars can be displayed in the bottom line.
       F1 followed by another F1, optionally modified by a combination of Con-
       trol/Shift/Alt,	displays  a help line with function attachments	to the
       respectively modified function keys; F1 followed	 by  Ctrl-1/Alt-1/Alt-
       Ctrl-1  or Control with a punctuation key (e.g. Ctrl-,) displays	a help
       line for	the respective accent prefix functions attached.  See  the  F1
       help bars command reference for details.

   Menu	display
       Menu  borders  are  displayed using Unicode Box Drawing characters in a
       UTF-8 terminal, using VT100-mode	graphics characters if	they  are  de-
       tected to be available, or using	ASCII graphics otherwise.
       Configuration  hint: The	menu style option -Q is	available to configure
       your style preference; see also Terminal	interworking problems for con-
       figuration  hints  to  deal  terminal-related graphics display trouble.
       Alternatively, the option -f reduces font assumptions and adjusts usage
       of special characters accordingly.
       In  addition to round or	rectangular corners, also fancy	item selection
       display style can be selected (-Q).
       With a non-UTF-8	terminal, if your system's  termcap/terminfo  database
       does  not  indicate  the	VT100 graphics capability for the terminal you
       use but you know	(or want to try	if) your terminal has that capability,
       use  of graphical borders can be	enforced with the -Qv command line op-
       tion.
       Configuration hint: The colour of menu borders can be changed with  the
       environment variable MINEDBORDER.  The marker of	selected items in flag
       menus can be changed with the environment variable MINEDMENUMARKER.
       ->NEW-> The apperance of	the menu background and	borders	can be config-
       ured in the runtime configuration file $HOME/.minedrc.

Language support
       Most  of	the information	in this	chapter	is redundant. It collects lan-
       guage-specific features described in the	other chapters in a more tech-
       nical context, here assorted by languages / scripts for more convenient
       quick reference.
       Language-specific typographic quotation	marks  are  supported  by  the
       Smart quotes feature.  See Quotation Marks Styles on the	mined web site
       for a listing of	locale-specific	styles.	 <!p>

   Latin-script	languages
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1),  Latin-9
       (ISO 8859-15), Mac-Roman, Windows (CP1252) and DOS (CP437, CP850) West-
       ern character sets, as well as further ISO character sets  for  Central
       European	 (Latin-2,  ISO	8859-2), South European	(Latin-3, ISO 8859-3),
       Turkish (Latin-5, ISO 8859-9), Nordic (Latin-6,	ISO  8859-10),	Baltic
       (Latin-7,   ISO	8859-13),  Celtic  (Latin-8,  ISO  8859-14),  Romanian
       (Latin-10, ISO 8859-16),	->NEW->	and EBCDIC (CP1047).  To view and edit
       a  file	in  one	 of  these encodings, select it	from the Encoding menu
       (section	"8 Bit"	for Western, or	submenu	"more Latin"), or use the  re-
       spective	 command line parameter.  See Character	encoding flags for de-
       tails.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs any of these encodings, mined  can  de-
       tect this by proper setting of environment variables (LC_* or LANG, and
       TERM).  See Terminal environment	for details.

	Character input	support
       For input of accented characters, mined provides	an  extensive  set  of
       accent prefix functions,	covering Western accents as well as

	      o	     Macron (Latvian, Lithuanian, Polynesian languages)

	      o	     Breve (Romanian, Turkish)

	      o	     Dot above (Lithuanian, Polish)

	      o	     Ogonek (Lithuanian, Polish)

	      o	     Caron/Ha[U+010D]ek	(Croatian, Czech, Lithuanian, Latvian,
		     Estonian, Slovenian, Slovak)

	      o	     Stroke (Croatian, Maltese,	Polish,	Vietnamese)

	      o	     and others

       For other characters and	ligatures, mined provides mnemonic input.
       See Character input support for more details.

	Language-specific mnemonic conversion support
       The generic mnemonic transformation command ESC _ (which	 transforms  a
       mnemonic	 transcription in the text into	its accented or	ligature char-
       acter) has a few	national variants, using keys available	on the respec-
       tive keyboards as commands:

	      o	     German: ESC o etc.	transforms ae to a, oe to o

	      o	     French: ESC e etc.	transforms ae to ae, oe	to oe ligature

	      o	     Scandinavian: ESC a etc. transforms ae to ae, oe to o

	      o	     ->NEW->  Italian:	ESC  i	etc.  transforms 'e or 'e to e
		     rather than e etc.

	      o	     ->NEW-> East European> ESC	< accented letter  typical  on
		     East  European  keyboard  >  (like	 l with	stroke,	u with
		     ring, o with double acute,	s with caron, etc)  transforms
		     ,e	to e with ogonek (rather than cedilla) etc., and -d to
		     d with stroke
       (See mnemonic character substitution commands in	the Command  reference
       for details.)

	Language-specific case conversion
       (The  following	rules apply if the respective language is indicated by
       the language tag	as extracted from one  of  the	environment  variables
       -_NEW-_ LANGUAGE, TEXTLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG.)

       Lithuanian:  (If	 language tag begins with "lt")	Proper case conversion
       of accented i with retained i dot.

       Turkish,	Azeri, Tatar, Bashkir: (If language tag	begins	with  "tr"  or
       "az"  ->NEW-> or	"crh" or "tt" or "ba") Proper case conversion of i<->I
       with dot	above /	dotless	i<->I.

       ->NEW-> Dutch: (If language tag begins with "nl") Title case conversion
       with Shift-F3 supports "IJ" pseudo ligature like	in "IJsselmeer".  <!p>

   Esperanto
	Character sets
       In  addition  to	Unicode, mined supports	the Latin-3 character set (ISO
       8859-3),	and the	DOS codepage CP853 (especially as terminal  encoding).
       To  view	and edit a file	in Latin-3 encoding, select it from the	Encod-
       ing menu	(submenu "more Latin"),	or use the command line	parameter -E3.
       To tell mined it	runs a CP853 DOS setting, use a	LC_CTYPE variable set-
       ting (.CP853) or	the option +E=CP853.  See Character encoding flags for
       details.
       Terminal:  If  your  terminal runs this encoding, make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined supports a	built-in input method for Esperanto, using the "x-sys-
       tem", plus "Sm" for the Spesmilo	sign.  Select it from the Input	method
       menu.

	Accented character input support
       Instead of the input method, also the following accent prefix functions
       can be used:

       Ctrl-F6

       Ctrl-^ circumflex

       Alt-Shift-F5

       Ctrl-( breve

       <!p>

   Hawai'ian
	Accented character and 'okina input support
       The following shortcuts and accent prefix functions can be used:

       HOP ` (grave accent)
	      glottal stop / 'okina (U+02BB)

       Alt-Ctrl-F6

       Ctrl-- (Ctrl-minus)
	      macron (long vowel)

       Note: In	smart quotes mode, the grave accent (or	backquote) ` alone en-
       ters a glottal stop as well.  <!p>

   Russian, Ukrainian, other Cyrillic-script languages
	Character sets
       In  addition to Unicode,	mined supports ISO Cyrillic (ISO 8859-5), Win-
       dows Cyrillic (CP1251), and KOI8-RU which  is  a	 convenient  merge  of
       KOI8-R (Russian)	and KOI8-U (Ukrainian) (which are also supported sepa-
       rately but not included in the menu), ->NEW-> and DOS Ukrainian (CP1125
       and CP1131).  To	view and edit a	file in	one of these encodings,	select
       it from the Encoding menu ("Cyrillic" or	submenu	"more  NE  Eurasian"),
       or  use	the respective command line parameter.	See Character encoding
       flags for details.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs any of these encodings,	make  sure  to
       indicate	this properly with an environment variable (LC_* / LANG).  See
       Terminal	environment for	details.

	Input method
       Mined supports a	built-in input method for Cyrillic.   Select  it  from
       the Input method	menu.

	Accented character input support
       In combination with a Cyrillic input method or keyboard,	mined provides
       accent prefix support for  Cyrillic  accented  letters.	Accent	prefix
       functions  for  Latin  letters are reused for Cyrillic accents, see the
       following table:

       F5

       Ctrl-: diaeresis

       Alt-Ctrl-F6

       Ctrl-- descender	/ macron

       Alt-F5

       Ctrl-/ stroke

       Ctrl-& hook

       Ctrl-- Ctrl-&
	      middle hook

       Alt-Shift-F5

       Ctrl-( breve

       Ctrl-; tail / tick / upturn

       F6

       Ctrl-'

       Ctrl-' vertical stroke

       Shift-F6

       Ctrl-` grave

       Shift-F5

       Ctrl-~ titlo

       acute acute
	      double acute

       grave grave
	      double grave

       See Character input support for more details.

	Script highlighting
       To distinguish some Cyrillic letters from Latin	look-alikes,  Cyrillic
       is by default displayed with colour highlighting.  <!p>

   Tadjik
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports KOI8-T.  To view and edit	a file
       in this Tadjik encoding,	select it  from	 the  Encoding	menu  (submenu
       "more  NE  Eurasian"),  or  use	the  respective	command	line parameter
       -E:Tj.  See Character encoding flags for	details.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure  to  indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined supports a	built-in input method for Cyrillic.   Select  it  from
       the Input method	menu.

	Accented character input support
       See above for Cyrillic accented input support.

	Script highlighting
       Cyrillic	is by default displayed	with colour highlighting.  <!p>

   Kazakh
	Character sets
       In  addition to Unicode,	mined supports PT154.  To view and edit	a file
       in this Kazakh encoding,	select it  from	 the  Encoding	menu  (submenu
       "more  NE  Eurasian"),  or  use	the  respective	command	line parameter
       -E:Kz.  See Character encoding flags for	details.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure  to  indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined supports a	built-in input method for Kazakh.  Select it from  the
       Input method menu.

	Accented character input support
       See above for Cyrillic accented input support.

	Script highlighting
       Cyrillic	is by default displayed	with colour highlighting.  <!p>

   Georgian
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports Georgian-PS.  To view and	edit a
       file in this encoding, select it	from the Encoding menu (submenu	 "more
       NE Eurasian"), or use the respective command line parameter -E:GP.  See
       Character encoding flags	for details.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure  to  indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.	 <!p>

   Armenian
	Character sets
       ->NEW-> In addition to Unicode, mined supports ARMSCII.	 To  view  and
       edit a file in this encoding, select it from the	Encoding menu (submenu
       "more NE	Eurasian", tell	me if that's not suitable), or use the respec-
       tive  command  line  parameter -E:AR.  See Character encoding flags for
       details.
       Terminal: If your terminal runs this encoding, make  sure  to  indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.	 <!p>

   Greek
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Greek	(ISO 8859-7).  To view
       and  edit  a  file  in  this encoding, select it	from the Encoding menu
       (submenu	"Greek/Semitic"), or use the respective	command	line parameter
       -E:I7.  See Character encoding flags for	details.
       Terminal:  If  your  terminal runs this encoding, make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined  supports	a built-in input method	for Greek.  Select it from the
       Input method menu.

	Accented character input support
       In combination with a Greek input method	or  keyboard,  mined  provides
       accent prefix support for both monotonic	Greek and polytonic Greek.
       Monotonic  Greek	uses only one accent, the tonos	which looks like acute
       and can be entered with the F6 or Ctrl-'	prefix function.
       Polytonic Greek uses - among many others	- the  oxia  accent  which  is
       nowadays	 considered identical and looks	like the monotonic tonos. How-
       ever, for historic reasons, there are two sets of Greek	accented  let-
       ters  with  this	 accent	 in Unicode, one with tonos and	one with oxia.
       While this may be considered a design flaw of  Unicode,	in  fact  both
       kinds  of characters exist and mined provides support for both accents.
       The choice of usage is up to the	user.  Note, e.g. that

       F6 < alpha >
	      enters the Greek letter alpha with tonos

       Ctrl-F6 < alpha >
	      enters the Greek letter alpha with oxia

       Likewise, with mnemonic input

       ^V ' < alpha > (using the apostrophe key)
	      enters the Greek letter alpha with tonos

       ^V ' < alpha > (using the acute accent key)

       In these	examples, < alpha > indicates the Greek	 letter	 alpha,	 which
       may  e.g. be entered by selecting the Greek input method	and typing the
       a key.

       Accent prefix functions for Latin letters are reused for	Greek accents,
       see the following table:

       F5

       Ctrl-:

       Ctrl-" dialytika

       Shift-F5

       Ctrl-~ perispomeni

       Ctrl-F5

       Ctrl-, iota (ypogegrammeni)

       Ctrl-Shift-F5

       Ctrl-; prosgegrammeni

       Alt-Shift-F5

       Ctrl-( vrachy

       F6

       Ctrl-' (Ctrl-apostrophe)	tonos

       Ctrl-F6

       Ctrl-' (Ctrl-acute)

       Ctrl-^ oxia

       Shift-F6

       Ctrl-` (Ctrl-grave) varia

       Alt-F6

       Ctrl-< psili

       Alt-Shift-F6

       Ctrl-. dasia

       Ctrl-Shift-F6
	      macron

       Alt-6  psili and	oxia

       Ctrl-Alt-6
	      dasia and	oxia

       Alt-7  psili and	varia

       Ctrl-Alt-7
	      dasia and	varia

       Alt-8  psili and	perispomeni

       Ctrl-Alt-8
	      dasia and	perispomeni

       For polytonic Greek, 2 or 3 accents can be combined by applying the re-
       spective	accent prefix functions	in  sequence.	For  convenience,  the
       most frequent combinations of 2 accents are also	available as dedicated
       accent prefix keys as listed  above.   Also,  modified  Ctrl-/Alt-/Alt-
       Ctrl-  digit keys are used for polytonic	Greek accent prefix functions.
       See Character input support for more details.

	Script highlighting
       To distinguish some Greek letters from Latin look-alikes, Greek	is  by
       default displayed with colour highlighting.

	Script-specific	case conversion
       Case conversion of final	sigma is handled properly.  <!p>

   Amharic
	Input method
       Mined  supports	two  built-in input methods for	Amharic, one is	called
       "Ethiopic" (source: yudit), the other is	called "Amharic" and was  gen-
       erated from Unicode character names (preferable according to user feed-
       back).  Select your preferred input method from the Input method	 menu.
       <!p>

   Arabic
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Arabic (ISO 8859-6), MacAra-
       bic and DOS Arabic (CP720).  To view and	edit a file in	one  of	 these
       encodings,  select it from the Encoding menu (submenu "Greek/Semitic"),
       or use the respective command line parameter -E:I6 or -EA.  See Charac-
       ter encoding flags for details.
       Terminal:  If your terminal runs	ISO Arabic, make sure to indicate this
       properly	with an	environment variable (LC_* / LANG).  See Terminal  en-
       vironment for details.

	Input method
       Mined  supports a built-in input	method for Arabic.  Select it from the
       Input method menu.

	Accented character input support
       Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have	a proposal or  preference  for
       assignment of accent prefix functions to	the keyboard.

	Bidi support
       Mined  has  implicit  primitive	support	for visual right-to-left input
       which is	however	not the	preferred storage method as complete right-to-
       left text should	be stored in logical order.
       Mined  auto-detects  and	 cooperates  with  a bidi terminal (mlterm) in
       which case visual right-to-left input is	disabled.
       A full context-aware bidi display and  editing  technique  would	 still
       have to be integrated into mined. Tell me if you	are interested.	 <!p>

   Hebrew
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports ISO Hebrew (ISO 8859-8) and Win-
       dows Hebrew (CP1255).  To view and edit a file in one of	 these	encod-
       ings,  select  it  from the Encoding menu (submenu "Greek/Semitic"), or
       use the respective command line parameter -E:I8 or -EE.	See  Character
       encoding	flags for details.
       Terminal:  If  your  terminal runs this encoding, make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined  supports a built-in input	method for Hebrew.  Select it from the
       Input method menu.

	Accented character input support
       Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have	a proposal or  preference  for
       assignment of accent prefix functions to	the keyboard.

	Bidi support
       Mined  has  implicit  primitive	support	for visual right-to-left input
       which is	however	not the	preferred storage method as complete right-to-
       left text should	be stored in logical order.
       Mined  auto-detects  and	 cooperates  with  a bidi terminal (mlterm) in
       which case visual right-to-left input is	disabled.
       A full context-aware bidi display and  editing  technique  would	 still
       have to be integrated into mined. Tell me if you	are interested.

	Smart replacement
       As  a  special  case  of	smart dash input replacement (enabled together
       with smart quotes), mined inserts Hebrew	Maqaf as a dash	in the context
       of Hebrew letters.  <!p>

   Chinese
	Character sets
       In  addition  to	Unicode, mined supports	Big5 with HKSCS	extension (ex-
       tending CP950), GB18030 (extending CP936, extending GKB,	including EUC-
       CN),  and  CNS  (EUC-TW)	multi-byte character sets.  To view and	edit a
       file in one of these encodings, select it from the Encoding menu	 (sec-
       tion  "Chinese"),  or  use the respective command line parameter	-EB or
       -EG or -EC.  See	Character encoding flags for details.
       Auto-detection: Big5 and	GB18030	text encoding are  also	 auto-detected
       when opening a file (with a certain success rate).  Set the environment
       variable	MINEDDETECT="BG"  to  constrain	 auto-detection	 to  Big5  and
       GB18030 encodings.  See Mined configuration for details.
       Terminal:  Mined	 supports  native CJK terminals; make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       encodings support for details on	detection and handling of CJK terminal
       features.

	Input method
       Mined provides  the  following  built-in	 input	methods	 for  Chinese:
       Pinyin,	Cangjie,  WuBi,	 4Corner,  Boshiamy, and special support for a
       Radical/Stroke lookup input method.  Select the input  method  of  your
       preference from the Input method	menu.

	Han character information display
       Mined provides special support for display of Han character information
       according to the	Unihan database. It comprises semantic information and
       Mandarin,  Cantonese,  Hanyu Pinlu, Hanyu Pinyin, XHC Hanyu pinyin, and
       Tang dynasty pronunciation.

	Accented character input support
       For Latin-based Pinyin transcription of Chinese,	the usual accent  pre-
       fix functionality is available.	<!p>

   Japanese
	Character sets
       In  addition to Unicode,	mined supports JIS character sets in EUC-JP or
       Shift_JIS (CP932) multi-byte encoding ->NEW-> and EUC-JIS-2004 (X 0213)
       or Shift_JIS-2004 (X 0213) encoding.  To	view and edit a	file in	one of
       these encodings,	select it from the Encoding menu (section "Japanese"),
       or use the respective command line parameter -EJ	or -ES.	 See Character
       encoding	flags for details.
       Auto-detection: EUC-JP/-JIS and Shift_JIS text encodings	are also auto-
       detected	 when  opening	a file (with a certain success rate).  Set the
       environment variable MINEDDETECT="JS" to	 constrain  auto-detection  to
       EUC-JP  and  Shift_JIS  encodings,  ->NEW-> or MINEDDETECT="Xx" to con-
       strain auto-detection to	EUC-JIS	X 0213 and Shift_JIS X 0213 encodings.
       See Mined configuration for details.
       Terminal:  Mined	 supports  native CJK terminals; make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       encodings support for details on	detection and handling of CJK terminal
       features.

	Input method
       Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Japanese: Hira-
       gana,  Katakana,	 TUT  roma,  and  special support for a	Radical/Stroke
       lookup input method.  Select the	input method of	your  preference  from
       the Input method	menu.
       Mined does not implement, however, advanced Japanese input methods that
       provide semantics-based Hanja input; for	these, you will	have to	set up
       or  use an external input method	with your operating environment, which
       is then handled by the terminal which delivers  ready-composed  charac-
       ters transparently to the application.

	Han character information display
       Mined provides special support for display of Han character information
       according to the	Unihan database. It comprises semantic information and
       Japanese	and Sino-Japanese pronunciation.

	Accented character input support
       For Latin-based Romaji transcription of Japanese, the usual accent pre-
       fix functionality is available.	<!p>

   Korean
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports UHC  (CP949,  including  EUC-KR)
       and Johab multi-byte character sets.  To	view and edit a	file in	one of
       these encodings,	select it from the Encoding menu  (section  "Korean"),
       or use the respective command line parameter -EK	or -EH.	 See Character
       encoding	flags for details.
       Auto-detection: UHC text	encoding is also auto-detected when opening  a
       file  (with  a  certain	success	 rate).	  Set the environment variable
       MINEDDETECT="K" to constrain auto-detection to UHC encoding.  See Mined
       configuration for details.
       Terminal:  Mined	 supports  native CJK terminals; make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       encodings support for details on	detection and handling of CJK terminal
       features.

	Input method
       Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Korean: Hangul,
       Hanja,  and  special  support for a Radical/Stroke lookup input method.
       Select the input	method of your preference from the Input method	menu.

	Han character information display
       Mined provides special support for display of Han character information
       according to the	Unihan database. It comprises semantic information and
       Hangul and Korean pronunciation.	 <!p>

   Vietnamese
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports VISCII, TCVN and ->NEW-> Windows
       Vietnamese  (CP1258) character sets.  To	view and edit a	file in	one of
       these encodings,	select it  from	 the  Encoding	menu  (section	"Viet-
       namese"), or use	the respective command line parameter -EV or -EN.  See
       Character encoding flags	for details.
       Auto-detection: VISCII text encoding is also auto-detected when opening
       a  file	(with  a  certain success rate).  Set the environment variable
       MINEDDETECT="V" to constrain auto-detection to  VISCII  encoding.   See
       Mined configuration for details.
       Terminal:  If  your  terminal runs this encoding, make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined provides the following built-in input methods for Vietnamese: VNI
       and VIQR.  Select the input method of your preference  from  the	 Input
       method menu.
       It may be more convenient, however, to use the extensive	accented char-
       acter input support provided by mined together  with  a	normal	Latin-
       based  keyboard (so without a keyboard-mapping input method), see Char-
       acter input support for Vietnamese below.

	Character input	support
       Mined provides input support for	multiple accented characters  as  used
       in Vietnamese, as well as convenient accent prefix functions for	combi-
       nations of two Vietnamese accents.  Modified Ctrl-/Alt-/Alt-Ctrl- digit
       keys  are  used for Vietnamese accent prefix functions.	Alternatively,
       mnemonic	character input	can be used.  See Accented and mnemonic	 input
       support for details, and	see below for some introducing comments.

       An  accent prefix can either be applied to the plain Latin base letter,
       or to a precomposed Vietnamese letter which already has one of the  ac-
       cents.  These are:

	      U+00C2  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+00E2  LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH	CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+00CA  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+00EA  LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH	CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+00D4  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+00F4  LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH	CIRCUMFLEX

	      U+0102  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE

	      U+0103  LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH	BREVE

	      U+01A0  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH HORN

	      U+01A1  LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH	HORN

	      U+01AF  LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH HORN

	      U+01B0  LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH	HORN

       Examples: Suppose your keyboard is mapped to have Vietnamese characters
       like A with circumflex available. Then:

       ^V A ' (Ctrl-V A-circumflex apostrophe)
	      enters the composite character U+1EA4  (A	 with  circumflex  and
	      acute)

       ^V ~ O (Ctrl-V O-circumflex tilde)
	      enters  the  composite  character	 U+1ED6	(O with	circumflex and
	      tilde)

       Ctrl-6 A
	      enters U+00C2 (A with circumflex)

       Alt-4 A
	      enters U+1EAA (A with circumflex and tilde)

       Ctrl-Alt-3 A
	      enters U+1EB2 (A with breve and hook above)

       Ctrl-Alt-3 O
	      enters U+1EDE (O with horn and hook above)

       Note: Using composite base characters in	mined character	 mnemonics  or
       accent  prefix  combinations  as	just described also works in non-UTF-8
       text encoding mode (e.g.	in VISCII or TCVN encoding).  <!p>

   Thai
	Character sets
       In addition to Unicode, mined supports the TIS-620 character set	 (with
       CP874 extensions).  To view and edit a file in this encoding, select it
       from the	Encoding menu (section "Thai"),	or use the respective  command
       line parameter -ET.  See	Character encoding flags for details.
       Terminal:  If  your  terminal runs this encoding, make sure to indicate
       this properly with an environment variable (LC_*	/ LANG).  See Terminal
       environment for details.

	Input method
       Mined  provides	a built-in Thai	input method.  Select the input	method
       from the	Input method menu.

	Accented character input support
       Not yet implemented. Tell me if you have	a proposal or  preference  for
       assignment of accent prefix functions to	the keyboard.

Character handling support
       This  chapter  describes	 mined features	for character manipulation and
       display of characters and character properties. Unicode	and  CJK  spe-
       cific features are described in the respective chapters.	 Character in-
       put support is described	separately in the subsequent chapter.

   Script highlighting
       It may be desirable to distinguish characters in	 different  script  by
       displaying  their glyphs	in different colours.  (This especially	allows
       to  distinguish	easier	between	 similar  glyphs  as  they  occur   in
       Latin/Greek/Cyrillic scripts.)
       Script highlighting is currently	pre-configured for Greek and Cyrillic.
       It uses the terminal's 256-colour mode if available.
       The scripts to highlight	and the	colour values to use can be configured
       at compile-time.	 See Mined configuration below.

   Combining characters
       When  editing  text  in Unicode or any encoding that contains combining
       characters, mined supports display and editing of  combining  and  com-
       bined characters.

       (Note:  Terminal	support	for combining characters is auto-detected; ad-
       ditional	command	line options are available in case this	fails.)
       If mined	operates on a terminal that handles combining  characters,  it
       offers  two  editing modes: combined or separated.  They	can be toggled
       by clicking the Combining display flag in the Quick Options (Mode indi-
       cation)	flags area (right part of the top screen line),	or by the menu
       entry "Options -	Combined display"; separated display mode can also  be
       selected	by the command line option -c.

       Combined	display	and editing mode (Combining display flag c)
	      Combined characters are displayed	as intended (i.e., combined).

       o      Micro movement into combined characters:

	      o	     The  cursor  can  be moved	into a combined	character with
		     Ctrl-cursor-left and Ctrl-cursor-right, or	^V cursor-left
		     and ^V cursor-right.

	      o	     You  can  determine  the  exact position of the cursor if
		     permanent character info is switched on (by HOP ESC u  or
		     with HOP "Toggle Char info" in the	Options	menu).

       o      Partially	editing	combined characters:

	      o	     If	 the  cursor  is  on a combined	character, delete next
		     character (e.g. Del on  small  keypad)  will  delete  the
		     whole combined character, with all	combining accents.

	      o	     If	 the  cursor is	on a combined character, Ctrl-Del will
		     delete only the base character, leaving combining accents
		     which may then be combined	with the previous character.

	      o	     If	the cursor is within a combined	character, delete next
		     character will delete the current combining accent	only.

	      o	     Smart  backspacing:  Ctrl-Backarrow   or	F5   Backarrow
		     ("Delete  single")	 behind	or within a combined character
		     will only delete the rightmost combining accent  (preced-
		     ing the cursor position) while Backarrow would delete the
		     whole combined character.
		     Note:->NEW-> Configuration	option plain_BS	(command  line
		     option   +Bp)  switches  the  Backarrow  key  from	 smart
		     backspacing to plain backspacing, i.e. no auto-undent and
		     only delete one combining character of a combined charac-
		     ter.   Use	 Shift-Control-Backarrow  to   perform	 smart
		     backspacing then.

	      o	     You  can  also position the cursor	as described above and
		     use copy-and-paste	operations.
       Note: Ctrl-cursor-left and Ctrl-cursor-right only work  if  these  keys
       are  configured to emit distinguished escape sequences with Control key
       held down.  With	xterm, this works by  default.	 With  rxvt,  use  the
       small  keypad  cursor  keys, or enable Control on the right keypad with
       the sample configuration	file Xdefaults.mined in	the Mined runtime sup-
       port  library.	With mlterm, enable this with the sample configuration
       file mlterm/key in the Mined runtime support  library.	Ctrl-Backarrow
       can  also  be  configured to work with xterm but	doesn't	appear to work
       with rxvt or mlterm, use	F5 Backarrow instead.

       Separated display and editing mode (Combining display flag `)
	      Combined characters are separated	into base character  and  com-
	      bining  character(s)  for	display	and editing. Combining charac-
	      ters are indicated with coloured background.

	      o	     In	separated display mode,	all cursor and text  modifica-
		     tion operations work on the combining parts as displayed.

       Input support: For input	of Unicode combining characters,
	      see Combining character input below.

       Note: Unicode combining characters (according to	the
	      most recent version of Unicode known to mined) that are not han-
	      dled as combining	characters by the terminal (which might	imple-
	      ment  an	older version of Unicode) are always displayed like in
	      separated	display	mode.

       Note: Isolated combining	characters, i.e. those
	      appearing	at a line beginning or after a TAB character, are  al-
	      ways displayed like in separated display mode.

   Character information display
       The command ESC u displays character encoding information in the	bottom
       status line (conforming to ISO 14755); it displays the  character  code
       in  the	selected  encoding (UTF-8 byte sequence	in UTF-8 mode) and the
       ISO-10646 (Unicode) value of the	current	character, as well as  Unicode
       script  range and character category, width, and	combining information.
       The Unicode value is displayed with 4 hexadecimal digits	if the charac-
       ter  is	in  the	Unicode	BMP (Basic Multilingual	Plane, 16 bit),	with 6
       digits if it is a Unicode character outside of the BMP, and 8 digits if
       it  is an ISO-10646 character outside of	the Unicode range.  The	infor-
       mation displayed	also indicates all kinds of encoding irregularities.
       For the Unicode data version used  for  character  properties  see  the
       mined change log.

       Permanent display of character information is toggled with HOP ESC u or
       by selecting "Char info"	in the Info menu (or  with  HOP	 "Toggle  Char
       info" in	the Options menu).

       In the Info menu, attributes that are shown with	the character informa-
       tion can	be selected: Unicode  script  name,  Unicode  character	 name,
       ->NEW->	Unicode	 named sequence, Unicode character decomposition, list
       of input	mnemonics.  Note that Unicode named sequence information  only
       applies	to a small number of named sequences, otherwise	normal charac-
       ter information is shown	instead; also, it is only  shown  in  combined
       display mode, so	normal information can be quickly toggled by switching
       to separated display mode (middle-click on c flag).

       Character information display can be selected with the +?c command line
       parameter  (see	parameter description for further options).  To	prese-
       lect continuous character information display, append +?c to the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  MINEDOPT  or enable option "display_charinfo"	in the
       runtime configuration file $HOME/.minedrc.

	Han character information display
       CJK-specific character information (semantic and	pronuciation hints) is
       described below in section Han character	information display.

   Character conversion	features
	Case conversion
       The  case  conversion functions (ESC C, HOP ESC C, F11, HOP F11,	Shift-
       F3) cover the full Unicode range.  They also handle special cases  like
       Greek  final  sigma,  optionally	 Turkish "i", case mapping to multiple
       characters, and Lithuanian special conditions.  Japanese	characters are
       toggled between Hiragana	and Katakana by	the same functions.
       Shift-F3	 cycles	casing of a word between all small, title case (begin-
       ning capital), and all capitals.	It handles title casing, using Unicode
       title  case  characters	for the	first character	when appropriate.  For
       Japanese	script,	it toggles the word between Hiragana and Katakana.
       The case	mapping	is based on the	most recent Unicode  version  compiled
       into mined (for the actual version see the mined	change log and the Op-
       tions menu About	command).  It is applicable in all text	encodings.

	Line end type conversion
       In the Options menu, a submenu "Lineend type..."	 offers	 functions  to
       convert	the  line end of the current line to LF	or CRLF, or to convert
       the line	end type of all	lines that do not have a special line  end  to
       LF or CRLF.

	Numeric	conversion
       Commands	are available to insert	characters corresponding to a hexadec-
       imal character code or  hexadecimal/octal/decimal  Unicode  value  con-
       tained  in  the text, to	insert a respective value corresponding	to the
       current character, or to	toggle the preceding character and  its	 hexa-
       decimal	Unicode	value (Alt-x).	For details, see the section Code con-
       version in the Command reference.

	Numeric	entity (HTML/URL) conversion
       HTML numeric character entities (e.g. &#x40; or &#64; for @) or URL es-
       cape notation (e.g. %20 for space, %C3%86 for AE) can be	converted into
       unescaped characters. Use one of	the  Mnemonic  character  substitution
       commands	(ESC _ or national variants) described below.

	Mnemonic conversion
       A  character  mnemonic  at the cursor position can be replaced with its
       associated character. Use one of	the  Mnemonic  character  substitution
       commands	(ESC _ or national variants) described below.

	Encoding conversion support
       A  special  feature  offers  interactive	 conversion to or from Unicode
       character encoding, see Encoding	conversion support in chapter  Unicode
       support below.

	Unicode	Copy/Paste buffer
       The  Copy/Paste buffer can be operated in Unicode mode in which case it
       converts	between	text edited in	different  character  encodings.   See
       Unicode Copy/Paste buffer conversion below.

   Smart quotes
       In  Smart  quotes  mode,	 straight  (double or single) quote characters
       <<">> or	<<'>> are automatically	substituted with an opening or closing
       typographic  quotation mark, depending on the text context, or an apos-
       trophe where appropriate.  Also,	an acute accent	 key  enters  a	 typo-
       graphic apostrophe.  ->NEW-> Alt-" or Alt-' enter the respective	quota-
       tion marks of the previous or standby style (see	below).
       Quote marks style selection:

	      o	     Select the	quotation marks	style to be applied  from  the
		     Smart  Quotes selection menu (open	with ESC Q or Alt-Q or
		     right-click on the	smart quotes indication	in  the	 flags
		     area in the top screen line).

	      o	     To	 toggle	 between  the  current	and the	previous smart
		     quotes style,  middle-click  or  double-click  the	 smart
		     quotes flag or select "standby" from the menu.

	      o	     ->NEW-> To	select the smart quotes	style suitable for the
		     current locale, select "by	locale"	from the menu. This is
		     also  achieved with the configuration option smart_quotes
		     or	the command line option	-q.
       Quotation marks style can be preselected	by either  of  the  mechanisms
       described below.

       The smart quotes	left/right selection algorithm considers both the text
       context and the state (whether an open quote was	 inserted  before)  to
       automatically support smart quotes also in CJK text, and	to try to dis-
       tinguish	an apostrophe from a quote mark.  ->NEW-> At a line beginning,
       always  a left (opening)	quotation mark is chosen, supporting the habit
       in some languages to repeat opening quote marks for each	new  paragraph
       inside a	quotation.
       French quotation	marks spacing is automatically applied (using no-break
       space U+00A0) if	French style has been selected from the	menu or	by lo-
       cale.
       A typographic apostrophe	can also be inserted with HOP '	(^G ') or with
       HOP ' (acute accent), regardless	of smart quotes	mode.  In smart	quotes
       mode,  a	 typographic  apostrophe is also inserted on input of '	(acute
       accent).
       Straight	quotes or accent marks (" ' ` ') can be	inserted with mnemonic
       compose pairs (^V ^ " or	^V ^ ' or ^V ^ ` or ^V ^ ', or ^V"# or ^V'# or
       ^V`# or ^V'# respectively).
       Smart quotes are	applicable in all text encodings provided the  desired
       quote marks are contained in the	selected encoding.

       When  a	file is	loaded,	mined tries to determine the applicable	quota-
       tion marks style	in two ways: With file position	memory (see File info:
       Memory of file position and editing style parameters above), mined also
       remembers the last selected smart quotes	mode for the  file.   If  that
       information  is	not  available,	 mined auto-detects existing quotation
       marks in	the file and adjusts its smart quotes  mode  accordingly.  The
       option -q overrides this	detection.

       ->NEW-> With command-line option	-q alone, quotation marks style	is de-
       rived from locale information (environment variables ->NEW->  LANGUAGE,
       TEXTLANG,  LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE,  LANG), or	from a locale value given with
       the option as -q=locale.	 For some languages,  two  styles  are	prede-
       fined,  using  the  primary style as active smart quotes	style, and the
       secondary or alternate style as standby style, for quick	toggling  with
       a  middle  mouse	 click	on the Quotes flag (or using the standby entry
       from the	Quote marks menu).  The	active quote marks style can  also  be
       derived	explicitly from	the locale with	the Quotes menu	option "by lo-
       cale".
       Option +q exchanges primary and alternate quotation marks  style,  set-
       ting the	alternate style	active.
       Without	an  option -q, the primary locale-derived quote	marks style is
       always set as standby style to be quickly available.
       Note: Language-dependent	quotations marks styles	are  determined	 using
       the  compile-time  configuration	 file quotes.cfg.  See Quotation Marks
       Styles on the mined web site for	a listing.
       Note: Smart quotes style	can also be  preselected  giving  the  desired
       quotation  marks	directly, either as command line option	like -q="<<>>"
       or with the environment variable	 MINEDQUOTES  (see  under  Environment
       configuration  hints below); this overrides both	auto-detection and the
       preference saved	with the cursor	position.

	Smart text replacements: apostrophe, smart dashes, arrows and  glottal
       stop
       If  smart  quotes  are active, some other smart input text replacements
       are applied to respective characters being  entered.   (Replacement  of
       subsequent character input sequences is suppressed during a repeat com-
       mand entering multiple characters.)

       --     if preceded by a Space character:	en dash	(U+2013)
	      otherwise: em dash (U+2014)

       -  or -TAB
	      -_NEW-_ if leading a line	(only white  space  before):  en  dash
	      (U+2013)

       -      -_NEW-_ if embedded in spaces: minus sign	(U+2212)

       -      if  an  adjacent character is in the Hebrew script range:	Hebrew
	      hyphen mark Maqaf	(U+05BE)

       <-     leftwards	arrow (U+2190)

       ->     rightwards arrow (U+2192)

       <>     left right arrow (U+2194)

       '      apostrophe (U+2019 right single quotation	mark)

       `      glottal stop (U+02BB modifier letter turned comma)

       Note: ->NEW-> Mined smartly avoids inappropriate	placement of smart re-
       placements  as  well as double spaces by	redundant combination of smart
       spaces and explicitly entered spaces, so	you can	seamlessly type	either
       "bonjour"  or " bonjour " to enter << bonjour >>	with French quotes, or
       a -- b to enter an en dash although a space is initially	inserted after
       it.

Character input	support
       Some  character	input  support	features support international scripts
       (especially with	Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods), others mainly ad-
       dress  composite	characters.  For the latter, it	is useful to explain a
       few notions:

       Combining character:
	      A	character (usually in Unicode) that is defined to combine with
	      the  previous  character	into  a	combined character, to be dis-
	      played as	a single glyph (visual unit).

       Combined	character:
	      The glyph	combination of a Unicode  character  (base  character)
	      with one or more Unicode combining characters.

       Composed	character (or composite	character):
	      A	character that has one or more accents composed	into it, or is
	      otherwise	composed of components,	like the ae  ligature,	to  be
	      displayed	 as a single glyph. It can be a	single Unicode charac-
	      ter or a Unicode combined	character consisting of	a Unicode base
	      character	and one	or two Unicode combining characters.

       Accented	character (or diacritic	character):
	      A	 special  case of a composite character	where a	letter is com-
	      posed with one or	more accents.

       Compose key:
	      A	number of system and keyboard vendors have equipped their key-
	      boards  with  a "Compose"	or "Combine" key. This key - when con-
	      figured and interpreted properly by the operating	environment  -
	      produces a composed character which is then provided as input to
	      the application.

   Accented and	mnemonic input support
       Function	keys or	character mnemonics can	be used	to enter  accented  or
       other  composite	 characters.   (This is	also known as digraph function
       with some editors.)
       These character composition functions also work on the prompt line.
       (Any composite character	configured on your keyboard can	of course also
       be entered directly or using the	Compose/Combine	key of your keyboard.)

       Note that mnemonic input	and accent prefix keys can be
	      combined in flexible ways, e.g.

       ^V ' Ctrl-F6 e
	      or

       F6 ^V e ^
	      which both enter U+1EBF (e with circumflex and acute)

       Mnemonic	input can be applied recursively to compose a character
	      for further composition, e.g.

       ^V ' ^V a e
	      enters U+01FD (ae	with acute)

       Accent prefix keys can use an already precomposed base
	      character	for further composition; if this does not match	an ex-
	      plicitly known mnemonic, the base	character is decomposed	 first
	      to find a	match, e.g.

       F6 u   or

       F5 u   which both enter U+01D8 (u with diaeresis	and acute)

       Up to three accent prefix keys can be combined by entering
	      them  in	sequence  in order to compose characters with multiple
	      accents, e.g.

       F5 F6 u
	      enters U+01D8 (u with diaeresis and acute)

       Ctrl-2 Ctrl-7 a
	      enters U+1EB1 (a with grave and breve)

       Ctrl-- Ctrl-: u
	      enters U+1E7B (u with macron and diaeresis)

       Ctrl-, Ctrl-( e
	      enters U+1E1D (e with cedilla and	breve)

       Alt-7 Ctrl-, < alpha >

       Alt-F6 Shift-F6 Ctrl-, <	alpha >

       Ctrl-< Ctrl-` Ctrl-, < alpha >
	      all enter	U+1F82 (alpha with psili and varia and	ypogegrammeni)
	      where < alpha > indicates	the Greek letter alpha,	which may e.g.
	      be entered by selecting the Greek	input method  and  typing  the
	      "a" key

	Accent prefix keys
       General notes on	using keys with	Control, Shift,	Alt modifiers:
	      Especially  for accented character input,	mined makes use	of key
	      combinations modified with Control, Shift, Alt, or a combination
	      of them.	Some of	these key combinations may be limited by local
	      environment, especially the window system,  or  may  need	 extra
	      configuration to be enabled.

	      o	     Hint  on  input of	Alt/Ctrl-modified function keys: These
		     are often intercepted by window systems for special func-
		     tions.

		     o	    Alt:  Alternatively	 to using the Alt key, the ESC
			    key	can be used as a prefix	to a function  key  to
			    achieve  the  same	modified function, e.g.	ESC F6
			    instead of Alt-F6.	Note, however, that  there  is
			    an	ESCAPE delay (default 450 ms) during which the
			    subsequent function	key should be pressed.

		     o	    Control: Alternatively to using the	 Control  key,
			    Ctrl-V  can	 be used as a prefix to	a function key
			    to achieve the same	modified function, e.g.	Ctrl-V
			    F6 instead of Ctrl-F6.
	      Specific advice:

	      Window system
		     suppresses
		     remedy

	      KDE    Ctrl-Fn, Ctrl-Shift-Fn, Alt-Fn
		     press  the	 "Window  key"	additionally at	the same time,
		     e.g. Window-Alt-F6	or use ESC or  Ctrl-V  prefixes,  e.g.
		     ESC F6 (be	fast!),	Ctrl-V Shift-F5

	      gnome-wm
		     Alt-F5
		     Window-Alt-F5 or ESC F5 (be fast!)

	      fvwm2  Alt-Fn
		     ESC Fn (be	fast!)

	      Exceed Alt-Fn, Alt-Shift-Fn
		     ESC Fn, ESC Shift-Fn (be fast!)
		     or:  configure  ("Tools - Configuration...	- Keyboard In-
		     put") "Windows Modifier Behavior -	Alt Key:"  and	select
		     "To X"

	      o	     Modified digit keys (e.g. Alt-2) as well as Ctrl-modified
		     punctuation keys (e.g. Ctrl-;) are	used as	 extended  and
		     intuitive accent prefix keys.  To enable them, either use
		     a recent version of xterm (216) or	 configure  them  with
		     your terminal.
		     Configuration  instructions  for  older versions of xterm
		     and for rxvt  can	be  found  in  the  sample  file  Xde-
		     faults.mined in the Mined runtime support library.

	      o	     Note: In rxvt, Ctrl-modified and shifted punctuation keys
		     (if enabled by configuration following  the  hint	above)
		     interfere	with ISO 14755 input mode of rxvt; if the fol-
		     lowing key	is entered twice, that mode is aborted and the
		     modified  punctuation  key	becomes	effective as an	accent
		     prefix in mined.

	      o	     Warning: The Alt-F4 key combination should	not accidently
		     be	 hit as	many window managers use it to kill the	termi-
		     nal window!

       The following table lists the accent prefix keys:

       F5     (Sun: R4/-) diaeresis (umlaut) / dialytika

       Shift-F5
	      (Sun: R5//) tilde	/ perispomeni

       Ctrl-F5
	      (Sun: R6/x) ring / cedilla / iota	(ypogegrammeni)

       Alt-F5 stroke

       Ctrl-Shift-F5
	      ogonek / prosgegrammeni

       Alt-Shift-F5
	      breve / vrachy

       F6     (Sun: R3)	acute (accent d'aigu) /	tonos

       Shift-F6
	      (Sun: R1)	grave /	varia

       Ctrl-F6
	      (Sun: R2)	circumflex / oxia

       Alt-F6 caron / psili

       Ctrl-Shift-F6
	      macron / descender

       Alt-Shift-F6
	      dot above	/ dasia

       Ctrl-1 acute

       Ctrl-2 grave

       Ctrl-3 hook above

       Ctrl-4 tilde

       Ctrl-5 dot below

       Ctrl-6 circumflex

       Ctrl-7 breve

       Ctrl-8 horn

       Ctrl-9 stroke

       Ctrl-0 ring / cedilla

       Alt-1  circumflex and acute

       Alt-2  circumflex and grave

       Alt-3  circumflex and hook above

       Alt-4  circumflex and tilde

       Alt-5  circumflex and dot below

       Ctrl-Alt-1
	      breve/horn and acute (composes  following	 A/a  with  breve  and
	      acute, or	following O/o or U/u with horn and acute)

       Ctrl-Alt-2
	      breve/horn and grave

       Ctrl-Alt-3
	      breve/horn and hook above

       Ctrl-Alt-4
	      breve/horn and tilde

       Ctrl-Alt-5
	      breve/horn and dot below

       Alt-6  psili and	oxia

       Ctrl-Alt-6
	      dasia and	oxia

       Alt-7  psili and	varia

       Ctrl-Alt-7
	      dasia and	varia

       Alt-8  psili and	perispomeni

       Ctrl-Alt-8
	      dasia and	perispomeni

       Ctrl-' (Ctrl-apostrophe)	acute (d'aigu) / tonos

       Ctrl-' (Ctrl-acute) acute (d'aigu) / oxia

       Ctrl-` (Ctrl-grave) grave / varia

       Ctrl-^ circumflex / oxia

       Ctrl-~ tilde / perispomeni / titlo

       Ctrl-: diaeresis	(umlaut) / dialytika

       Ctrl-" diaeresis	(umlaut) / dialytika

       Ctrl-, cedilla /	ring / iota (ypogegrammeni)

       Ctrl-/ stroke

       Ctrl-- (Ctrl-minus) macron / descender

       Ctrl-< caron / psili

       Ctrl-. dot above	/ dasia	(with i	or j: dotless)

       Ctrl-( breve / vrachy

       Ctrl-; ogonek / prosgegrammeni /	tail / tick / upturn

       Ctrl-) inverted breve

       Ctrl-& hook

       Ctrl-- Ctrl-&
	      middle hook

       Note:  If  your keyboard	assignment provides its	own accent prefix keys
       ("dead keys"), pressing the key twice usually delivers the  correspond-
       ing  spacing  character	which can then be used for the extended	accent
       prefix functionality of mined; e.g. hold	Control, then press  '	(acute
       key) twice, to invoke the acute/oxia prefix function of mined.

       Note: For combining multiple accents, in	most
	      cases  their  order does not matter. As an exception, to combine
	      dot above	and macron, enter prefix keys  in  this	 order,	 as  s
	      macron and dot above will	be interpreted as dot below.

       dot macron
	      e.g. Ctrl-. Ctrl-- dot above and macron (on A or O)

       macron dot
	      e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-.  dot below

       Note: For the sake of accepting Ctrl--
	      intuitively  both	 as  an	accent prefix for macron as well as an
	      accent modifier to place an accent below a  letter,  the	macron
	      accent  prefix  combined	with another accent prefix key is also
	      interpreted as applying that accent below. As  a	workaround  to
	      ambiguous	cases, it has to be applied twice with diaeris for di-
	      aeresis below (U), and three times for line below.

       macron macron diaeresis
	      e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- Ctrl-:	diaeresis below

       macron diaeresis
	      e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-: macron	and diaeresis

       diaeresis macron
	      e.g. Ctrl-: Ctrl-- diaeresis and macron

       macron macron macron
	      e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- Ctrl--	line below

       Note: Some accent prefix	keys, when applied twice in
	      sequence,	are mapped to a	single accent as follows:

       acute acute
	      e.g. F6 F6 double	acute accent

       grave grave
	      e.g. Shift-F6 Shift-F6 double grave accent

       macron macron
	      e.g. Ctrl-- Ctrl-- bar/topbar

       cedilla cedilla
	      e.g. Ctrl-, Ctrl-, psili/comma below

   Combining character input
       Unicode combining characters can	be entered
	      by applying accent prefix	keys to	the Tab	key. They will be vis-
	      ually  combined  with the	previous character by rules of Unicode
	      (and by terminal implementation).	Examples:

       Ctrl-, Tab
	      combining	cedilla

       F6 F6 Tab
	      combining	double acute accent

   Special character input shortcuts
       Typographic quotation marks can be entered
	      by applying accent prefix	keys to	the space key as  follows,  or
	      using  certain  input mnemonics or shifted combinations (see be-
	      low):

       (twice) grave space
	      (double) left quotation mark

       (twice) acute space
	      (double) right quotation mark

       acute space
	      e.g. F6 space or Ctrl-' space also serves	 for  input  of	 typo-
	      graphic apostrophe (or HOP ')

       (twice) cedilla space
	      (double) low-9 quotation mark

       (twice) dot above space
	      (double) high-reversed-9 quotation mark

       ^V < < or ^V > >
	      double angle quotation marks << >>

       ^V < space or ^V	> space
	      single angle quotation marks

       " or ' outer or inner quotation mark of selected	quote marks style

       Alt-" or	Alt-'
	      ->NEW->  outer or	inner quotation	mark of	previous/standby quote
	      marks style

       Some characters are specifically	mapped to special key
	      combinations or specific applications of accent prefix keys  for
	      convenience or for Windows compatibility:

       Ctrl-Shift-space
	      no-break space (U+00A0)

       Ctrl-@ a/A
	      a/A

       Ctrl-& a/A
	      ae/AE

       Ctrl-& o/O
	      oe/OE ligature

       Ctrl-& s
	      ss

       Ctrl-? ?

       Ctrl-! !

       As  with	modified keys in general, these	shortcuts may depend on	proper
       terminal	configuration according	to the sample files in the Mined  run-
       time support library.

   Line	ends
       Key combinations	are available to enter specific	kinds of line ends
	      (works in	xterm and mintty):

       Ctrl-Alt-Enter
	      DOS or Unix line end (if editing Unix or DOS file, respectively)

       Ctrl-Shift-Alt-Enter
	      Mac line end

       Ctrl-Enter
	      Unicode line separator (if editing Unicode text)

       Shift-Enter or HOP Enter
	      Unicode paragraph	separator (if editing Unicode text)

       ->NEW-> Control-Shift-Enter
	      ISO 8859 Next Line (if editing Unicode or	ISO 8859 text)

       Also, the line end type of a line can be	changed	from a submenu
	      of the Options menu.

   Character input mnemonics
       The  enter-control-code	prefix	(^V  by	 default, ^Q in	emacs keyboard
       mode, ^_	in Windows and pico keyboard modes, ^P	in  WordStar  keyboard
       mode)  can be used for mnemonic character composition.  This covers ac-
       cented characters and other mnemonics.  The available mnemonics include
       RFC1345	mnemonics  (extended  to  provide generic accent mnemonics for
       Unicode characters), mnemonics known from HTML and TeX,	->NEW->	 groff
       glyphs  (roff  special characters), and useful supplementary mnemonics.
       See Character Mnemos reference on the mined web site for	a listing.
       Supplementary character mnemonics are consistent	with  generic  RFC1345
       mnemonics; scripts covered are Latin, Greek, Cyrillic.

       For  accent  compositions, mnemonic patterns (generic accent mnemonics)
       are listed in the following table; the respective letter	to  place  the
       accent(s) on is indicated with an "x" below.

       For Greek and Cyrillic accented characters, mnemonics combining accents
       with Greek or Cyrillic base characters are generated automatically from
       the UnicodeData.txt database.
       Greek and Cyrillic accent prefix	keys reuse those for Latin accents and
       are listed in the sections on Greek and Cyrillic	 script	 support  (see
       Language	support).

       generic mnemonic
	      accent placed on the base	character ("x")

       x: or "x
	      diaeresis	(umlaut)

       x' or 'x
	      acute (accent d'aigu)

       x! or `x
	      grave

       x> or ^x
	      circumflex

       x? or ~x
	      tilde

       x0 or <degree>x
	      ring above

       x,     cedilla

       x-     macron

       x(     breve

       x.     dot above	/ middle dot

       x_ or _x
	      line below

       x/     stroke

       x" or x''
	      double acute

       x;     ogonek

       x<     caron

       x2     hook above

       x9     horn

       x-> or >x
	      circumflex below

       x-. or .x
	      dot below

       x--. or .x-
	      dot below	and macron

       x.-. or .x.
	      dot below	and dot	above

       x7 or x.-
	      dot above	and macron

       x~- or x?-
	      tilde and	macron

       x;-    ogonek and macron

       x:-    diaeresis	and macron

       x-:    macron and diaeresis

       x-'    macron and acute

       x-!    macron and grave

       -x or x--
	      topbar

       --x or x--
	      bar

       ,x or x-,
	      comma below / left hook

       x# or x!!
	      double grave

       x)     inverted breve

       x&     hook

       %x     retroflex	hook

       x,,    palatal hook

       x~~    middle tilde

       x}     curl

       x-? or ?x
	      tilde below

       x--: or :x
	      diaeresis	below

       x-0 or ox
	      ring below

       x-( or (x
	      breve below

       x(-. or .x(
	      breve and	dot below

       x>-. or .x>
	      circumflex and dot below

       x9-. or .x9
	      horn and dot below

       x'.    acute and	dot above

       x('    breve and	acute

       x(!    breve and	grave

       x(2    breve and	hook above

       x(?    breve and	tilde

       x<.    caron and	dot above

       x,'    cedilla and acute

       x,(    cedilla and breve

       x>'    circumflex and acute

       x>!    circumflex and grave

       x>2    circumflex and hook above

       x>?    circumflex and tilde

       x:'    diaeresis	and acute

       x:<    diaeresis	and caron

       x:!    diaeresis	and grave

       x9'    horn and acute

       x9!    horn and grave

       x92    horn and hook above

       x9?    horn and tilde

       x0'    ring above and acute

       x/'    stroke and acute

       x?'    tilde and	acute

       x?:    tilde and	diaeresis

       See  also  the  description of the ^V function below for	more input op-
       tions.
       Two-letter mnemonics can	also be	entered	in reverse order  if  this  is
       unambiguous.   Detection	of reverse order mnemomics (two	letters	or one
       letter a_d multiple accents) as well as the generic accent mnemonics  "
       ^ ` ~ "	 ' , <degree> works with both short mnemonic entry (two-letter
       "^Vxy") and full	mnemonic entry ("^V xy... ").

       Mnemonic	character substitution commands	(ESC _ and national  variants)
       replace characters at the cursor	position with the respective character
       described by them.  The following substitute descriptions are detected:

	      o	     Two-character mnemonic

	      o	     HTML character mnemonic

	      o	     HTML numeric character entity

	      o	     URL escape	notation (bytewise  hexadecimal	 with  %  pre-
		     fixes)

   Keyboard Mapping and	Input Methods
       Mined supports optional keyboard	mapping	which is especially useful for
       Unicode or CJK editing.	When a keyboard	 mapping  is  selected,	 input
       characters  or  sequences  are  transformed  to other characters	or se-
       quences,	typically of a certain Unicode script range.
       Keyboard	mappings for Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic,  and  major  CJK
       input  methods  are  preconfigured (they	have been ordered in the Input
       Method menu according to	the order of their respective basic ranges  in
       the  Unicode character set, or to the order of the letters of the usual
       abbreviation CJKV for East Asian	text processing	-  Chinese,  Japanese,
       Korean,	Vietnamese).  The  Radical/Stroke  input method	provides addi-
       tional functionality as a special case.
       Mined provides compile-time configuration of additional input  methods;
       for  this  aim,	further	 mappings  can	be generated using the mkkbmap
       script (from tables in various formats as used by other editors or sup-
       plied  by  the m17n multilingualization package)	and then compiled into
       mined.  See Mined configuration below for details.

       Keyboard	mapping	works as follows: You enter a  key  sequence  that  is
       mapped  to a character sequence in the selected keyboard	mapping	table.
       The transformed character sequence is used as input.
       As some typical keyboard	mappings contain ambigous key sequences	 where
       one may be a prefix of another, a short delay is	applied	in these cases
       to allow	recognition of any such	sequence to be mapped. After  a	 time-
       out,  the  shorter  sequence already matching will be used; the timeout
       can be cut short	by typing a Space key, the Space character itself will
       then  be	 discarded. (The timeout value is 900 ms by default and	can be
       configured with the environment variable	MAPDELAY.)

	Pick lists
       Some keyboard mappings, especially for CJK input	methods, contain  mul-
       tiple  choice  mappings.	 In these cases, a selection menu is displayed
       that offers a "pick list" to select a character from. A	character  can
       be  picked  with	 a mouse click,	or by navigation to the	desired	choice
       with the	cursor keys (down/up, right/left, page down/up)	or the '<'/'>'
       keys  ,	or by just selecting the menu row first	(cursor-up/down), then
       typing a	digit 1-9 or 0 to select the numbered character.
       The Space key can be configured to either navigate to the next  choice,
       the  next  row, or to select the	current	choice;	see option -K.	If the
       pick list is too	large to fit on	the screen, the	menu  will  be	scrol-
       lable or	pageable (using	cursor keys).

       While  navigating through the pick list,	the line and the selected item
       in the line are highlighted accordingly;	if the current item is	a  CJK
       character,  also	 its character information (description	and optionally
       pronunciations as configured with the Han info option of	the '?'	infor-
       mation  flag  menu)  is	displayed on the status	line. If the item is a
       word comprising multiple	CJK characters,	the information	for  only  the
       first  of  them is shown. The available information is derived from the
       Unihan database.

       Keyboard	mapping	data are based on Unicode. So in CJK  text  mode,  the
       selection  menu (the pick list) may contain symbols that	are not	mapped
       to the active CJK text encoding.	In a UTF-8 terminal, these will	 still
       be displayed but	cannot be inserted. In a CJK terminal, some characters
       may not be displayed; an	empty entry is shown instead. (In  a  non-Uni-
       code,  when  editing  text  in  a different encoding, there may even be
       characters that cannot be displayed in the selection menu  but  can  be
       inserted.)

	Input method selection
       An active and a standby input method (keyboard mapping) are maintained.
       They can	be toggled quickly for text input, also	on the prompt line.
       The current mapping is indicated	as the Input Method flag by  its  two-
       letter  script tag in the flags area, showing "--" if no	mapping	is ac-
       tive.

       The active mapping can be selected in the following ways:

       ESC k or	Alt-k or Ctrl-Alt-F12 or left click on Input Method flag
	      toggles  between	current	 (active)  and	 previously   selected
	      (standby)	input method (keyboard mapping)
	      (Alt- toggle functions also work on prompt line)

       HOP ESC k (or HOP Alt-k)
	      clears  input  method, i.e. resets keyboard mapping to none (un-
	      mapped input)

       ESC I or	Alt-I or ESC K or Alt-K	or Ctrl-F12
	      opens the	Input Method (Keyboard Mapping)	selection menu
	      (Alt-I or	Alt-K or Ctrl-F12 also work on prompt line)

       right click on Input Method flag
	      opens the	Input Method selection menu

       HOP ESC K or HOP	Alt-K
	      cycles through available input methods / keyboard	mappings

	    If file position memory is enabled (see File info: Memory of  file
       position	 and editing style parameters above), mined also remembers the
       last selected input method for the file.

       Note: For preselecting the active or standby input method  by  environ-
       ment  configuration, see	about usage of the environment variable	MINED-
       KEYMAP below.

       Note: Keyboard mapping is implicitly suppressed temporarily where it is
       not useful: during mnemonic character input, HTML marker	input, command
       letter entry, help selection, yes/no prompting.

Character encoding support
       A character encoding for	interpretation and handling  of	 text  is  se-
       lected in one of	the following ways:

	      o	     Interactively  from  the  Encoding	 Menu (one of the flag
		     menus), the encoding interpretation can be	changed	 while
		     editing; to open it, click	with the right mouse button on
		     the encoding indication in	the  flags  area  of  the  top
		     line,  or type Alt-E.  See	also Quick Options (Mode indi-
		     cation) flags for an overview.   To  toggle  between  the
		     current  and  the previously selected encoding, click the
		     Encoding flag with	the left mouse button.

	      o	     Explicitly	with a command line option -E...  with a  num-
		     ber  of options to	specify	the desired text encoding (see
		     the encoding command line options above).

	      o	     By	auto-detection (heuristic counting of valid  character
		     codes).  Note: The	encodings to be	taken into account for
		     auto-detection can	be configured with the MINEDDETECT en-
		     vironment variable. Set it	to the desired list of single-
		     letter encoding indications to disable auto-detection  of
		     other  encodings.	 Recognised  encoding  indications are
		     mentioned in the list of  auto-detected  encodings	 below
		     (they  are	the same as used with the -E parameter); UTF-8
		     auto-detection cannot be disabled this way.

	      o	     By	either environment variable ->NEW-> LANGUAGE or	 TEXT-
		     LANG  (see	 Locale	 configuration), which overrides other
		     locale variable settings for the purpose of text encoding
		     without affecting them otherwise.

	      o	     By	checking the locale environment	(see Locale configura-
		     tion).

   Auto-detected character encodings
       The following encodings are auto-detected unless	overridden with	 a  -E
       command	line option (or	-l or -u); the preceding one-letter tag	can be
       used for	auto-detection configuration  with  the	 environment  variable
       MINEDDETECT:

       -      UTF-8

       -      UTF-16 encoding (big or little endian) with or without BOM (byte
	      order marker)

       8      any 8 bit	encoding; this is auto-detected	in a generic way;  the
	      actual 8 bit encoding assumed corresponds	to the terminal	encod-
	      ing if it	is an 8	bit terminal; otherwise, Latin-1  is  assumed;
	      using  "8"  in the environment variable MINEDDETECT excludes all
	      CJK encodings from auto-detection	(but not UTF-8), and adds  all
	      8	bit encodings that are not included by default

       L      Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1)

       W      Windows Western ("ANSI", CP1252)

       P      PC Latin-1 (CP850)

       M      MacRoman

       -      CJK  encoding (with unspecified mapping) is pre-auto-detected in
	      a	generic	way; usually the actual	CJK  encoding  is  determined,
	      too

       G      GB18030 (including CP936)

       B      Big5 (including CP950)

       J      EUC-JP

       X      ->NEW-> EUC-JIS-2004 / EUC-JIS X 0213

       S      Shift_JIS	/ CP932

       x      ->NEW-> Shift_JIS-2004 / Shift_JIS X 0213

       K      UHC / CP949 (including EUC-KR)

       V      VISCII

       Note: For new files, the	text encoding is derived from the locale envi-
       ronment.	 ->NEW-> With command line option -E- or -E auto-detection  is
       disabled	 and  text encoding is always derived from the locale environ-
       ment.

   CJK and mapped 8 bit	encoding support
       Mined supports major CJK	encodings as well as mapped  8	bit  encodings
       ("character sets").  Mined has built-in support for a large number of 8
       bit encodings which appear to be	in use or unique for a region. The En-
       coding menu has been structured with submenus to	provide	a concise menu
       selection feature.

   ->NEW->
       EBCDIC support  Mined  supports	EBCDIC	encoded	 files	(transparently
       transforming  them  for	internal  handling)  in	the "bracket" codepage
       CP1047 as used by the UNIX System Services (USS)	on IBM	z/OS.	CP1047
       is  selected  with command line option -E=cp1047	or -E.EBCDIC or	-E:47.
       The character encoding flag indicates EBCDIC with "47".
       New files in EBCDIC encoding will by default use	Next Line as line sep-
       arators;	add option -r to prefer	LF.
       New  lines can be added selecting LF or NL lineend type explicitly with
       Ctrl-Enter or Shift-Enter.

   Combining characters
       In all character	encodings handled  by  mined  that  contain  combining
       characters,  mined handles them and provides partial editing and	an op-
       tional separated	display	mode as	described above	in section   Combining
       characters.   (CJK  encodings EUC-JIS-2004, Shift_JIS-2004 and GB18030,
       Vietnamese TCVN and Windows Vietnamese (CP1258),	Thai TIS-620, ISO Ara-
       bic,  Mac Arabic, DOS Arabic, ISO Hebrew, Windows Hebrew).  Handling of
       combining text characters is properly coordinated with the set of  com-
       bining characters supported by the terminal.

       For Japanese X 0213 encodings, the character codes that map to two Uni-
       code characters are supported.

   Character code related commands
       The command ESC u displays character encoding information in the	bottom
       status  line  (conforming  to  ISO  14755); this	includes the character
       code, the mapped	Unicode	character value,  and  optionally  script  and
       character category information, character and named sequence name, com-
       bining and Unicode decomposition	information, and mined mnemonic	 input
       information,  as	configured in the Info menu.  For CJK characters, also
       Han pronunciation and description information is	available.  See	 Char-
       acter information display for details.
       With HOP	ESC u, permanent display is toggled.

       Other commands insert the code of the current character,	insert a char-
       acter taking its	character code or Unicode value	from the text, or tog-
       gle  the	preceding character and	its hexadecimal	Unicode	value (Alt-x).
       For details, see	Code conversion	in the Command reference.

   Terminal environment	for CJK	encoding support
       Mined supports handling of CJK text encoding in any terminal (see  Ter-
       minal encoding support below).  However,	proper display of a wide range
       of CJK characters can obviously only work in either a Unicode  terminal
       (recommended)  or  in a native CJK terminal that	runs the same encoding
       as the selected text encoding.

       CJK terminals: For terminals that support native	 CJK  encodings	 (e.g.
       cxterm,	kterm, hanterm), the terminal encoding assumed by mined	can be
       specified with a	command	line option or by proper locale	indication  in
       one  of the environment variables LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE or LANG.  For	avail-
       able encodings, see Quick Options (Mode indication) flags.   For	 usage
       of the +E options, see the description of the Terminal encoding options
       above.  For usage of the	locale environment variables, see Locale  con-
       figuration.

       Note:  In native	CJK terminals, it is often troublesome to find a work-
       ing encoding configuration and font setup, and the  locale  environment
       is  not	automatically  set  by the terminals.  A collection of wrapper
       scripts is available ( http://towo.net/mined/terminals.tar.gz) to  help
       with  this  setup problem and demonstrate the invocation	of a number of
       different CJK and 8 bit encoded terminal	windows, along with  selection
       of suitable fonts and proper locale environment setting.

       Note:  Native CJK terminals have	a different assumption of the range of
       character codes supported in an encoding	family,	e.g. Big5 / Big5  with
       HKSCS, GB2312 / GBK / GB18030, EUC-KR / UHC, EUC-JP without/with	3 byte
       codes.  For compact handling, mined always assumes the largest superset
       of  these  encoding  families.  It does,	however, have some features to
       prevent display garbage in  most	 cases	when  a	 terminal  supports  a
       smaller character set: By default, mined	does not display the following
       CJK character codes in a	native CJK terminal, i.e. it displays  a  sub-
       stitute indication for them (see	CJK character display above):

	      o	     Unknown  characters:  CJK characters that have no defined
		     mapping to	a valid	Unicode	character.  Use	the +C	option
		     to	 override  this	display	suppression and	enforce	trans-
		     parent display of unknown characters in a CJK terminal.

	      o	     Invalid characters: CJK characters	that do	not match  the
		     encoding  scheme  (e.g. wrt. to specified byte ranges) of
		     the selected encoding.  Use the +CC  option  to  override
		     this  display suppression and enforce transparent display
		     of	invalid	character codes	in a CJK terminal.

	      o	     Extended characters: CJK characters encoded with 3	 or  4
		     bytes.  Use the +CCC option to override this display sup-
		     pression and  enforce  transparent	 display  of  extended
		     character codes in	a CJK terminal.

       Regardless of all these features	and options, it	may not	always be pos-
       sible to	prevent	display	garbage, especially if the font	 used  by  the
       terminal	 does  not  cover  the needed character	range.	To avoid these
       problems	in general, it is recommended to use a	Unicode	 terminal  for
       editing CJK encoded files.

       See also	Terminal interworking problems for special hints about certain
       terminals.

   VT100 special graphics character set	display	support
       ->NEW-> Mined can display and edit files	 containing  codes  for	 VT100
       line  drawing  graphics characters, showing corresponding small letters
       as their	respective graphic symbol.  This option	can  be	 toggled  from
       the  Options menu and will be cleared also on an	explicit screen	redraw
       command (ESC .).

Unicode	support
   Introduction: handling Unicode encodings
       Mined interprets	UTF-8 which is a multi-byte character encoding of  the
       ISO-10646  character set, part of which is also known as	Unicode.  When
       reading a file, it detects UTF-8	encoding automatically	(unless	 over-
       ridden  by explicitly selecting a text encoding with a command line op-
       tion -u or -l or	-E...).	 It can	also edit UTF-16 encoded Unicode files
       (UTF-16 can represent the complete 21 bit Unicode subset	of ISO-10646).
       UTF-16 big or little endian  with  or  without  BOM  (byte  order  mark
       U+FEFF)	is auto-detected or can	be selected with a command-line	option
       (see notes under	Locale configuration below).
       UTF-16 is maintained transparently, i.e.	a UTF-16 encoded file is writ-
       ten  back  in  UTF-16, and if it	was beginning with a BOM this is main-
       tained.	No explicit UTF-16 entry exists, however, in the Encoding menu
       since  the  text	is internally handled in UTF-8.	However, the character
       encoding	flag indicates UTF-16 file encoding with either	"16" (big  en-
       dian) or	"61" (little endian).

   UTF-8 internal representation, transparent handling of other	text
       Mined  handles UTF-8 representation internally and also edits and keeps
       illegal UTF-8 sequences.	This way, if you happen	to open	a  Latin-1  or
       CJK  or	any other encoded file in UTF-8	mode, or switch	encoding while
       editing,	or edit	a file with mixed  encoding,  the  text	 contents  can
       still be	edited and you will not	loose any file contents	information.

   Character encoding indication
       The  upper-right	 flags	area has a character encoding indication which
       shows "U8" if UTF-8 text	interpretation is selected. For	 Latin-1  text
       interpretation  "L1" is shown, for others see Quick Options (Mode indi-
       cation) flags.  You may click on	the indication flag to toggle  between
       the current and the previous selected encoding.

   Character information display
       The  Character  information  display  command ESC u is described	above;
       character information display can also be  preselected  by  environment
       configuration.  In UTF-8	mode, information shown	includes the UTF-8 en-
       coding byte sequence.

   Character input support
       With ^V,	mined's	special	character input	support	is invoked (both while
       editing text and	entering text on the prompt line, e.g. as a search ex-
       pression).  With	this feature, (in addition to  plain  control  charac-
       ters) a composite character can be entered by its accent	combination or
       other mnemonic character	description; a more-than-two letter  character
       mnemonics would be embedded in space characters after the ^V.  In addi-
       tion, numeric character codes or	values can  be	entered	 with  leading
       ^V#,  octal/decimal  with ^V##/^V#=, Unicode with optional u/U/+.  (For
       examples, see description of the	 ^V  function  below.)	 With  numeric
       character input,	mined supports successive multiple character entry ac-
       cording to ISO 14755; if	the numeric code is terminated by a Space key,
       another	numeric	 character  can	 be entered subsequently; an Enter key
       terminates numeric character input.

       See also	the generic section Character input support  above  for	 input
       support for accented characters and keyboard mapping.

   Encoding conversion support
       Two   functions	 support  interactive  character  encoding  conversion
       (Latin-1	to UTF-8 or UTF-8 to current encoding) to partially fix	 files
       with mixed encoding.  In	either text encoding mode, the search function
       looks for characters encoded in UTF-8 (when not editing in UTF-8	 mode)
       or  not	(when editing in UTF-8 mode); the command is HOP ESC ( or Alt-
       F11 .  Then, convert the	character with ESC _ or	its  national  variant
       (see  mnemonic  character  substitution	commands in the	Command	refer-
       ence).
       For repeated interactive	conversion, both  functions  can  be  combined
       into Alt-Shift-F11 (convert current character, then search next).

	Unicode	Copy/Paste buffer conversion
       For the Copy/Paste buffer, Unicode mode can be selected which maintains
       its contents always in Unicode, so that Copy/Paste of  text  works  be-
       tween  differently encoded files	(or sections of	a file,	if encoding is
       switched	while editing) with automatic character	code conversion.  This
       mode  is	only effective while editing with non-Unicode encoded text in-
       terpretation.
       Select this mode	with the command line option -Eu or in the Paste  buf-
       fer  menu  (righ-click  on  the Buffer mode flag	"=" or "+") and	select
       "Unicode".
       Unicode buffer mode is indicated	by cyan	background of the Paste	buffer
       flag (then "=" or "+"), except in Unicode text mode.

   Smart quotes	and dashes
       If  smart  quotes  mode is enabled (see the Quotes style	menu under the
       Quotes flag left	to the Encoding	flag and menu),	quote mark  keys  will
       enter  typographic  smart quotes	instead. Smart dashes also apply.  See
       Smart quotes above for more details.

   Bidirectional terminal support
       A bidirectional terminal	(such as mlterm) will probably also apply Ara-
       bic  LAM/ALEF ligature joining. Mined auto-detects this feature and en-
       ables bidi terminal handling automatically.  Otherwise,	bidi  terminal
       handling	can be configured with the option +UU.
       In  this	 mode, when displaying a menu, underlying text lines that con-
       tain right-to-left characters are cleared first	in  order  to  prevent
       display	confusion  between  the	terminal's bidi	algorithm and the menu
       position.
       Also, with bidi terminal	handling enabled, mined	assumes	that the  ter-
       minal  applies  Arabic  LAM/ALEF	ligature joining and properly accounts
       for this	feature	in display position handling.
       In separated display mode, the joining part of the  ligature  is	 indi-
       cated similar to	the handling of	combining characters.

   Input support for right-to-left scripts ("poor man's	bidi" mode)
       This  support feature for input of right-to-left	text pieces is enabled
       by default unless the terminal is detected to be	in  bidi  mode	itself
       (e.g. mlterm).
       "Poor  man's bidi" mode is suitable to insert small pieces of right-to-
       left text (words, phrases) within left-to-right text, it	stores	right-
       to-left text in visual order (see below)	and works as follows:
       After  entering	a right-to-left	Unicode	character, the cursor position
       is moved	left of	it, so subsequent characters will be appended left and
       the text	shifted	right. Characters are stored in	visual order while in-
       put support is implicit,	based on the characters	being typed.  Entering
       a left-to-right character will automatically skip behind	the previously
       entered right-to-left text on the line and switch to left-to-right  di-
       rection;	 this  behaviour optimizes inserting small pieces of right-to-
       left text into basically	left-to-right text; this priority is justified
       by  the	assumption  that this mode (with visual	storing	order) is only
       useful for inserting small right-to-left	quotations into	 left-to-right
       text  and  not  for  editing  right-to-left  documents (which should be
       stored in logical order).
       Newline,	Space, Tab, and	combining characters attempt  to  behave  well
       according  to  what  was	 entered  before; however, intermediate	cursor
       movement	is not considered.
       Note: For proper	support	of right-to-left text editing stored in	 logi-
       cal  order,  please  use	mined in a right-to-left terminal (mintty, ml-
       term). Adding a feature for advanced bidi support in all	 terminals  is
       being considered.
       Note: Poor man's	bidi mode also works in	non-Unicode text encodings.
       Note:  Poor man's bidi mode is similar to the "revins" (reverse insert)
       option of vim.

   Unicode line	ends
       Mined detects and handles Unicode line separators and paragraph separa-
       tors  (unless  disabled with +u-u).  They are displayed as shown	above.
       Interpretation of these characters as line ends is disabled if  a  file
       is  explicitly  opened  in non-Unicode encoding (but not	if non-Unicode
       encoding	is just	auto-detected).
       If editing Unicode text,	HOP Enter will insert a	Unicode	paragraph sep-
       arator, Enter in	a line that already has	a Unicode line end will	insert
       a Unicode line separator.  Also,	the keys Shift-Enter or	Ctrl-Enter in-
       sert a paragraph	separator or line separator respectively.
       Configuration:  In  order  to  enable  shift and	control	with the Enter
       keys, xterm or rxvt must	be configured as shown in the example configu-
       ration file Xdefaults.mined in the Mined	runtime	support	library.

   Unicode display
       In  UTF-8  terminal mode, mined displays	all Unicode characters if they
       are contained in	the font used by the terminal.	Fonts usually  have  a
       substitute  glyph  to  indicate	characters  not	contained in the font.
       Wide characters (double-width glyphs) are displayed in  a  double-width
       character cell of the terminal.	Combining characters are displayed ei-
       ther combined or	separated (see Combining characters below).

       Illegal UTF-8 sequences are displayed with highlighted background,  us-
       ing the following indications.  Furthermore, control characters encoded
       as a UTF-8 sequence and control characters in the  "C1"	range  (values
       0x80..0x9F)  will be displayed similar to normal	control	characters but
       with coloured highlighting.

       8      for an unexpected	UTF-8 continuation byte	(range 80-BF)

       4      for a 0xFE (254) byte

       5      for a 0xFF (255) byte

       <<     for a too	short UTF-8 sequence  if  followed  by	a  single-byte
	      character	(00..7F)

       >>     for a too	short UTF-8 sequence if	followed by a multi-byte char-
	      acter (C0..FF)

       Illegal or non-Unicode characters are indicated with the	following  re-
       placements:

       [U+FFFD]
	      (or ? or []) a character code ending with	FFFE or	FFFF (override
	      substitution for transparent display with	+C)

       [U+FFFD]
	      (or ? or []) a surrogate code point (override  substitution  for
	      transparent display with +CC)

       [U+FFFD]
	      (or  ?  or  [])  a  code point outside the defined Unicode range
	      (override	substitution for transparent display with +CCC)

   Character substitution display
       Legal characters	(in the	effective text encoding) that cannot  be  dis-
       played  in  a non-Unicode terminal are indicated	with the following re-
       placements:

       x or   x	 (if wide) a non-combining Unicode character  that  cannot  be
	      displayed

       % or   %	  (if wide) (if	the terminal cannot display _x) a non-combining
	      Unicode character	that cannot be displayed

       ` (or wide)
	      a	Unicode	combining character that cannot	be displayed

       " or
	       ' (or wide) a double or single quotation	mark character	(typo-
	      graphic quote mark)

       - or   ~	or = (or wide) a dash or hyphen	character

       e, e,  etc a combined or	other character	that cannot be displayed which
	      is based on the displayed	character by its Unicode decomposition

       E      the Euro sign EUR	U+20AC

       V,     X, Z the check mark [U+2713] U+2713, ballot X [U+2717] U+2717  ,
	      zigzag arrow [U+21AF] U+21AF

	'     glottal stop 'okina [U+02BB] U+02BB

       0 ..9 ,
	      A	..Z  etc a corresponding fullwidth ASCII character

       Configuration:  Display	colour of special or illegal UTF-8 indications
       can be changed with the environment variable MINEDUNI, the value	should
       be  the	numeric	part of	an ANSI	terminal control sequence; optionally,
       the value can be	preceded by a character	to be used for Unicode charac-
       ter indication in non-Unicode terminal mode.
       (The default configuration value	is "x 46").

   Combining and joining characters
       Mined  supports	handling  of  combining	characters, featuring optional
       separate	display	and partial editing, as	 described  above  in  section
       Combining characters.

	Joining	characters
       If  mined  assumes  that	the terminal applies LAM/ALEF ligature joining
       (either configured with the +UU right-to-left display option  or	 auto-
       detected;  correct native support is known of mlterm), the joined char-
       acter width will	be handled correctly in	cooperation with the terminal.
       In all other terminals mined will apply LAM/ALEF	joining	itself.
       Mined  supports	ligature  joining  in both combining character display
       modes:

	      o	     In	combined display mode,	the  screen  position  is  ac-
		     counted  properly.	  Also,	 when  deleting	a character, a
		     joined ligature is	deleted	together with the base charac-
		     ter, just like combining characters.

	      o	     In	 separated display mode, the joining part of the liga-
		     ture is indicated using the  appropriate  isolated	 form,
		     highlighted  with	Unicode	 special indication background
		     colour (similar to	the handling of	combining characters).

   Search expression limitations
       Unicode search ranges can not be	very large as all included  characters
       are listed in an	internal buffer	which is limited to ca.	1 KB.

   UTF-8 preservation and byte-transparent editing
       When  splitting	lines that are too long	for internal handling, consis-
       tency of	UTF-8 sequences	is preserved (they are not  split);  combining
       characters  may get split off their base	characters, however, they will
       join seemlessly as lines	are joined again (e.g. when saving the	file).
       Note  that  isolated  combining	characters, e.g. at the	beginning of a
       line, are always	displayed as if	in separated display mode.

   Terminal environment
       Unicode text can	be edited in any  terminal  encoding  (UTF-8,  8  bit,
       CJK),  however,	a UTF-8	terminal is preferable.	 UTF-8 terminal	opera-
       tion can	be configured in either	of these ways:

	      o	     Auto-detection: If	the terminal emits cursor position re-
		     ports, mined can uniquely recognise UTF-8 terminal	encod-
		     ing and further UTF-8  features  (see  Terminal  encoding
		     support below).

	      o	     Environment:  By  proper  environment  variable settings.
		     For more details, see Locale configuration.
		     Note: In general, it is advisable	to  start  a  terminal
		     window using a wrapper script that	sets a suitable	locale
		     environment at the	same time, in  order  to  support  all
		     kinds  of	applications that are more dependent on	proper
		     environment setting than mined is.	 The  mined  installa-
		     tion  also	 provides  the	script uterm for this purpose,
		     with its own manual page.	(In  case  uterm  is  not  in-
		     stalled, it is also included in the Mined runtime support
		     library.)

	      o	     Parameter:	+EU selects UTF-8 terminal mode.

       See also	Terminal interworking
	      problems for special hints about certain terminals.

CJK support (Chinese/Japanese/Korean Han character features)
       Mined provides CJK support features uniformly in	Unicode	and  in	 major
       CJK  encodings.	For information	relating to CJK	character encoding see
       Character encoding support below.

   CJK input method support
       Input methods for CJK characters	are supported with the	keyboard  map-
       ping feature.  A	number of popular input	methods	for CJK	text input are
       pre-configured, others can be added at compile-time  with  the  mkkbmap
       script.

	Radical/Stroke input method
       Mined  provides	a  Radical/Stroke input	method for CJK characters with
       specific	functionality in addition to keyboard  mapping;	 it  works  at
       two-levels,  selecting  a  radical  first, then a character from	a list
       sorted by stroke	count.	If this	input method is	 active,  a  selection
       menu  for the 214 CJK radicals is displayed (without prior keyboard in-
       put).  The menu displays	all variations of each radical.	After  select-
       ing a radical from this menu, a second-level menu is displayed, showing
       all CJK characters based	on the selected	radical, sorted	by the	number
       of  strokes.  Many of these menus will not fit on the screen and	can be
       scrolled.  Pressing Escape here	would  return  to  the	radical	 menu;
       pressing	 Escape	there would disable the	input method.  To enter	a non-
       mapped character	(e.g. a	line end), you need to disable	Radical/Stroke
       input  method temporarily; just toggle it back on with Alt-k (or	Esc k)
       or Ctrl-Alt-F12 and the radical menu will be displayed again  for  con-
       tinued input.
       For  the	Unicode	version	used as	the character data source, see the Op-
       tions - About information or the	mined change log.

   CJK character display
       Combining characters (in	both JIS X 0213	 encodings  and	 GB18030)  are
       handled	and  the  combined characters are displayed properly in	either
       combined	or separated display mode in a UTF-8 terminal (like for	 UTF-8
       encoded text).  The following special CJK character indications apply:

       x  or  x	CJK character that cannot be displayed in the terminal

       %  or  %	 (if  the terminal cannot display _x) CJK character that	cannot
	      be displayed in the terminal

       ` or   `	 CJK combining character that cannot be	displayed in the  ter-
	      minal

       ? or   ?	 CJK character code that has no	known mapping to Unicode
	      (to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +C)

       # or   #	  invalid CJK character	code that is outside of	the code range
	      assigned to the encoding scheme
	      (to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +CC)

       #      CJK character in extended	code range (esp. 3 and 4  byte	codes,
	      or  codes	 with 0x80...0x9F byte range) that cannot be displayed
	      on CJK terminal due to terminal capability limitations
	      (to enforce display on CJK terminal use option +CCC)

       <      incomplete or otherwise illegal CJK code

   Han character information display
       When the	cursor is on a Han character and either	descriptive or pronun-
       ciation	information  about  this  character is available in the	Unihan
       database	(from unicode.org), mined can optionally display this informa-
       tion,  with  a  selection of display details which may include semantic
       information and various pronunciations.
       To enable Han info, select it in	the Info menu.	To open	the Info menu,
       type  Alt-F10 or	right-click the	"?" flag.  The information can option-
       ally be shown on	the status line	(where it  may	be  truncated  if  too
       long) or	in a pop-up menu next to the character.
       Pronunciation  information  to be displayed can be selected in the Info
       menu.  While selecting multiple pronunciation options, the  menu	 stays
       open.

       The  same  information  is always shown while you are browsing an input
       method pick list	(then on the status line).

       Han character information display can be	selected with the +?h  command
       line parameter (or +?x for short	display	on the status line).  To pres-
       elect continuous	Han character information display, append this parame-
       ter to the environment variable MINEDOPT.

       The  information	includes the character code (in	CJK encoding, both CJK
       code and	corresponding Unicode value are	shown).	  The  amount  of  de-
       scriptive  information  (from the Unihan	database) to be	shown can also
       be preconfigured	with the environment variable  MINEDHANINFO;  see  Han
       info configuration below.
       (For  the  Unicode version used for the Unihan data source, see the Op-
       tions - About information or the	mined change log.)

Terminal encoding support
       Mined supports UTF-8 terminals, CJK terminals, Latin-1 and other	 8-bit
       encoded terminals.

   Terminal feature detection
       Mined performs auto-detection of	a number of terminal features:

	      o	     For  UTF-8	 terminals,  mined  performs auto-detection of
		     terminal features (detection of UTF-8 terminal, different
		     width  data and combining data versions, handling of dou-
		     ble-width,	combining and joining characters).

	      o	     For CJK terminals,	mined performs some auto-detection  of
		     specific  CJK terminal features (handling of non-EUC code
		     points, handling of extended code range, GB18030,	3-byte
		     and  4-byte  encodings,  detection	of kterm JIS encoding,
		     detection of rxvt emulating CJK encoded terminal, special
		     CJK  width	 properties, and terminal support of combining
		     characters).

	      o	     For mapped	8-bit terminals, mined performs	auto-detection
		     of	terminal support of combining characters.

	      o	     For  the  Unicode	version	 used  for width and combining
		     character properties, see the Options - About information
		     or	the mined change log.

	      o	     CJK  terminals  cannot always be distinguished from 8-bit
		     terminals by auto-detection. Neither can the encoding  of
		     either  CJK  or  8-bit terminals be auto-detected.	 It is
		     thus advisable to setup proper settings of	 locale	 envi-
		     ronment  variables	 (LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE,  LANG).  Alterna-
		     tively, the effective terminal encoding can be  indicated
		     to	 mined with a command line option (+EX).  For configu-
		     ration details, see Locale	configuration below.

   Specific terminal properties
       For more	specific configuration hints (especially for  PC-based	termi-
       nals), see the Terminal environment configuration hints below.
       For interworking	issues with specific terminals see also	the listing of
       Terminal	interworking problems.

       Mined Command reference (command	and key	function assignments)
	      General note on using keys with Control, Shift,  Alt  modifiers:
	      Mined  makes use of many key combinations	modified with Control,
	      Shift, Alt, or a combination of them, as a resource for invoking
	      a	 larger	number of specific functions, providing	modified func-
	      tionality	as well	as accented character input support.  Some  of
	      these  key combinations may be limited by	local environment, es-
	      pecially the window system, or may need extra  configuration  to
	      be enabled.
	      Especially  modified function keys are often intercepted by win-
	      dow systems for special functions.
	      In general, mined	interprets an ESC prefix as an alternative for
	      an  Alt-key  combination.	 For  further advice and window	system
	      specific hints on	further	remedies,  as  well  as	 configuration
	      hints,  to  enable modified key input see	the hint box under Ac-
	      cent prefix keys above.

   Generic command modifiers (esp. HOP key)
       ^Q or ^G	or "5" (on keypad) or Menu (in Linux)  or  *  (on  keypad)  or
       Shift-TAB
	      HOP key (except ^G followed by a digit).
	      In  order	 to  enable the	"5" key	to invoke the HOP function, or
	      assign the HOP function to another key (e.g.  on	laptops	 which
	      lack  the	 numeric keypad), some configuration may be necessary;
	      see Keypad configuration below.

       ESC    Prefix for subsequent "letter commands".
	      Also: Generic prefix for "Alt" modified command (to apply	 to  a
	      subsequent  command  for which the terminal does not support the
	      Alt key).

       ^V     (Prefix for control character input, but also:)
	      Generic prefix for "Control" modified command  (to  apply	 to  a
	      subsequent  command  for which the terminal does not support the
	      Control key).

       Ctrl-< punctuation key >
	      (Set of accent prefix keys to enter composed characters.)

   Cursor and screen motion
       ^E or cursor-up
	      Move cursor 1 line up.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to top	of page.

       ^X or cursor-down
	      Move cursor 1 line down.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to bottom of page.

       ^S or cursor-left
	      Move cursor 1 character left.

       ... with	HOP or Ctrl-Home
	      Go to beginning of line.

       ^D or cursor-right
	      Move cursor 1 character right.

       ... with	HOP or Ctrl-End
	      Go to end	of line.

       ^A or Shift-cursor-left (on small keypad)
	      Move word	left (to preceding beginning of	a word).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to beginning of sentence.

       ^F or Shift-cursor-right	(on small keypad)
	      Move word	right (to beginning of next word).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to end	of sentence.

       Ctrl-Shift-cursor-up
	      Move backward to previous	beginning of paragraph.

       Ctrl-Shift-cursor-down
	      Move forward to next beginning of	paragraph.

       Shift-cursor-up (on small keypad)
	      Go to top	of page.

       Shift-cursor-down (on small keypad)
	      Go to bottom of page.

       ^R or PgUp or PrevScreen	(VT100)
	      Scroll backward 1	page (Top line becomes bottom line).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to beginning of text.

       ^C or PgDn or NextScreen	(VT100)
	      Scroll forward 1 page (Bottom line becomes top line).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Go to end	of text.

       Home (on	small keypad)
	      Move to beginning	of line.  If already there, move to  beginning
	      of  previous  line.  Only	if keyboard is configured to emit dif-
	      ferent control sequences for the two keypads, see	Keypad config-
	      uration hints below.

       Ctrl-Home (on small keypad)
	      Move to beginning	of line.

       End (on small keypad)
	      Move  to	end  of	 line.	 If already there, move	to end of next
	      line.  Only if keyboard is configured to emit different  control
	      sequences	 for  the  two keypads,	see Keypad configuration hints
	      below.

       Ctrl-End	(on small keypad)
	      Move to end of line.

       ->NEW-> HOP ESC .
	      Center current position vertically on screen.

	Navigation support for combined	Unicode	characters
       Enabling	partial	editing	of base	 character  and	 combining  characters
       (accents) in combined display mode.

       Ctrl-cursor-right or ^V cursor-right
	      Micro  movement:	Move partial character right into Unicode com-
	      bined character.

       Ctrl-cursor-left	or ^V cursor-left
	      Micro movement: Move partial character left over Unicode combin-
	      ing character.

       ^W or Ctrl-PgUp or keypad-Minus (if supported by	terminal)
	      Scroll screen backward 1 line.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Scroll backward half a screen.

       ^Z or Ctrl-PgDn or keypad-Plus (if supported by terminal)
	      Scroll screen forward 1 line.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Scroll forward half a screen.

       ^G nn Enteror ESC g nn Enter
	      Move  to	a  line	(prompts for line number).  (Terminate command
	      with Enter or Space.)

       ^G nn % or ESC g	nn %
	      Move to position in text determined by percentage.

       ^G nn p or ESC g	nn p
	      Move to page in text (set	page length with ESC P).

       ^G < command > or ESC g < command >
	      If not immediately followed by a digit, the positioning  command
	      works as an alternative HOP key.

	Text marker navigation
       ^G N , or ESC g N ,
	      (N=0..15)	Set marker N. (Final "m" or ","	may be used.)

       ^G N . or ESC g N .
	      (N=0..15)	Go to marker N.	(Final "'" or "g" or "." may be	used.)

       ESC m N
	      (N=0..9/a..f) Set	marker N.

       ESC ' N (deprecated)
	      (N=0..9/a..f) Go to marker N.

       HOP Home	or ^G ^@ or ^G ^] or HOP ESC ^
	      Move to the position previously marked by	Home/^@/^]/ESC ^

       ESC Enter or Alt-Enter (Alt-Return) *
	      Return  backward to the previous position	marked in the position
	      stack.

       HOP ESC Enter or	HOP Alt-Enter (HOP Alt-Return) *
	      Return forward to	the  next  position  marked  in	 the  position
	      stack.  *	Note that depending on Window system or	terminal, Alt-
	      Enter may	be captured as a function to maximize the window.

       left mouse button
	      Move cursor to position.

   Entering text
       To enable combinations of Control and Shift with	the Enter key,	termi-
       nal configuration may be	needed (see Unicode line ends).

       < printable char	>
	      Insert the character at cursor position.

       < Enter > or < LF Linefeed char > or < CR Return	char >
	      Insert  a	newline	at cursor position, clone line end type. Apply
	      auto-indentation if enabled.

       Ctrl-Enter (if editing Unicode text)
	      Make a new line by inserting a Unicode line separator at	cursor
	      position (unless disabled	with +u-u).

       Shift-Enter (if editing Unicode text)
	      Make  a  new  line by inserting a	Unicode	paragraph separator at
	      cursor position (unless disabled with +u-u).

       ->NEW->
	      Control-Shift-Enter (if editing Unicode or ISO 8859 text)	Make a
	      new line by inserting a Next Line	character (U+0085).

       Ctrl-Alt-Enter
	      Make  a  new  line by inserting a	DOS or Unix line end at	cursor
	      position (if editing Unix	or DOS file, respectively).

       Ctrl-Shift-Alt-Enter
	      Make a new line by inserting a Mac line end at cursor position.

       < Tab char >
	      Insert a Tab character at	cursor position.  with option  -+8  or
	      -+4  or  -+2:  Tab expansion; insert as many space characters as
	      needed to	fill line up to	the next Tab position.

       ^V < Tab	char >
	      Insert a Tab character (even in Tab expansion mode).

       HOP {, HOP (, HOP [, HOP	<
	      Enter indented pair of matching parentheses.

       HOP /  Enter an indented	Javadoc	comment	frame.

       HOP ' or	HOP ' (acute accent)
	      Enter an apostrophe (U+2019).  Note: In  smart  quotes  mode,  '
	      alone also enters	an apostrophe.

       HOP ` (grave accent)
	      Enter  a	glottal	stop / 'okina (U+02BB).	 Note: In smart	quotes
	      mode, ` alone also enters	a glottal stop.

       HOP -  Underline	the line that starts before the	cursor position.

       ^O     Make new line at current position.  If the current line is  ter-
	      minated  by  a  Unicode paragraph	separator, a line separator is
	      inserted.
	      Auto-indentation is not applied.

       HOP ^O Split a line in two binary-transparently,	i.e.  enter  a	"NONE"
	      virtual line end.

	Accented character input support by accent prefix keys
       Mined  defines  a number	of function keys, modified function keys, mod-
       ifed digit keys,	and modified punctuation keys for single and  multiple
       accent  composition  with  a  subsequently entered character; for a de-
       tailed listing and description, see Accent prefix function keys above.
       Up to three accent prefix keys can be combined by entering them in  se-
       quence  in  order  to  compose characters with multiple accents.	 These
       functions also work on the prompt line (e.g.  to	enter  search  expres-
       sions).

       F5 < character >
	      Compose character	with diaeresis (umlaut accent),	e.g. a >> a

       Shift-F5	< character >
	      Compose character	with tilde, e.g. a >> a

       Ctrl-F5 < character >
	      Compose  character with ring or with cedilla, e.g. a >> a	, c >>
	      c

       Ctrl-Shift-F5 < character >
	      Compose character	with ogonek.

       Alt-Shift-F5 < character	>
	      Compose character	with breve.

       F6 < character >
	      Compose character	with acute accent (accent d'aigu), e.g.	a >> a

       Shift-F6	< character >
	      Compose character	with grave accent, e.g.	a >> a

       Ctrl-F6 < character >
	      Compose character	with circumflex	accent,	e.g. a >> a

       Ctrl-Shift-F6 < character >
	      Compose character	with macron.

       Alt-Shift-F6 < character	>
	      Compose character	with dot above.

       Ctrl-0 ... Ctrl-9
	      Compose character	with  accent,  esp.  for  Vietnamese  accented
	      characters.

       (Ctrl-)Alt-1 ...	(Ctrl-)Alt-5
	      Compose  character  with two accents, esp. for Vietnamese	double
	      accented characters.

       (Ctrl-)Alt-6 ...	(Ctrl-)Alt-8
	      Compose character	with two accents for Greek  multiple  accented
	      characters.

       Ctrl-< punctuation key >
	      Compose  character  with accent (looking similar to the modified
	      punctuation character, e.g. Ctrl-, composes with cedilla,	Ctrl-:
	      with  diaeresis,	Ctrl-minus  with  macron,  Ctrl-(  with	breve,
	      Ctrl-< with caron, Ctrl-/	with stroke, Ctrl-; with ogonek,  etc;
	      see Accent prefix	function keys above for	details).

	Input support commands
       Ctrl-V special input support
	      These  functions	also  work  on the prompt line (e.g.  to enter
	      search expressions).

       ^V < control character >
	      Enter control character.

       ^V [ or ^V \ or ^V ]
	      Enter one	of the control characters ^[, ^\, ^].

       ^V ^ ^ or ^V _ _
	      Enter one	of the control characters ^^, ^_.

       ^V ^ ' or ^V ^ "
	      ->NEW-> or ^V ^ `	or ^V ^	' Enter	 one  of  the  straight	 quote
	      marks ' or " or plain accents (needed in smart quotes mode)

       ^V < accent > < character >
	      Compose accented character.

       ^V # xxxx < Space or Enter >
	      Enter character defined by a hexadecimal number being input (de-
	      pending on applicable encoding, byte value,  Unicode  value,  or
	      valid CJK	code is	required).

       ^V # # xxxxxx < Space or	Enter >
	      Like ^V #	but using an octal number.

       ^V # = xxxxx < Space or Enter >
	      Like ^V #	but using a decimal number.

       ^V # u or U or +
	      (followed	by a numeric input as described	above, with optional #
	      or = for octal or	decimal	input) interprets the input as	a  nu-
	      meric Unicode value which	is converted into the current text en-
	      coding.

       ^V # ...	Space ...
	      With numeric character input, mined supports successive multiple
	      character	 entry	according  to ISO 14755	if the numeric code is
	      terminated by a Space key.

       ^V < function key >
	      This is not an input support function but	 rather	 the  function
	      key is invoked as	if pressed together with the control key.

       Mnemonic	character input	support
	      Mnemonics	recognised include the following:

	      _o	     RFC  1345	mnemos (except mappings	to Unicode private use
		     areas); in	ambiguous cases, the RFC 1345 mnemos  must  be
		     entered  in  long mnemonic	input mode, e.g. with "^V pi "
		     rather than "^Vpi"

	      o	     HTML mnemos; in ambiguous cases, the HTML mnemos must  be
		     prepended with a "&"

	      o	     TeX mnemos	(macros) and substitutes, leaving out any "\"

	      o	     ->NEW-> groff glyphs (roff	special	characters), mnemonics
		     beginning with "("

	      o	     Supplementary mnemos as listed  on	 the  mined  character
		     mnemos page
       Unless there is an ambiguous mapping, all two-letter mnemonics can also
       be entered in reverse order.

       ^V < Space > < name > < Space or	Enter >
	      Lookup character mnemonic	and enter character. RFC 1345  mnemon-
	      ics take precedence in ambiguous cases.

       ^V < character >	< character >
	      Compose  two  characters.	Non-RFC	1345 mnemonics take precedence
	      in ambiguous cases.

       Note: A number of mnemonics are defined with already  precomposed  base
       characters (especially for Vietnamese input) which can be used for fur-
       ther composition.
       ^V can be applied recursively to	compose	a character for	further	compo-
       sition.
       See examples with ae below for both cases.

       Examples:

       ^V^A   Enter Ctrl-A.

       ^V^[ or ^V[
	      Enter the	escape character.

       ^V__   Enter Ctrl-_.

       ^V'e   Enter e (e with accent d'aigu).

       ^Vae   Enter ae (the ae ligature).

       ^V ae'  (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter U+01FD (ae with acute).

       ^Vae'  Enter U+01FD (ae with acute).

       ^V ^Vae'	 (terminated by	Space or Enter)
	      Enter U+01FD (ae with acute).

       ^V'^Vae
	      Enter U+01FD (ae with acute).

       ^VOK or ^Vcm
	      Enter the	check mark [U+2713] (U+2713)

       ^Vzz or ^V zigzag (terminated by	Space or Enter)
	      Enter the	downwards zigzag arrow [U+21AF]	(U+21AF)

       ^V-,   Enter ~ (the negation symbol).

       ^V neg  (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter ~ (the negation symbol).

       ^Va* or ^V a*  (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter the	Greek small letter alpha.

       ^V ae'  (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter the	Latin ligature ae with acute accent.

       ^V euro (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter the	Euro character.

       ^V#20ac (terminated by Space or Enter)
	      Enter  the  character  with hexadecimal value 20AC (which	is the
	      Euro character in	UTF-8 encoding).

       ^V#U20ac	(terminated by Space or	Enter)
	      Enter the	Euro character	(which	has  the  hexadecimal  Unicode
	      value 20AC) encoded in the currently selected text encoding.

       ^V#+20ac	< Space	> +20ac	< Enter	>
	      Enter two	Euro characters	in successive multiple character entry
	      mode (ISO	14755).

	Input method (Keyboard mapping)	selection
       ESC k or	Ctrl-Alt-F12 or	middle-click on	Input Method flag
	      Toggle between current and previously selected input method  (or
	      initially	 the configured	standby	input method).	Note: Alt-k or
	      Ctrl-Alt-F12 also	works on prompt	line.

       HOP ESC k
	      Clear input method, i.e. resets keyboard mapping	to  none  (un-
	      mapped input).

       ESC I or	ESC K or Ctrl-F12 or right click on Input Method flag (mapping
       indication in flags area)
	      Open the Input Method selection menu.  Note: (Alt-I or Alt-K  or
	      Ctrl-F12 also works on prompt line)

       HOP ESC K
	      Cycle through available keyboard mappings	/ input	methods.

   Modifying text
       Note on the Home	and End	keys
	      Sometimes	 people	 expect	 the "Home" and	"End" keys to move the
	      cursor to	the beginning or end of	line,  respectively.   In  the
	      keyboard usage approach of mined,	these functions	can easily and
	      quite intuitively	be invoked with	"HOP left"  and	 "HOP  right",
	      i.e. by pressing the keypad keys "5 4" or	"5 6" in sequence.  So
	      there is enough room left	for mapping the	most  frequent	paste-
	      buffer  functions	to the keypad as described above which is con-
	      sidered much more	useful.	 Use Ctrl-Home and  Ctrl-End  for  the
	      line  positioning	 functions,  depending on terminal support and
	      configuration; or	use the	-k option if preferred to switch  key-
	      pad  key	function  assignments  for the Home and	End keys.  See
	      Keypad layout above for a	motivating overview of the mined  key-
	      pad assignment features and options.

       Backarrow or ^H
	      Dual-mode	function:
	      If a visual selection is active: Cut selected area to paste buf-
	      fer.
	      Otherwise: Delete	character left.
	      Smart backspacing: If there is only blank	space before the  cur-
	      rent  position  in the current line and the line above and auto-
	      indentation is enabled, the auto-undent function	(Back-Tab)  is
	      performed	instead, deleting multiple spaces back to the previous
	      level of indentation.  Note: Mined tries to map this function to
	      the  Backarrow key on the	keyboard whether it is assigned	to the
	      Backspace	or DEL control characters, by inspecting  the  setting
	      of  the terminal interface, see Automatic	backspace mode adapta-
	      tion.  Note:->NEW-> Configuration	option plain_BS	(command  line
	      option +Bp) switches the Backarrow key from smart	backspacing to
	      plain backspacing, i.e. no auto-undent and only delete one  com-
	      bining  character	 of  a combined	character.  Use	Shift-Control-
	      Backarrow	to perform smart backspacing then.

       Ctrl-Backarrow (if key properly configured) or F5 Backarrow
	      "Delete single": Delete only right-most combining	accent of com-
	      bined  character left of cursor position.	 If not	next to	a com-
	      bined character: delete  character  left,	 avoiding  auto-undent
	      function.

       ->NEW->	Shift-Ctrl-Backarrow  (if key properly configured) or Shift-F5
       Backarrow
	      "Delete smart": Smart backspacing	function as described above as
	      default behaviour	of the Backarrow key.

       Del (on keypad)
	      Dual-mode	function:
	      If a visual selection is active: Cut selected area to paste buf-
	      fer.
	      Otherwise: Delete	next character right, including	any  combining
	      characters.

       Ctrl-Del	(on keypads, if	key properly configured)
	      Delete character right, excluding	any combining characters.

       Shift-Del (on small keypad, if key properly configured)
	      Cut selected area	to paste buffer.

       DEL (ASCII character)
	      If detected to be	attached to the	keyboard Backarrow key:	Delete
	      left. (Or	delete visual selection, see  above.)	(Enforce  with
	      option -B.)
	      Otherwise: Delete	right.

       HOP Backarrow
	      Delete beginning of line (left of	current	position).

       ^B     Delete character right (next character).

       ^T     Delete next word.

       ^^ (overridden when used	as accent prefix, e.g. with newer xterm)
	      Delete previous word.

       ^K     Delete  tail  of line (from current position to line-end); if at
	      end of line, delete line end (joining lines).

       HOP ^K Delete whole line.

	Code conversion
       ESC X  Insert hexadecimal representation	 of  current  character	 code.
	      (In UTF-8	mode, this is the UTF-8	byte sequence of the character
	      in hexadecimal notation.)

       ... with	HOP:
	      Insert character with hexadecimal	code scanned from text at cur-
	      rent position.

       ESC U  Insert  (hexadecimal)  Unicode  value of current character (with
	      either 4/6/8 hexadecimal digits, depending on the	value);	in CJK
	      or mapped	8 bit encoding mode, the value is transformed from the
	      current text encoding into Unicode.

       ... with	HOP or Ctrl-Shift-F11
	      Insert character with hexadecimal	 Unicode  value	 scanned  from
	      text  at current position; in CJK	or mapped 8 bit	encoding mode,
	      the value	is transformed from Unicode into the current text  en-
	      coding.

       ESC A  Like ESC U but inserting an octal	Unicode	value.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Like HOP ESC U but scanning an octal Unicode value.

       ESC D  Like ESC U but inserting a decimal Unicode value.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Like HOP ESC U but scanning a decimal Unicode value.

       Alt-x  Toggle  the  preceding  character	 and  its  hexadecimal Unicode
	      value.  The command detects a 2 to 6 hex	digit  character  code
	      with  a  valid  Unicode value, or	a non-digit Unicode character,
	      respectively.

	Case conversion
       ESC C or	F11
	      Exchange case (low/capital) of  character	 under	cursor.	  Case
	      mapping  is  based on Unicode (but applicable in all text	encod-
	      ings).  Special handling is applied for:

	      o	     Greek final s

	      o	     Turkish "i" if the	effective  locale  value  (environment
		     variables	->NEW->	 LANGUAGE, TEXTLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,
		     LANG) begins with "tr" or "az" ->NEW-> or "crh"  or  "tt"
		     or	"ba"

	      o	     case mappings to multiple characters

	      o	     Lithuanian	 special  conditions (locale value begins with
		     "lt")

	      o	     ->NEW-> Dutch "IJsselmeer"	title casing with Shift-F3 (if
		     the locale	value begins with "nl")

	      o	     Japanese  characters  are	toggled	 between  Hiragana and
		     Katakana.

       ... with	HOP or Shift-F11
	      Apply case conversion to word from cursor.

       Shift-F3
	      Cycle casing of a	word between all small,	title  case,  and  all
	      capitals (title case means the first letter is either capital or
	      actually a Unicode title case, the following letters are small).
	      For  Japanese  script,  it toggles the word between Hiragana and
	      Katakana.

	Mnemonic and special conversion
       ESC _ or	Ctrl-F11
	      Mnemonic character substitution replaces the two	characters  at
	      the  cursor  position  with a suitable composite character (e.g.
	      accented character) if possible.	With Ctrl-F11, transformations
	      are  the	same as	with the ^V two-letter character input mnemon-
	      ics.  With ESC _,	language-dependent preferences may take	prece-
	      dence (see variations below) according to	the current locale en-
	      vironment.
	      Example: ae -> ae

	Special	conversion features
	      o	     If	the text at the	cursor position	contains an HTML char-
		     acter  tag	 (starting with	"&" and	optionally ending with
		     ";"), it is replaced with the actual character it	repre-
		     sents.
		     Example: &not; -> ~

	      o	     If	 the  text at the cursor position contains an HTML nu-
		     meric character entity (starting with "&#"	and optionally
		     ending  with  ";"),  it  is  replaced with	the respective
		     character it denotes.
		     Example: &#x40; ->	@
		     &#64; -> @

	      o	     If	the text at the	cursor position	contains a URL numeric
		     escape  notation  (starting with "%") it is replaced with
		     the actual	character it represents.
		     Example: %40 -> @
		     %C3%86 -> AE (while in UTF-8 text encoding)

	      o	     The command also transforms between Latin-1 and UTF-8 en-
		     coded  characters	if an accordingly encoded character is
		     found at the current position; the	current	character  en-
		     coding  mode  is  used  to	determine the target character
		     set.
		     Example: ae (Latin-1 encoding) -> ae (current  UTF-8  en-
		     coding) or
		     ae	(UTF-8 encoding) -> ae (current	encoding)

       As  variations  of  ESC _, there	are some commands ESC LETTER using na-
       tional letters that occur on respective national	keyboards.  They apply
       basically  the  same transformations but	with some national preferences
       taking precedence:

       ESC a or	ESC o or ESC u or ESC ss
	      Similar to ESC _,	but with German	transformation preferences.
	      example: ae -> a,	oe -> o

       ESC e or	ESC e or ESC a or ESC u	or ESC c
	      Similar to ESC _,	but with French	transformation preferences.
	      example: oe -> oe	(oe ligature U+0153)

       ESC ae or ESC a or ESC o
	      Similar to ESC _,	but with Danish	transformation preferences.
	      example: ae -> ae, oe -> o

       ->NEW-> ESC i or	ESC o
	      Similar to ESC _,	but with Italian accent	preferences (e	rather
	      than e).

       ->NEW-> ESC < accented letter typical on	East European keyboard >
	      (like  l	with  stroke, u	with ring, o with double acute,	s with
	      caron, etc) Similar to ESC _,  but  with	East  European	accent
	      preferences:  ogonek  rather  than  cedilla,  -d	becomes	d with
	      stroke

       ->NEW-> ESC < special key typical on South European keyboard >
	      (like n with tilde, g with breve,	dotless	i) Like	ESC _.

	Encoding conversion
       HOP ESC ( or Alt-F11
	      Search for a character encoded in	the "wrong encoding",  i.e.  a
	      UTF-8  character	in non-UTF-8 text mode,	or a Latin-1 character
	      in UTF-8 text mode.

       ESC _ or	ESC o etc.
	      If invoked on a non-ASCII	character, UTF-8 / non-UTF-8 character
	      encoding	conversion is applied: If the character	is not encoded
	      in the current text encoding it is converted  into  the  current
	      text encoding (from UTF-8	or from	Latin-1).

       Alt-Shift-F11
	      Convert  Latin-1	/  UTF-8,  then	search for the next "wrong en-
	      coded" character.

	Paragraph formatting
       ESC j  ("Clever Justify") Format	paragraph by  word-wrapping  according
	      to  the  currently  set right margin value; left margins are de-
	      rived from the contents of the paragraph and line. Heuristic de-
	      tection of numbered items	automatically triggers appropriate in-
	      dentation.
	      End-of-paragraph is a line without trailing blank	space.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Same, but	end-of-paragraph is considered to be a blank line.

       ESC J  ("Normal Justify") Format	paragraph by  word-wrapping  according
	      to the currently set left	and right margin values.
	      End-of-paragraph is a line without trailing blank	space.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Same, but	end-of-paragraph is a blank line.

       ESC <  Set left margin for justification.

       ESC ;  Set left margin of first line of paragraph only.

       ESC :  Set left margin of next lines of paragraph only.

       ESC >  Set right	margin for justification.

	HTML support
       ESC H (every first time)
	      Enter  HTML tag (and remember for	subsequent ESC H).  (Note that
	      Alt-Shift-H will do the same thing if your terminal  is  config-
	      ured  appropriately  -  see  the example configuration file Xde-
	      faults.mined in the Mined	runtime	support	library.)  The tag can
	      be  entered  with	 attributes  and values; these will not	be re-
	      peated in	the closing tag	(see next entry	on ESC H).

       ESC H (every second time)
	      Enter closing HTML tag.  Any tag attributes and  values  entered
	      with the tag (see	previous entry on ESC H) will be left out.

       HOP ESC H
	      Put  text	 between  mark and current position in HTML tags.  The
	      "A" tag gets special treatment.

   Text	block and buffer operations
       Note on the Home	and End	keys
	      Sometimes	people expect the "Home" and "End" keys	 to  move  the
	      cursor  to  the  beginning or end	of line, respectively.	In the
	      keyboard usage approach of mined,	these functions	can easily and
	      quite  intuitively  be  invoked with "HOP	left" and "HOP right",
	      i.e. by pressing the keypad keys "5 4" or	"5 6" in sequence.  So
	      there  is	 enough	room left for mapping the most frequent	paste-
	      buffer functions to the keypad as	described above	which is  con-
	      sidered  much  more  useful.  Use	Ctrl-Home and Ctrl-End for the
	      line positioning functions, depending on	terminal  support  and
	      configuration;  or use the -k option if preferred	to switch key-
	      pad key function assignments for the Home	 and  End  keys.   See
	      Keypad  layout above for a motivating overview of	the mined key-
	      pad assignment features and options.

       ^@ (Ctrl-Space)
	      or Home (on right	keypad)	or Shift-Home
	      or ^] or ESC @ or	ESC ^
	      or Stop (sun)or Select (VT100) Set mark (to remember the current
	      location).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Goto mark	or: (if	on already marked position) Toggle rectangular
	      selection.

       ^Y
	      or End (on right keypad) or Shift-End
	      or Copy (sun) or Do (VT100) Copy selected	text (between mark and
	      current  position)  to  paste buffer.  If	rectangular copy/paste
	      mode is selected:	Copy rectangular area spanned by mark and cur-
	      rent position to paste buffer.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Append to	buffer.

       ^U
	      or Del (with visual selection) or	Shift-Del (small keypad)
	      or  Cut  (sun) or	Remove (VT100) Cut selected text (between mark
	      and  current  position)  to  paste   buffer.    If   rectangular
	      copy/paste  mode	is  selected:  Cut rectangular area spanned by
	      mark and current position	to paste buffer.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Append to	buffer.

       ^P or Ins or Ctrl-Ins
	      or Paste (sun) or	InsertHere (VT100)  Paste  contents  of	 paste
	      buffer  to  current position.  If	rectangular copy/paste mode is
	      selected:	Paste contents of paste	buffer as rectangular area  to
	      current  position	 and  corresponding  positions	of  subsequent
	      lines.  With ^P or Ctrl-Ins, the cursor  is  placed  before  the
	      pasted region.  With Ins,	the cursor is placed behind the	pasted
	      region unless the	option -V was used.
	      In rxvt, with Ins	on the left keypad, the	cursor is  placed  be-
	      fore (left of) the pasted	region.

       ... with	HOP: (e.g. HOP Ins or ^G^P)
	      Paste  from inter-window buffer.	Thus you can quickly copy text
	      from one invocation of mined to another.

       ->NEW-> Shift-Ins (Windows/cygwin version)
	      Insert text from	Windows	 clipboard,  adapting  lineend	types.
	      ->NEW->  With  Ctrl-Shift-Ins,  the cursor is also placed	before
	      the pasted region.

       Alt-Ins or Ctrl-F4
	      Replace text just	pasted with preceding paste buffer.  This com-
	      mand uses	a ring of paste	buffers	(like emacs "yank ring").

       ESC b or	Shift-F4
	      Copy contents of paste buffer into a file.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Append to	file.

       ESC i or	F4
	      Insert file at current position.

       Print from File menu
	      Print text being edited (to default printer).

       HOP ESC ! or (deprecated) ESC c
	      Invoke operating system command (prompted	for) with paste	buffer
	      as input.

   Search
       Note on case-insensitive	searching
	      Mined applies case-insensitive search pattern matching where the
	      search  pattern contains small characters, unless	when searching
	      for an identifier	(current  identifier  occurence,  HOP  F8,  or
	      identifier definition, Alt-t). For a case-sensitive search for a
	      small letter, use	a single-letter	range expression like [x] or a
	      backslash	 escape	 like  \x  (note, however, that	\n and \r have
	      special meaning).

       ESC / or	Find or	F7 or F8 or / (on keypad)
	      Search forward (prompt for regular expression).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Search for current identifier.

       ESC \ or	Alt-F7 or Alt-F8 or Alt-/ (on keypad)
	      Search backward (prompt for regular expression).

       HOP F8 or Shift-F9
	      Search for current identifier.

       HOP Alt-F8 or Alt-Shift-F9
	      Search for current identifier backward.

       HOP Shift-F8 or ESC t or	Alt-t
	      Search for definition of current identifier (using  tags	file),
	      or  open file referred to.  See ESC t below for further descrip-
	      tion.

       HOP Ctrl-Shift-F8
	      Search for identifier definition (prompts	for identifier).

       HOP Ctrl-F8 or Ctrl-Shift-F9
	      Search for current character.

       ^N or F9
	      Search for next occurence	(using previous	search expression  and
	      direction).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Repeat  last  but	one search; two	alternating search expressions
	      can be used with this command.

       Alt-F9 Search again (for	last expression) but in	 the  opposite	direc-
	      tion.

       ESC , or	Shift-F8
	      (Global) Substitute (prompt for search and replacement strings).

       ESC r or	Ctrl-F8
	      (Global)	Replace	 with confirmation prompting (first prompt for
	      strings).

       ESC R or	Ctrl-Shift-F8
	      (Line Replace) Substitute	on current line	(prompt	for strings).

       ESC ( or	ESC ) or ESC { or ESC }
	      Perform one of the following  matching  searches,	 depending  on
	      text:  Search  for corresponding bracket matching	the bracket at
	      current position in one of the  pairs  (),  [],  {},  <>,	 <<>>.
	      (Nested  matching	bracket	pairs are skipped.)  In	an HTML	or XML
	      file, search for matching	tag (nesting considered).  Search  for
	      matching	/*  */	comment	 delimiter.   Search  for matching #if
	      #else/#elif #endif structures (nesting considered).  On an #else
	      or  #elif	directive, the search direction	depends	on the command
	      character, i.e. ESC ( searches backward, ESC ) searches forward.
	      In  a  mailbox file, on any mail header line, search for next or
	      previous mail message, depending on the command character,  i.e.
	      ESC  (  searches backward, ESC ) searches	forward.  In a mailbox
	      file or saved mail message, on a MIME separator, search for next
	      or  previous MIME	separator, depending on	the command character,
	      i.e. ESC ( searches backward, ESC	) searches forward.

       ESC t or	Alt-t or HOP Shift-F8
	      Search for and move to the location of the definition of identi-
	      fier  at the current cursor position. This command uses the tags
	      file that	can be generated with the ctags	 command  (Unix).   It
	      opens another file if necessary and automatically	saves the cur-
	      rent file	then.
	      On an include statement (line beginning with "include" or	 "#in-
	      clude"), the command opens the included file.
	      Like  with  a  number  of	positioning commands, ESC t places the
	      current position on the position marker stack  before  going  to
	      the location of the identifier definition. The command ESC Enter
	      (Alt-Enter) can move back	to that	position, even if edited files
	      were changed with	the command.

       HOP ESC t or HOP	Ctrl-Shift-F8
	      Similar, but prompts for identifier.

       HOP ESC ( or Alt-F11
	      Search  for  a character encoded in the "wrong encoding",	i.e. a
	      UTF-8 character in Latin-1 mode, or a Latin-1 character in UTF-8
	      mode.

	Search expressions: Special functions
       matches any character

       ^      (at begin	of pattern) restricts match to the begin of a line

       $      (at end of pattern) restricts match to the end of	a line

       [< character set	>]
	      matches  any one of a set	of characters; the set may be given by
	      listing elements,	denoting a range < c1 >...< c2 >, or  negating
	      the whole	set [^<	character set >]

       \< character >
	      matches the character literally (except n	or r)

       < pattern >*
	      (a  star	appended  to  a	plain character	of any of the patterns
	      above) matches a	repetition  of	this  pattern  (zero  or  more
	      times); not applicable to	line end patterns

       ^V^J (a literal linefeed	character, entered with	^V prefix)
	      searches for any real newline (to	be used	embedded in the	search
	      pattern, does not	match on last line)

       \n->NEW->
	      searches for a Unix newline (LF) (to be  used  embedded  in  the
	      search pattern, does not match on	last line)

       \r     searches	for DOS/Windows	newline	(CRLF) (to be used embedded in
	      the search pattern, does not match on last line)

       \R->NEW->
	      searches for Mac newline (CR) (to	be used	embedded in the	search
	      pattern, does not	match on last line)

       \0->NEW->
	      searches for NUL character, represented as a pseudo line end

       ^V^M   searches for CR (carriage	return)	character embedded in a	line

	Replacement strings: Special functions
       &      is replaced by the matched pattern to be replaced

       ^V^J or \n
	      (a  linefeed  character)	embeds a newline (LF character)	in the
	      replacement string

       \r     (a carriage return character) embeds a CR	character in  the  re-
	      placement	string

       To  change  the	line  end  type	 of  a line or all lines, use "Lineend
       type..."	from the Options menu.

   File	operations
       ESC w or	F2
	      Save (write back)	current	text to	file (only if modified).  Save
	      file  information	 (editing position etc), create	file info file
	      if needed.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Save current file	position and other editing information in file
	      info file, so that subsequent editing sessions will start	at the
	      current position and remember formatting parameters.

       ESC W or	Shift-F2
	      Save (write back)	current	text to	file (unconditionally).	  Also
	      enable  memory  for file positions in current directory (creates
	      file info	file).

       Alt-F2 Save As; save current text to file  with	different  name;  file
	      permissions (access modes) are preserved and cloned.

       Ctrl-Shift-F2 or	HOP Shift-F2
	      Save  to	file,  and enable memory for file positions in current
	      directory	(creates file info file).

       F3     Edit another file	(prompt	for save if current text changed).

       Ctrl-F3 or ESC v
	      View another file	(prompt	for save if current text changed).

       ESC V  Toggle between edit mode and view	only mode.

       ESC q  Quit the editor (prompt for save if current text changed).

       ESC ESC or Ctrl-F2
	      Exit editing current text	(save first if changed), continue with
	      the next file (from the File switcher list); exit	mined if there
	      is no subsequent file to edit.  Note: If a file name  occurs  on
	      the  command  line multiple times	(explicitly or by wildcard ex-
	      pansion),	file list navigation is	not linear.  Note: There is  a
	      small  delay  after typing ESC ESC.  (This is in order to	enable
	      recognition of Alt-function key combinations  which  are	imple-
	      mented  by  some terminals or terminal modes by prefixing	ESC to
	      the function key escape sequence.) This delay can	be avoided  by
	      using Ctrl-F2.

       ESC +  Edit the next file (from the File	switcher list) Note: If	a file
	      name occurs on the command line multiple times (explicitly or by
	      wildcard expansion), file	list navigation	is not linear.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Edit the last file.

       ESC -  Edit the previous	file (from the File switcher list)

       ... with	HOP:
	      Edit the first file.

       ESC #  Ask for index into the list of files and edit that file.

       ^G N # or ESC g N #
	      Edit Nth file.  (^G N f also works.)

       ESC # #
	      Reload file currently being edited.

   Menu
       ESC Space or Alt-Space or Shift-F10
	      Open Popup menu.

       ESC F10 or Alt-F10 or Ctrl-F10
	      Open first flag menu (Info menu).

       ESC f or	Alt-f or F10
	      Open File	menu.

       ESC < letter > or Alt-< letter >
	      Open menu.

       ESC I or	Alt-I or ESC K or Alt-K	or Ctrl-F12
	      Open  the	 Input	Method	selection menu.	 (Alt-I/Alt-K/Ctrl-F12
	      also works on prompt line)

       ESC Q or	Alt-Q
	      Open the Smart Quotes selection menu.

       ESC E or	Alt-E
	      Open the Encoding	selection menu.

   Miscellaneous
       ESC = < count >
	      Repeat a command < count > times (prompts	for count).   Example:
	      ESC=7<  cursor  down  > moves the	cursor 7 lines down.  Note: If
	      the function to be repeated is a character to  be	 inserted  and
	      the input	is keyboard mapped to a	multi-character	sequence, only
	      the first	character of the sequence is inserted repeatedly.

       ESC < count >
	      Repeat a command < count > times (prompts	for  rest  of  count);
	      this  short  form	is only	accepted, however, if the repeat count
	      consists of at least two digits (this is to avoid	confusion with
	      function	key  escape sequences of certain terminals).  Example:
	      ESC77. enters a line of 77 dots, ESC07x enters "xxxxxxx".

       ^V < function key >
	      Invoke function as if pressed together  with  the	 control  key.
	      E.g.  ^V < cursor-left > moves left into the parts of a combined
	      character	just like Ctrl-cursor-left would do  (the  latter  may
	      depend on	proper terminal	setup).

       ^\     Abort current command, e.g. while	on prompt line.

       ESC ?  Show  the	 current  status  of the file (name, whether modified,
	      current line, number of lines, characters, and bytes).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle permanent display of text status line.   Note  that  when
	      editing  a  file	that  does  not	fit completely in memory (e.g.
	      large file on old	system), this option  may  cause  considerable
	      swapping.	In that	case, do not use the feature.

       ESC u  Display  the character code of the current character in the bot-
	      tom status line.	(In UTF-8 encoded text mode,  both  the	 UTF-8
	      byte  sequence  and  the	Unicode	value are displayed; in	CJK or
	      mapped 8 bit encoded text	mode, Han or 8	bit  character	values
	      and corresponding	Unicode	values are displayed when applicable.)
	      In non-Latin-1 encoded text mode,	additional Unicode information
	      is  included,  indicating	the script, character category,	width,
	      combining, and surrogate properties of the character.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle permanent character code display.

       ESC T  Toggle Tab width.	 Alternates the	width  interpretation  of  Tab
	      characters between 2-4-8.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle Tab expansion (input substitution with spaces).

       ESC P  Set  page	 length	(number	of lines that mined assumes to be on a
	      page). (Useful for status	display.)

       ESC a  Toggle append mode (append to text buffer/file instead of	 over-
	      writing).

       ESC d  Show  current  directory	/  change  to another one (also	change
	      drive in MSDOS version).
	      The assumed (relative) file path name as well  as	 file  permis-
	      sions (access modes) are preserved.

       ESC n or	Set Name... from File menu
	      Change  the file name associated with the	text being edited; the
	      file is not actually saved yet but only the  new	file  name  is
	      used  for	 saving	 the next time.	 The text is detached from the
	      file previously loaded which is not affected.
	      All current text editing	properties  (assumed  encoding,	 smart
	      quotes style, margins, ...)  as well as file permissions (access
	      modes) are preserved.

       ESC .  Redraw the screen.

       ->NEW-> Alt-F12
	      (In terminals that support an alternate screen view:)
	      Switch to	normal screen (to view command line history and	possi-
	      bly mouse-copy/paste) until next input.

       ESC l  Make screen lower	(decrease number of screen lines).

       ESC L  Make screen higher (increase number of screen lines).

       ESC %  Make screen smaller (decrease screen size).

       ESC &  Make screen bigger (increase screen size).

       Shift-keypad-Minus
	      Make font	smaller. (Works	in mintty and natively in xterm.)

       Shift-keypad-Plus
	      Make font	bigger.	(Works in mintty and natively in xterm.)

       ESC z  Suspend  editor  process;	 first write back file if modified (no
	      write if HOPped or given empty file name on  prompting).	 Mined
	      detects  (by  checking  process  and  group  IDs	and terminals)
	      whether it is safe to suspend and	rejects	it otherwise (e.g.  if
	      it  is run embedded within a terminal, without underlying	shell,
	      or from a	shell script).

       ESC !  Fork off a shell and wait	for it to finish.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Invoke operating system command (prompted	for) with paste	buffer
	      as input.

       F1 or Help or Alt-h or ESC h
	      Interactive  help	function.  Selection of	help topics is offered
	      and prompted; after entering the initial letter, the  respective
	      help section is shown.
	      If  another  (modified) F1 key, a	modified digit key, or a Ctrl-
	      modified punctuation key is entered, a corresponding key assign-
	      ment help	bar is displayed (see F1 F1 etc. below).
	      The help file mined.hlp is installed with	the Mined runtime sup-
	      port library. If this is not installed in	one  of	 the  standard
	      locations,  the  environment  variable MINEDDIR should be	set to
	      point to the directory so	mined can find its help	file.

       F1 F1 or	Shift-F1 or Ctrl-F1 or Alt-F1 or Ctrl-Shift-F1 or Alt-Shift-F1
	      Display a	help bar (in the bottom	status line) with short	 indi-
	      cations  of the functions	assigned to the	function keys F2... in
	      the corresponding	modified mode (i.e. with Control,  Shift,  and
	      Alt as requested for the help bar).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle permanent help bar	display.

       F1 Ctrl-1 or F1 Alt-1 or	F1 Alt-Ctrl-1
	      Display  a help bar (in the bottom status	line) with short indi-
	      cations of the accent prefix functions  assigned	to  the	 digit
	      keys  1..9, 0 in the corresponding modified mode (i.e. with Con-
	      trol and Alt as requested	for the	help bar).

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle permanent help bar	display.

       F1 Ctrl-< punctuation key > e.g.	F1 Ctrl-,
	      Display a	help bar (in the bottom	status line) with short	 indi-
	      cations of the accent prefix functions assigned to the Ctrl-mod-
	      ified punctuation	keys.

       ... with	HOP:
	      Toggle permanent help bar	display.

       ESC    While a command is active	and prompting (e.g. for	a  search  ex-
	      pression), ESC aborts the	current	command.

       ESC Space
	      Do nothing, so the Space key aborts the ESC command.

   MSDOS keyboard functions
       Ctrl-Alt-Space
	      Set mark (to remember the	current	location).

       Alt-TAB (not in Windows)
	      HOP / Go to.

       Ctrl-* (on keypad)
	      HOP / Go to.

       Ctrl-/ (on keypad)
	      Search forward.

       Alt-/ (on keypad)
	      Search backward.

       Screen size change functions
	      MSDOS  screen size changes depend	on a table of common VGA video
	      modes (dosvideo.t).
	      In the presence of a TSR	driver	which  can  change  fonts  and
	      screen  modes  while  running a program (e.g. the	excellent VGA-
	      MAX), the	actual change  effective  may  occasionally  be	 unex-
	      pected.  Mined  recognises such changes after the	next character
	      input and	adjusts	to them.

       Alt-- (on keypad)
	      Change video lines mode to the mode with the next	smaller	number
	      of  lines	 but  same number of columns.  (The number of lines is
	      first tried to be	decreased within the current video mode. If it
	      is already the lowest, the next video mode is chosen.)

       Alt-+ (on keypad)
	      Change  video lines mode to the mode with	the next higher	number
	      of lines but same	number of columns.

       Ctrl-- (on keypad)
	      Change video mode	to the mode with the next smaller total	 reso-
	      lution (lines * columns).

       Ctrl-+ (on keypad)
	      Change video mode	to the mode with the next higher total resolu-
	      tion.

       HOP Ctrl-/Alt- +/- (on keypad)
	      Several other video mode settings	are prompted  for  (experimen-
	      tal).

       <!p>

   Emacs mode
       Mined emulates emacs keyboard layout and	some specific functions	if in-
       voked with the option -e	or with	the command name alias minmacs.
       In emacs	mode, emacs command key	assignments to control keys, ESC (Meta
       commands)  and ^X (C-X commands)	are configured.	 In addition, the fol-
       lowing emacs-compatible changes apply:

	      o	     The mined ESC commands can	be reached via M-x.  (Function
		     keys remain unaffected.)

	      o	     The Del key (on the small keypad) is configured to	delete
		     the previous character.

	      o	     The control key insertion prefix is ^Q.

	      o	     The quit character	(e.g. for the prompt line) is ^G.

	      o	     The emacs multiple	buffer ring is fully enabled.

	      o	     Paragraph justification mode is set to consider an	 empty
		     line as paragraph separation by default.

	      o	     Mined ESC commands	can be reached via M-x (Alt-X).

	      o	     ^\	(Ctrl-\) is interpreted	as an additional HOP key.

	      o	     Keyboard mapping (input method) can be toggled with Ctrl-
		     Alt-F12

       Command overview:

       ^A, ^B, ^E, ^F, ^N, ^P, ^V, M-v,	M-b, M-f, M-a, M-e, M-<	 ,  M->,  ^X[,
       ^X]
	      cursor and screen	movement

       ^D     delete character

       ^O     insert new line

       ^Q     insert literal character

       ^@     mark position

       ^W / M-w
	      cut / copy to buffer

       ^K     delete to	end of line / delete line end, and append to buffer

       M-d / M-k
	      delete word / delete end of sentence, and	append to buffer

       ^Y     paste buffer

       M-y    paste previous buffer, replacing text just pasted

       M-u    transform	word upper-case

       M-l    transform	word lower-case

       M-c    transform	word capitalised (initial upper-case)

       ^S, ^R search forward / reverse

       M-%    replace with confirmation

       M-.    search for identifier definition (using tags file)

       ^X^S, ^Xs
	      save file

       ^X^W   save file	as (using different name)

       ^X^F   edit other file (prompts for name)

       ^X^B   edit previous file (among	those listed on	command	line)

       ^X^C   quit editor, prompt for saving text first

       ^Xk    discard current edit buffer (after confirmation),	open new one

       ^Xi    insert file

       ^X=    display file statistics

       ^L     refresh display

       ^U, ^X^[
	      repeat (not as generic numeric command parameter)

       ^H     help

       ^Z, M-z,	^X^Z
	      suspend editor

       ^\ (mined add-on)
	      HOP (generic function amplifier /	expander)

       M-x (Deprecated mined add-on)
	      invoke mined ESC command

       ESC ESC (mined add-on)
	      invoke mined ESC command

       <!p>

   Windows keyboard mode
       Mined  emulates	typical	 Windows control key functions if invoked with
       the option +ew; this is enabled automatically when invoking  mined  via
       the  wined.bat  script  or  from	the Windows explorer context menu of a
       text file.
       The usual Escape	commands and function key assignments  of  mined  also
       apply in	Windows	keyboard mode. Also, ^@	and ^_ are included to provide
       the respective functionality.

       ^@     mark position

       ^C     copy selected text area (between marked and current position)

       ^F     search

       ^G     goto

       ^H     replace (with confirm)

       ^O     open other file

       ^P     print

       ^Q     quit

       ^S     save file

       ^V     paste

       ^W     close file

       ^X     cut selected text	area (between mark and current position)

       ^_     insert control character

       <!p>

   WordStar mode
       Mined emulates WordStar keyboard	layout and some	specific functions  if
       invoked with the	option -W or with the command name alias mstar.
       The  usual  Escape  commands and	function key assignments of mined also
       apply in	WordStar mode.
       In prefixed two-key commands, the control state and case	of the	second
       key does	not matter, e.g. ^K^B, ^KB and ^Kb are identical.

       ^S, ^D, ^E, ^X, ^A, ^F, ^R, ^C, ^W, ^Z, ^H
	      cursor and screen	movement

       ^G     delete character

       ^T     delete word

       ^Y     delete line

       ^Q^Y   delete to	end of line

       ^N     insert new line

       ^P     insert control character

       ^Q^W, ^Q^Z
	      scroll multiple screen lines

       ^Q^F   find

       ^Q^A   find and replace (with HOP: with confirm)

       ^L     repeat last search

       ^Q     HOP key

       ^Q, ^K, ^O
	      two-key command prefixes

       ^Q^Q   repeat following command

       ^B     paragraph	justification (word wrap)

       ^OL    set left margins

       ^OG    set left margin for first	line of	paragraph

       ^OR    set right	margin

       ^KB    set marker

       ^QB    goto marker

       ^Kn    (n=0..9) set marker n

       ^Qn    (n=0..9) goto marker n

       ^KK    copy between here	and marker (not	exactly	WS function)

       ^KC    copy (paste) saved text here (not	exactly	WS function)

       ^KY    delete between here and marker (not exactly WS function)

       ^KV    copy (paste) saved text here (not	exactly	WS function)

       ^KW    write paste buffer to file

       ^KR    read (insert) file here

       ^KS    write (save) edited text to file

       ^KD    write (save) edited text to file,	edit next file

       ^KX    exit (and	save)

       ^KQ    quit (don't save)

       ^KL    change current directory

->NEW->	Configuration of user preferences
       User  preferences  can  be  configured  in a runtime configuration file
       $HOME/.minedrc. (On Windows systems, if the environment variable	%HOME%
       is not set, %USERPROFILE%\.minedrc will be used.)  ->NEW-> It is	possi-
       ble to configure	conditional preferences	based on file  type  (filename
       pattern)	or terminal type.
       A  documented  sample file is included in the Mined runtime support li-
       brary as	conf_user/minedrc or in	the web	documentation.
       ->NEW-> Volatile	preferences when editing multiple files:
       Note that options relating to editing features (such as tabwidth)  will
       be re-established on each file opened, while options relating to	inter-
       active behaviour	or display features (such as file_chooser sorting  op-
       tions)  will  remain changed after they are toggled interactively (e.g.
       from the	Options	menu), so the preference selected here is volatile for
       them.

Environment interworking and configuration hints
       A  number of configuration options have already been addressed through-
       out the manual page. A few more configuration  features	are  mentioned
       here.  For  more	 details, examples, and	other display settings see the
       example script conf_user/profile.mined in the Mined runtime support li-
       brary.

   Mined runtime support library
       The  mined  distribution	provides a collection of runtime support files
       (in subdirectory	usrshare); if mined is installed into  standard	 loca-
       tions,  they  are  copied  to  one of the directories /usr/share/mined,
       /usr/share/lib/mined,	 /usr/local/share/mined,     /opt/mined/share,
       $HOME/opt/mined/share  (depending  on operating system and installation
       options).

       Mined runtime support includes:

	      o	     Package documentation

	      package_doc/*
		     mined package overview, introduction, change log, license

	      o	     Web documentation

	      doc_user/*
		     copy of the web documentation including the HTML  version
		     of	the mined manual page

	      o	     Interactive help

	      help/mined.hlp
		     help file (for F1 commands)

	      o	     Configuration example files

	      conf_user/minedrc
		     user  preferences configuration sample file; to be	copied
		     to	$HOME/.minedrc (on Windows systems, if the environment
		     variable  %HOME%  is  not	used,  copy the	sample file to
		     %USERPROFILE%\.minedrc)

	      conf_user/profile.mined
		     shell commands to set environment	variables  for	mined,
		     template for inclusion in $HOME/.profile

	      conf_user/Xdefaults.mined
		     xterm  configuration entries suitable for mined, template
		     for inclusion in $HOME/.Xdefaults or $HOME/.Xresources

	      conf_user/xinitrc.mined
		     shell commands to activate	Xdefaults.mined, template  for
		     inclusion in $HOME/.profile

	      conf_user/kp5
		     shell  script to assign the X key symbol Menu to the mid-
		     dle keypad	key ("5") as a remedy to the inability of  the
		     KDE  konsole terminal to recognise	that key (due to a de-
		     ficieny in	the QT framework), thus	enabling the  HOP  key
		     in	konsole

	      conf_user/mlterm/main
		     mlterm configuration to enable Alt-key detection, for in-
		     clusion in	$HOME/.mlterm/main

	      conf_user/mlterm/key
		     mlterm configuration for modified (shifted	etc)  function
		     keys, for inclusion in $HOME/.mlterm/key

	      conf_user/konsole/xterm-modified.keytab
		     KDE  konsole  keyboard configuration providing a terminal
		     (called "xterm with key modifiers"	in the	konsole	 menu)
		     with modified (shifted etc) function keys

	      conf_user/terminator/options
		     option  to	 be  added for the Terminator Java terminal to
		     enable Alt-letter functions

	      conf_user/MINED-VMS.COM
		     commands to define	mined commands and set up help for DCL
		     on	VMS

	      o	     Scripts to	be used	at runtime

	      bin/uprint
		     script  for printing a Unicode file, using	either paps or
		     uniprint for formatting; under Windows, it	can  also  use
		     notepad /p	for printing

	      o	     Scripts to	start mined

	      bin/uterm
		     script  to	 invoke	xterm in UTF-8 mode; it	should also be
		     installed into the	system binary path  and	 has  its  own
		     manual page

	      bin/mterm
		     script  to	 invoke	mlterm with suitable options (for bidi
		     support)

	      bin/umined
		     script to start mined in a	separate xterm	window,	 using
		     UTF-8 mode	with most recent version of Unicode width data
		     (specifying wide and combining characters)	as built-in to
		     xterm

	      bin/xmined
		     script  to	 start mined in	a separate xterm window, using
		     same encoding mode	as currently set

	      bin/wined
		     (on Windows) cygwin script	to start  mined	 in  a	window
		     (using  the  mintty  terminal, applying Windows look-and-
		     feel)

	      bin/wined.bat
		     (on Windows) command script to start a  mined  window  in
		     Windows keyboard emulation	mode

	      o	     Files to setup a mined installation

	      setup_install/mined.desktop
		     KDE  desktop entry	to start mined in an xterm from	a menu
		     entry, using the uterm script

	      setup_install/mined.ico
		     Cygwin/X desktop icon for adding mined  to	 the  Cygwin-X
		     Editors section in	the Windows Start menu

	      o	     Scripts to	configure an environment for mined

	      setup_install/bin/configure-xterm
		     sample  configuration  script  to build xterm with	recom-
		     mended configuration options

	      setup_install/bin/makeprint
		     script to search for or retrieve and build	 the  uniprint
		     program from the yudit package

	      setup_install/bin/installfonts
		     script  for  downloading  the  Unicode-enhanced  X	screen
		     fonts and installing them with your X server

	      setup_install/bin/bdf18to20
		     script to transform an 18x18  pixel  double-width	screen
		     font  into	 a corresponding 20x20 pixel font matching the
		     10x20 single-width	font (which is	much  nicer  than  the
		     9x18)

	      setup_install/cyg/*
		     optional  postinstallation	(not in	use) for cygwin	to in-
		     stall mined with the Windows  desktop  and	 the  Cygwin/X
		     menu

	      setup_install/win/*
		     installation of the Windows stand-alone version

   PC versions
       For  Windows with a cygwin system (http://cygwin.com/), mined is	avail-
       able as a cygwin	package.
       Two other versions are available	for DOS/Windows	systems:

	      o	     Stand-alone Windows version,  compiled  with  cygwin.  It
		     runs   in	a  Windows  console,  Windows  terminal	 (e.g.
		     mintty), or X terminal.  It  is  packaged	together  with
		     mintty.   Its  installation  registers its	invocation (in
		     mintty) from the Windows context menu for text files.

	      o	     DOS version, compiled with	djgpp. It runs	on  plain  DOS
		     (with some	special	support	of FreeDOS codepage configura-
		     tion) or in a Windows console window (DOS command window)
		     but  not in a typical terminal application	like mintty or
		     xterm.   It  supports  long   file	  names	  in   Windows
		     98/2000/XP/... (not NT4.0).
       See the mined web site http://towo.net/mined/ for download.

       For  hints  on PC-specific terminal configuration issues, see PC	termi-
       nals below.

   VMS version
       Mined runs on OpenVMS, with a number of specific	adaptations especially
       in file handling.

	      o	     Options  containing  capital  letters  need to be quoted,
		     e.g.  MINED "-Qa" [-]*.com.  Mined	options	 can  also  be
		     passed in the symbol MINED$OPT.

	      o	     Filename  wildcard	 expansion  is applied,	accepting both
		     Unix-like and VMS-native subdirectory notations.

	      o	     File versions can optionally be specified and are handled
		     properly;	for  example,  an  explicit version opened for
		     editing can be saved and will be the most recent  version
		     as	expected.
		     Note:  To	combine	wildcards with version specifications,
		     use VMS-native pathname notation (and do not use a	 final
		     ";"  without version specification), e.g.:	[]x*;* to edit
		     all versions of all files x* [.cmd]x*;1 to	edit version 1
		     of	all files cmd/x*

	      o	     The file chooser accepts Unix-like	or VMS-style directory
		     notations for navigation.	Switching to the  current  di-
		     rectory  (TAB  or	Enter) which is	the first entry	of the
		     file chooser list,	displayed in VMS style,	turns the file
		     list into VMS-style listing of all	file versions.
		     Logical  names can	be used	for direct navigation if a fi-
		     nal ":" is	included (like SYS$LOGIN:).

	      o	     Note that opening the file	chooser	may be slow  on	 large
		     directories.

	      o	     If	the terminal window is resized while mined is running,
		     mined will	notice and adjust after	 an  explicit  refresh
		     (ESC  .).	The  system,  however,	is not notified	of the
		     changed window size in this case. Please  resize  (again)
		     when back on the command line.

	      o	     The  capability  to accept	terminal copy-paste is limited
		     by	the VMS	80 character input buffer (not limited on emu-
		     lated  VMS,  e.g.	 on "Personal Alpha"). For some	remote
		     terminals (mintty,	rxvt), full Unicode data  version  de-
		     tection is	disabled to reduce start-up delay.

	      o	     The  file info memory files are called .$mined instead of
		     .@mined, recovery files  are  called  $name$  instead  of
		     #name#.

	      o	     In	 the VAX version, CJK character	encodings, Han charac-
		     ter information, and Unicode character information	tables
		     are  not included by default. Alpha and IA64 versions in-
		     clude all Unicode and character encoding features.

	      o	     For hints related to the DECterm window, see below.
       See the template	script MINED-VMS.COM in	the conf_user subdirectory  of
       the  Mined runtime support library or the file README.vms (MINED.README
       in the VMS binary package) for installation hints.

   Android version
       There are a number of deviations	from typical Linux systems; mined pro-
       vides  workarounds  where  necessary.  Mined runs on Android with these
       Apps installed:

	      o	     C4droid (needed as	container for gcc)

	      o	     GCC for C4droid (to compile mined)

	      o	     Better Terminal (recommended, for shell and terminal)

	      o	     UniversalAndroot (to access gcc from terminal shell)  for
		     Android < 4

   Terminal environment
       For terminal-specific hints, see	Terminal interworking problems below

       On  Unix, the terminal type is determined from the environment variable
       TERM. The termcap/terminfo mechanism is used to derive the actual prop-
       erties  of the terminal;	for some terminals (cygwin, xterm, rxvt, vt*),
       this information	is also	built-in as a fallback in case terminal	infor-
       mation  is not available	on a system (this is especially	useful for the
       cygwin stand-alone version).

       Recognition of some special terminal features or	restrictions is	 asso-
       ciated  with  the  setting  of TERM (xterm, linux, vt100, sun*, cygwin,
       rxvt, *ansi*, 9780*, hp*, xterm-hp, superbee*, sb*, microb*,  scoansi*,
       xterm-sco, cons*, att605-pc, ti_ansi, mgterm).  Non-trivial screen fea-
       tures (like scroll reverse, add/delete line, erase multiple characters)
       are used	if their support is indicated in the termcap/terminfo descrip-
       tion of the terminal unless other information is	available (e.g.	 after
       terminal	 version  detection, an	older xterm is supposed	not to support
       erase characters).  Since colour	support	is often not configured	within
       terminfo	 but modern terminals do support it, mined always tries	to ap-
       ply colour attributes (if the terminal at least supports	 ANSI  control
       sequences).  A  number of other "best practice" approaches are taken to
       optimize	the usage of terminal capabilities, esp.   covering  different
       methods of graphics display support (for	menu borders).

       For  detection  of  function keys and cursor keys, the escape sequences
       being used by terminals are often not known to an operating system  en-
       vironment  because they are poorly and incompletely configured. Because
       this does usually not work as expected (see this	bug report just	for an
       example),  mined	does not rely on the termcap/terminfo configuration of
       function	key codes  alone  (which  it  considers	 however  since	 mined
       2000.14);  rather it always accepts a wide variety of typical codes.  A
       few ambiguous codes are resolved	according to the TERM variable.

       In an xterm, window headline and	icon text are set to the current file-
       name and	"(*)" is added if the text has been modified.

	Locale configuration
       The  locale  mechanism as implemented on	modern systems has a number of
       design problems,	one being that there is	no  explicit  distinction  be-
       tween  text encoding and	terminal encoding although this	is obviously a
       very different thing and	mixed combinations of both may occur  and  are
       actually	supported by mined.
       For  this  reason, mined	extends	the locale environment variable	mecha-
       nism with the variable TEXTLANG which is	only  considered  for  assumed
       text  encoding  (with  precedence  over the standard locale variables),
       ->NEW-> and also	considers LANGUAGE with	precedence.
       ->NEW-> If one of these additional locale variables (LANGUAGE or	 TEXT-
       LANG) is	used, mined also implicitly enables smart quotes.
       Also mined provides command line	parameters to explicit override	either
       text or terminal	encoding (UTF-8	terminal encoding, however, is	always
       auto-detected if	the terminal provides the information).

	      o	     For  text	encoding,  mined  checks the variables ->NEW->
		     LANGUAGE, TEXTLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG	in this	order.

	      o	     For terminal encoding, mined checks the variables LC_ALL,
		     LC_CTYPE, LANG in this order.

	      o	     Explicit command line parameters are available to specify
		     either terminal encoding (+E) or text encoding (-E). They
		     override environment variable settings.

	      o	     UTF-8  terminal  auto-detection  overrides	other terminal
		     encoding settings.

	      o	     Text encoding auto-detection overrides  environment  set-
		     tings but not command line	settings.

	      o	     Assumed text encoding can be switched while editing.

       For  encoding  recognition  from	 locale	 environment  variables, mined
       recognises locale specifications	typically found	 in  system  installa-
       tions,  including  those	which do not include an	explicit encoding suf-
       fix. Known character encoding suffixes ("codeset" component  of	locale
       name, starting with ".")	are recognised regardless of whether the given
       locale is installed or not. Other encodings are	recognised  by	region
       suffix (starting	with "_") or full locale name or alias.
       In  addition to hard-coded locale recognition (especially for CJK), lo-
       cale values and associated encodings are	configured in the compile-time
       configuration file locales.cfg which especially lists locale names that
       do not have an explicit encoding	suffix.	 You can  use  these  settings
       (known  locale  name or generic locale name suffix) even	on legacy sys-
       tems without locale support to indicate the terminal environment	 prop-
       erly  to	mined.	For encoding recognition from command-line parameters,
       mined provides the following options:

	      o	     -EX or +EX	with a single-letter encoding  tag  as	listed
		     with  the description of the -E options; further encoding
		     tags are configured  in  the  compile-time	 configuration
		     file charmaps.cfg.

	      o	     -E=charmap	 or  +E=charmap	with a character encoding name
		     (as reported by the locale	charmap	command).

	      o	     -E.suffix or +E.suffix with a character  encoding	suffix
		     ("codeset"	of locale name).

	      o	     -E:flag  or  +E:flag  with	 a 2-letter indication used by
		     mined to indicate the respective text encoding in the En-
		     coding flag.

	      o	     ->NEW->  -E-  or -E disables text encoding	auto-detection
		     which is then derived from	the locale environment.

       In these	options, -E specifies
	      text encoding while +E would specify terminal encoding to	be as-
	      sumed.

       The following table lists encodings and major codepages that are	recog-
       nised by	a generic locale suffix	or country code; in addition (as  men-
       tioned  above),	a large	number of locale names without encoding	suffix
       as found	on various systems is known to mined and will cause it to  as-
       sume the	corresponding terminal encoding.

       Unicode:	UTF-8
	      suffixes:	.UTF-8 / .utf8

       Traditional Chinese (Hongkong): Big5 with HKSCS (includes CP950)
	      suffixes:	 .BIG5*	 / .Big5* / .big5* / _HK / _TW (_TW ambiguous,
	      following	encoding overrides)

       Simplified Chinese: GB18030 (includes CP936, GBK	and GB2312)
	      suffixes:	.GB* / .gb* / .EUC-CN /	.euccn / _CN.EUC / _CN

       Traditional Chinese (Taiwan): CNS (EUC-TW)
	      suffixes:	.EUC-TW	/ .euctw / .eucTW / _TW.EUC

       Japanese: EUC-JP
	      suffixes:	.EUC-JP	/ .eucjp / .eucJP / .ujis / _JP.EUC  /	_JP  /
	      .euc (.euc ambiguous, more specific string overrides)

       Japanese: Shift_JIS / CP932
	      suffixes:	.Shift_JIS / .shiftjis / .sjis / .SJIS

       Korean Unified Hangul: UHC / CP949 (includes EUC-KR)
	      suffixes:	.UHC / .EUC-KR / .euckr	/ .eucKR / _KR.EUC / _KR

       Korean: Johab
	      suffixes:	.JOHAB

       Vietnamese: VISCII
	      suffixes:	.viscii

       Vietnamese: TCVN
	      suffixes:	.tcvn

       Thai: TIS-620
	      suffixes:	.tis* /	.TIS* /	_TH / .iso8859[-]11 / .ISO8859[-]11

       Latin-9:	ISO 8859-15
	      suffixes:	@euro /	.iso8859[-]15 /	.ISO8859[-]15

       Cyrillic: ISO 8859-5
	      suffixes:	 @cyrillic  (unless  preceded by uz_UZ which indicates
	      UTF-8)

       Latin or	other: ISO 8859	encodings
	      suffixes:	.iso8859[-]N / .ISO8859[-]N (with number N)

       Russian Cyrillic: KOI8-R
	      suffixes:	.koi8r

       Ukrainian Cyrillic: KOI8-U
	      suffixes:	.koi8u

       Tadjikistan Cyrillic: KOI8-T
	      suffixes:	.koi8t

       Russian,	Ukrainian, Byelorussian	Cyrillic: KOI8-RU
	      suffixes:	.koi

       MacRoman:
	      suffixes:	.roman

       Windows Latin: CP1252
	      suffixes:	.cp1252

       Windows Cyrillic: CP1251
	      suffixes:	.cp1251

       PC Latin: CP850
	      suffixes:	.cp850

       Windows Hebrew: CP1255
	      suffixes:	.cp1255

       Georgian: Georgian-PS
	      suffixes:	.georgianps

       Armenian: ARMSCII
	      suffixes:	.ARMSCII-8

       Kazachstan Cyrillic: PT154
	      suffixes:	.pt154

       Examples: To indicate that mined	is running in a	UTF-8  terminal	 (nor-
       mally auto-detected, included here for demonstration) and should	assume
       GB18030 text encoding by	default, invoke	either of:

       LC_ALL=whatever.UTF-8 TEXTLANG=zh_CN.gbk	mined

       LC_CTYPE=whatever.UTF-8 LANGUAGE=chinese	mined

       LANG=whatever.UTF-8 mined -EG

       LC_ALL=en_IN mined -E.gbk

       mined +EU -E.EUC-CN

       mined +EU -E=GB18030

       mined +EU -E:GB

       Selecting UTF-16	text mode: To tell mined to interpret a	file (or  make
       a  new file) in UTF-16 encoding,	use the	following command line options
       (first two little endian, then big endian):

       mined -E:61

       mined -E=UTF-16LE

       mined -E:16

       mined -E=UTF-16BE

       mined -E=UTF-16

       Selecting ASCII terminal	mode: To tell mined to assume that a  terminal
       cannot  display anything	but ASCII characters, use the command line op-
       tion +E:AS.  Mined implicitly assumes this setting if  the  environment
       variable	TERM indicates a VT52 terminal.

	PC terminals
       Character encoding of PC	terminals is an	even greater mess than on Unix
       systems.	Mined provides heuristic best-guess assumptions	about terminal
       encoding, supporting both local invocation as well as remote login from
       a PC (e.g. to a Unix machine).

       The following assumptions are made based	on  environment	 variables  or
       command-line parameters:

       encoding	("codepage")
	      environment
	      option
	      examples

       CP850 (PC mapping of Latin-1 character set)
	      TERM=ansi,  ansi-nt,  pcansi*,  hpansi*, interix*	or TERM=cygwin
	      and  CYGWIN  contains  "codepage:oem"  or	 LC_*/LANG   indicates
	      ".CP850"
	      +EP

       o      Windows console (DOS prompt) window

       o      Windows console mode telnet (even	if called from cygwin console,
	      sets TERM=ansi)

       CP437 (IBM PC VGA encoding)
	      TERM=nansi*, ansi.*,  opennt*,  *-emx*  or  LC_*/LANG  indicates
	      ".CP437"
	      +Ep

       o      plain DOS

       CP1252 (Windows ANSI extension of Latin-1)
	      TERM=cygwin  (unless  LC_*/LANG or CYGWIN	indicates other	encod-
	      ing)
	      +EW

       o      cygwin 1.5 console or application

       o      older Windows GUI	telnet (sets TERM=ansi)

       UTF-8
	      LC_*/LANG	indicates ".UTF-8" or (for cygwin 1.7 beta)  TERM=cyg-
	      win and CYGWIN contains "codepage:utf8"
	      +U

       o      cygwin 1.7 console or application	configured for UTF-8 mode

	      o	     Note:  Windows  console  in  UTF-8	mode provides extended
		     Unicode font support if you select	"Lucida	Console" True-
		     Type font from its	Properties menu.

       other codepages
	      LC_*/LANG	indicates codepage, e.g. ".CP1250" or ".CP858"
	      or  triggered  by	 DOS  codepage information (djgpp version, see
	      note)
	      +E=CP1250	or other codepage, or respective shortcut

       o      cygwin 1.7 console  or  application  configured  for  respective
	      codepage

       Note:  It is not	unlikely that the assumption about the terminal	encod-
       ing taken by mined does not match the actual  terminal  encoding	 (e.g.
       mined  cannot  determine	 the  encoding	based on the ambiguous setting
       TERM=ansi). Environment variables that indicate the character  encoding
       are unfortunately not maintained	through	telnet or remote login.
       Explicitly setting TERM to a suitable value after remote	login may help
       but may not always work (e.g. pcansi is not a known terminal on SunOS).
       Explicitly  setting  locale  variables, e.g. LC_CTYPE, may indicate the
       encoding	to mined but may cause trouble otherwise;  some	 systems  like
       SunOS are dogmatic about	interpreting locale variables and strictly ask
       corresponding locale data to be installed or they will flood  you  with
       bogus error messages.  Also not all encodings, esp. PC "codepages", are
       known as	a "locale charmap" on other systems.
       In these	cases, you can use the explicit	+E option to  force  mined  to
       assume a	specific terminal encoding; see	the option values listed above
       for the main DOS	encodings.

       Note: The encoding emulated by cygwin (as  configured,  or  by  default
       typically  CP1252  for cygwin 1.5, UTF-8	for cygwin 1.7)	is not the en-
       coding natively applied by the Windows console window (by default typi-
       cally  the DOS codepage CP850).	This means that	the effective encoding
       may be different	if you invoke the cygwin-compiled  mined  version  and
       the  djgpp-compiled mined version alternatingly;	you may	notice this by
       a different range of characters that can	be displayed when opening  the
       same file with the two mined versions.
       Some  Windows Latin characters are poorly displayed by the Windows con-
       sole in default configuration; cygwin 1.7 can  display  all  characters
       properly	 if the	Windows	console	font is	configured to "Lucida Console"
       rather than "Raster Fonts".
       In a cygwin console on a	non-cygwin system (after remote	login),	 mined
       assumes ASCII as	the terminal encoding by default unless	properly indi-
       cated by	environment variables.

       Note: The following DOS codepages are supported;	they are  mainly  pro-
       vided  as  terminal codepages, they do not appear in the	Encoding menu.
       However,	if you need, you can ask mined to use them as either  the  as-
       sumed terminal encoding (e.g. +E=CP1250 or +E:WE) or even text encoding
       (e.g. -E=CP1250 or -E:WE) using the names or shortcuts from the list:

       CP437
	      PC
	      DOS US

       CP720
	      DA
	      ->NEW-> DOS Arabic

       CP737
	      37
	      DOS Greek

       CP775
	      75
	      DOS Baltic

       CP850
	      PL
	      DOS Western European

       CP852
	      52
	      DOS Central European

       CP853
	      53
	      South European, Esperanto

       CP855
	      55
	      DOS Cyrillic

       CP857
	      57
	      DOS Turkish

       CP858
	      58
	      DOS Western, CP850 with Euro symbol

       CP860
	      60
	      DOS Portuguese

       CP861
	      61
	      DOS Icelandic

       CP862
	      62
	      DOS Hebrew

       CP863
	      63
	      DOS French Canadian

       CP864E
	      64
	      DOS Arabic (CP864E, variant of AR864 (superset of	CP864))

       CP865
	      65
	      DOS Nordic

       CP866
	      66
	      DOS Russian

       CP869
	      69
	      DOS Modern Greek

       CP874
	      TI
	      Windows Thai, superset of	ISO-8859-11/TIS-620

       CP1125
	      25
	      DOS Ukraine

       CP1131
	      31
	      ->NEW-> DOS Byelorussian/Ukrainian

       CP1250
	      WE
	      Windows Central European

       CP1251
	      WC
	      Windows Cyrillic

       CP1252
	      WL
	      Windows Western European

       CP1253
	      WG
	      Windows Greek

       CP1254
	      WT
	      Windows Turkish

       CP1255
	      He
	      Windows Hebrew

       CP1256
	      WA
	      Windows Arabic

       CP1257
	      WB
	      Windows Baltic

       CP1258
	      WV
	      ->NEW-> Windows Vietnamese

       Note: For the djgpp version of mined, even the font chosen for the Win-
       dows console window may affect the effective display encoding.  Config-
       ure "Raster Fonts" (except of size "10 x	20"!), not "Lucida Console" in
       order to	make sure the effective	visual codepage	is the same as the one
       selected	with the respective DOS	 tools	(e.g.  chcp)  and  assumed  by
       mined.

       Note:  Mined  (djgpp) tries to determine	the DOS/Windows	codepage using
       the DOS API; this can only work if the codepage was properly configured
       with  DOS  means	 (e.g.	with  CP858  using CHCP	858 or MODE CON	CP SE-
       LECT=858, maybe enabled by DEVICE=...\DISPLAY.SYS CON=(EGA,858) on  old
       DOS,  or	 MODE  CON CP PREP=((codepage list) ...\ega.cpi)); if only the
       font is switched	to a differently encoded one, there is no way  to  de-
       tect  this  - in	this case you can still	use environment	setting	or the
       +E option as described above to indicate	the terminal encoding.

       Note: To	enable mouse operation in a Windows console window, deactivate
       "QuickEdit mode"	in the properties menu.

       Note:  If  the DOS screen size is changed by a TSR (e.g.	VGAMAX using a
       hotkey),	mined does not notice this immediately;	in  that  case,	 mined
       adjusts its screen display only after the next key is typed.

       Note: Running mined (djgpp) in a	dosemu session (DOS emulator on	Linux)
       works fine, even	in an xterm-embedded session although not perfectly in
       that  case:  ^S	and  ^Q	are interpreted	for flow control (thus ^S will
       hold all	output until ^Q	is entered), and the mined option  -Qa	should
       be used to tune menu borders right.

	Terminal setup and configuration
       The  Mined  runtime  support library includes a number of configuration
       files providing settings	that should be applied	to  various  terminals
       for  proper  operation of several features as described throughout this
       manual:

	      o	     Xdefaults.mined for major	X  Windows  terminals:	xterm,
		     rxvt,  some  CJK  xterm  derivates	 (cxterm,  kterm). The
		     script xinitrc.mined (and optionally kp5) can be used  to
		     establish the suggested settings.

	      o	     konsole/xterm-modified.keytab  for	 KDE  konsole keyboard
		     definitions

	      o	     mlterm/key	and mlterm/main	for  mlterm  keyboard  defini-
		     tions

	      o	     terminator/options	for terminator keyboard	definitions

       In some terminals, the cursor may not be	well visible or	not visible at
       all if the cursor is on a character with	 reverse  background  (control
       character,  occurs  e.g.	 in  xterm) or highlighted background (invalid
       character code, occurs e.g.  in xterm and rxvt).	 See  the  X  resource
       parameters  for	"cursorColor"  in  the example configuration file Xde-
       faults.mined for	remedy.

       If mouse	wheel movement moves more than expected, especially if it can-
       not  move  by  single items in a	menu, this is probably a configuration
       issue with your mouse driver.  You are probably running a Windows-based
       X  server  which	 is (often by default) configured to generate multiple
       mouse wheel events on each actual mouse wheel movement.	Often not even
       in the Control Panel mouse section, but only in a configuration menu of
       mouse-specific setup software (e.g. "Browser Mouse Settings"),  config-
       ure the scroll unit to 1.

	Terminal interworking problems
       With  some  terminals,  problems	are known due to missing terminal fea-
       tures or	terminal bugs:

       any terminal: menu border display

       o      If the borders of	mined menus  appear  as	 letters  rather  than
	      graphic  borders,	the terminal can unexpectedly not handle VT100
	      graphics.	 Use the option	-Qa to switch  to  ASCII  borders,  or
	      -fff to limit font assumptions.
	      In  a  UTF-8 terminal, mined uses	Unicode	Box Drawing characters
	      by default.  If they don't display they are missing in the  font
	      used  by	the  terminal.	 Use the option	-Qv to switch to VT100
	      graphics or -Qa to switch	to ASCII graphics. If borders are vis-
	      ible  but	without	corners, use -Qs to switch to simple rectangu-
	      lar borders.

       any terminal: slow terminal feature auto-detection

       o      On a slow	remote terminal	connection, escape sequences from  the
	      terminal	(sent  for  function  keys  or	requested terminal re-
	      sponses) may get delayed and split up.  Mined  tries  to	handle
	      delayed  parts of	escape sequences graciously (->NEW->  improved
	      again); however, this is limited as the explicit ESC  key	 shall
	      also be recognised.
	      If  messages  like  "Late	 screen	 mode  response	- ..."	(after
	      startup),	"...awaiting  slow  terminal  response"	 (esp.	 after
	      startup),	 "...awaiting slow key code sequence" or "...absorbing
	      delayed terminal..." occur, escape sequence detection may	be ad-
	      justed  by  setting the environment variable ESCDELAY to a value
	      of 2000 or 3000.	(Delay during startup may apparently  also  be
	      caused  by  on-demand  font  loading of rxvt or mlterm, however,
	      mined applies special handling for this case.)

       o      If proper	terminal detection fails for delay reasons, mined  may
	      especially  not  be  aware of the	terminal encoding (and display
	      line markers as blocks). In this case,  exiting  and  restarting
	      mined should resolve the issue.

       xterm

       o      To enable	proper Alt-letter command input	(for opening and navi-
	      gating menus), set the xterm resource  metaSendsEscape  to  true
	      (or with older versions of xterm,	set eightBitInput to false) in
	      your X configuration (usually  $HOME/.Xdefaults  or  $HOME/.Xre-
	      sources) as suggested in the example file	Xdefaults.mined	in the
	      Mined runtime support library.

       o      Although it is a waste of	keyboard resources to have two	indis-
	      tinguishable  sets  of  keypad  keys,  most terminals provide no
	      means of distinguish them	towards	the applications, at least not
	      by default. Especially for a text	editor,	it is highly desirable
	      to distinguish them in order to have a rich  intuitive  function
	      key mapping at disposition which mined tries to achieve.
	      One approach to improve mapping of useful	key functions would be
	      actual keyboard remapping	(applicable on some  terminals);  this
	      is a delicate approach, though, because it may create incompati-
	      bilities with other programs that	 rely  strictly	 on  installed
	      terminfo	information.  Mined provides remapping recommendations
	      for shifted keypad keys (with Shift, Control, Alt	 and  combina-
	      tions of them) in	the configuration sample files Xdefaults.mined
	      (for xterm), konsole/xterm-modified.keytab  (for	KDE  konsole),
	      mlterm/key (for mlterm), in the Mined runtime support library.
	      Due  to  the compatibility limitations mentioned above, however,
	      the two Ins keys remain indistinguishable, and the two Del  keys
	      are  only	 distinguishable  if  the xterm	configuration resource
	      *VT100*deleteIsDEL is set. Also, keypad and function key modifi-
	      cation   with  the  Alt  is  ensured  with  the  xterm  resource
	      *VT100*metaSendsEscape. Both resources are set to	 true  in  the
	      configuration sample file	just mentioned.
	      These  two  resources  can  also	be set dynamically with	xterm.
	      Mined can	be told	to do so with  the  command  line  option  +D.
	      (Unfortunately  this handling cannot be enabled by default as it
	      cannot be	undone because the previous state cannot be detected.)

       o      Mined determines the xterm version in  order  to	apply  certain
	      workarounds conditionally.

       o      If  you run xterm	in VT220 keyboard mode (using xterm option -kt
	      vt220  or	 setting  the  configuration  resource	*keyboardType:
	      vt220) you should	make sure to also set the environment variable
	      TERM=vt220 (e.g. using the xterm option -tn vt220	or setting the
	      configuration  resource  *termName: vt220) so mined can properly
	      set up the keypad	functions.

       o      If you run xterm with the	resource modifyCursorKeys  or  modify-
	      FunctionKeys  set	to value 1, mined will recognise the according
	      keyboard	sequences  with	 the  environment   variable   setting
	      TERM=xterm-sco.

       xterm on	cygwin

       o      On  cygwin, as on	other systems, the script uterm	is recommended
	      to invoke	an xterm that is properly configured to	run UTF-8, and
	      also to use a best choice	of fonts for optimal Unicode coverage.
	      See README.cygwin	for more detailed advice.

       xterm legacy CJK	width mode

       o      Mined auto-detects and supports xterm legacy CJK width  compati-
	      bility  mode (xterm -cjk_width); character width and menu	border
	      layout are properly adjusted, stylish  menu  borders  (-QQ)  and
	      fine-grained scroll bar display are disabled by default.	(Note:
	      In this mode, combining characters could unexpectedly change the
	      width  of	a character by being substituted with its wide precom-
	      posed form (e.g. 'a' combined with U+0300) - which  an  applica-
	      tion  can	 hardly	handle;	this bug was fixed in xterm 224	with a
	      patch contributed	by the mined author.)

       rxvt

       o      When starting mined in a fresh rxvt terminal, and	maybe even af-
	      ter starting your	X server, some display (font?)	initialization
	      may take extremely long. If this results in  an  error  message,
	      restart  mined  to ensure	proper terminal	properties auto-detec-
	      tion.

       o      Rxvt does	not distinguish	between	Shift-F1 and  F11  /  Shift-F2
	      and  F12	/ Ctrl-Shift-F1	and Ctrl-F11 / Ctrl-Shift-F2 and Ctrl-
	      F12, so that the F1 and F2 keys modified with  Shift  cannot  be
	      recognised in rxvt by default.  They can however be enabled with
	      the keysym definitions in	the file Xdefaults.mined in the	 Mined
	      runtime support library.

       o      In  rxvt,	the two	keypad Del keys	(small keypad, numeric keypad)
	      are automatically	distinguished from each	other and  invoke  the
	      Delete  character	 (small	keypad)	and Cut	(numeric keypad) func-
	      tions, respectively  (Ctrl-/Shift-/Alt-  alternatives  are  sup-
	      ported  as described in this manual).  This works, however, only
	      if mined can recognise rxvt; it is generally a bad idea  to  set
	      TERM=xterm in rxvt, see also hint	below.

       o      Also  in	rxvt,  the two keypad Ins keys (small keypad left, nu-
	      meric keypad right) are distinguished. The left  Ins  key	 posi-
	      tions  the  cursor  left of the pasted region, the right Ins key
	      positions	it right.

       o      By setting rxvt in the mode that enables distinction between the
	      two keypads, it can unfortunately	not distinguish	the right key-
	      pad modified with	Ctrl-  anymore,	 so  Ctrl-Home/End/Del	cannot
	      work as desired.

       o      Ctrl-modified  punctuation  keys can be enabled by following the
	      configuration samples of the file	Xdefaults.mined	in  the	 Mined
	      runtime support library.
	      Note:  Ctrl-modified and shifted punctuation keys	interfere with
	      ISO 14755	input mode of rxvt; if the following  key  is  entered
	      twice, that mode is aborted and the modified punctuation key be-
	      comes effective as an accent prefix in mined.

       o      To enable	proper Alt-letter command input	(for opening and navi-
	      gating  menus),  set  the	rxvt resource meta8 to false in	your X
	      configuration (usually $HOME/.Xdefaults or $HOME/.Xresources) as
	      suggested	 in the	example	file Xdefaults.mined in	the Mined run-
	      time support library.

       o      Later rxvt-unicode provides a CJK	terminal emulation.  CJK  dis-
	      play  is	buggy  for  characters that rxvt thinks	cannot be dis-
	      played, especially for GB18030 (LC_CTYPE=zh_CN.gb18030 rxvt) but
	      also  e.g.  for EUC-JP (LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.eucjp rxvt); single bytes
	      are then interpreted instead which amounts to  an	 unpredictable
	      screen  width  and  cannot  be correctly handled.	 (This applies
	      mainly to	character codes	that are not  mapped  to  Unicode  but
	      also to many that	are mapped.)
	      Moreover,	CJK width handling is inconsistent for many characters
	      in rxvt CJK mode (rxvt claims to adhere to the locale  mechanism
	      in  this respect but that's not the case here - character	widths
	      are inconsistent with the	locale,	too).
	      Remedy: Don't use	rxvt in	CJK-encoded mode; mined	 CJK  terminal
	      support  is  tailored  to	 native	CJK terminals (such as cxterm,
	      kterm, hanterm) where it works fine - if you use a UTF-8-capable
	      terminal,	use it in UTF-8	mode! Mined can	edit CJK-encoded files
	      well in a	UTF-8-encoded terminal.

       o      In rxvt, Unicode characters that are  Not	 Assigned  are	always
	      displayed	 as  a single-width replacement	character. This	is not
	      consistent with xterm behaviour which would display  them	 as  a
	      double-width  replacement	 if  they are located within a double-
	      width Unicode range (which sounds	reasonable). This would	 cause
	      display  positioning inconsistencies. Mined has a	workaround for
	      some of these cases (assuming that rxvt  runs  the  most	recent
	      Unicode  width  data  version available; or actually the same as
	      mined assumes - handling of multiple auto-detected terminal Uni-
	      code versions does not cover this	special	case).

       o      If  the  X windows servers has duplicate fonts installed under a
	      common name (e.g.	if it comes with a 10x20 non-Unicode font  and
	      you install a 10x20 Unicode font in addition), rxvt seems	to use
	      the wrong	(i.e., non-Unicode) version of the font	and  does  not
	      find  special  characters	 like  the  default marker used	in the
	      flags menus (this	was observed since  rxvt  7.5,	rxvt  5.8  was
	      finding the proper font).	Use the	mined option -F	to adapt mined
	      to limited font usage, or	fix the	X server installation.	Or use
	      the  script  uterm  to start rxvt-unicode. To start rxvt-unicode
	      from an xterm, use uterm -rx.

       o      Due to the scrollbar display workaround for hanterm (see above),
	      the  scrollbar  position	may be shown as	blank space instead of
	      coloured (only in	rxvt CJK mode with Korean encoding and if  you
	      explicitly  set  TERM=xterm which	you shouldn't anyway in	rxvt).
	      In this case, coloured scrollbar foreground can be enabled  with
	      the   environment	  variable   MINEDSCROLLFG="44;36"  or	MINED-
	      SCROLLFG="38;5;45".

       o      As a workaround for an xterm bug on cygwin, mined	applies	termi-
	      nal  size	re-adjustment. This may	confuse	rxvt (being resized to
	      an unexpectedly large window) if it pretends to be xterm.
	      Remedy:  in  rxvt,  make	sure  that  the	 environment  variable
	      TERM=rxvt	  (or	rxvt-unicode);	 the   according   X  resource
	      (Rxvt.termName: rxvt) is also listed in the file Xdefaults.mined
	      in the Mined runtime support library.

       o      Mined  determines	 the rxvt version in order to use certain fea-
	      tures conditionally.

       o      CJK-mode rxvt: rxvt has some character width bugs	 when  running
	      in  CJK encoding;	e.g. when running rxvt in Big5 terminal	encod-
	      ing (locale zh_TW), U+FA18 is displayed with wrong screen	 width
	      while  in	 older	version	 U+FFED	 was display with wrong	screen
	      width; when running rxvt in Shift_JIS terminal encoding, a  num-
	      ber  of  character  width	 bugs  occur. Mined does not implement
	      workarounds for those; in	general	UTF-8 terminal encoding	is ad-
	      visable to be on the safe	side.

       urxvt

       o      This  is	rxvt-unicode  as packaged for cygwin. Invoke it	with a
	      proper locale environment	variable set  to  enable  UTF-8.   See
	      also README.cygwin for more detailed hints.

       mlterm

       o      Bidirectional  display  handling of mlterm is based on the final
	      display, not regarding any context (such as positioning control,
	      that's why mined implements a workaround for menu	display	on ml-
	      term). Since version 3.0.7, mlterm supports logical order	 mouse
	      positioning over right-to-left lines.

       o      For Shift	selection, use the small keypad.

       o      Recent  mlterm  before  version  3.1.3 has a problem with	colour
	      control that may render text unreadable.

       o      In recent	mlterm versions, Control-function keys cannot be  used
	      in  mined	since they are captured	as mlterm hotkeys.  Use	a Con-
	      trol-V prefix as a workaround.

       o      (Not essential anymore with recent mlterm	 versions)  The	 Mined
	      runtime support library includes a configuration file mlterm/key
	      which defines enhanced escape sequences for  function  keys  and
	      other  modified  keys  in	 order to enable the functionality de-
	      scribed in this manual. (It also enables the keypad  on  systems
	      lacking  its  configuration for mlterm.)	It is essential	to use
	      this configuration especially for	the HOP	key (keypad "5") which
	      is oppressed by mlterm by	default, and also for Control-punctua-
	      tion accent prefix functions, and	some others.

       o      In old versions of mlterm,  mouse	 wheel	scroll	navigation  in
	      menus did	not work seamlessly due	to incorrect escape sequences.

       o      Do  not use mlterm option	-n ! It	may produce display garbage on
	      unknown and other	characters.

       cxterm

       o      Proper configuration is needed to	ensure cxterm uses  a  non-CJK
	      font  of appropriate size	to avoid ragged	display: parameter -fn
	      "-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--18-*-*-*-*-*-*-*"  or  X  resource
	      cxterm*font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--18-*-*-*-*-*-*-*.

       o      EUC-JP  half-width  characters (8EA1-8EDF) are not properly dis-
	      played by	cxterm in EUC-JP mode (cxterm -JIS, not	 available  in
	      "classic"	cxterm).

       o      Due to the scrollbar display workaround for hanterm (see above),
	      the scrollbar position may be shown as blank  space  instead  of
	      coloured	(only in Korean	encoding mode which is probably	rarely
	      used with	cxterm anyway).	  In  this  case,  coloured  scrollbar
	      foreground  can  be enabled with the environment variable	MINED-
	      SCROLLFG="44;36" or MINEDSCROLLFG="38;5;45".

       o      Note: The	configuration sample file Xefaults.mined in the	 Mined
	      runtime  support	library	includes a section to fix some missing
	      keypad assignments, especially the HOP key (keypad "5") which is
	      ignored  by  cxterm by default, and the Home and End keys	of the
	      numeric keypad.

       kterm

       o      Auto-detection of	kterm as a CJK terminal	works if the  environ-
	      ment  variable TERM indicates "kterm"; otherwise mined has to be
	      told that	it runs	in a CJK terminal and which encoding to	use:
	      For kterm	-km sjis, set  LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.sjis  (or	 invoke	 mined
	      +ES).
	      For  kterm  -km  euc,  set LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.eucjp (or invoke mined
	      +EJ).

       o      Note:The configuration sample file Xefaults.mined	in  the	 Mined
	      runtime  support	library	includes a section to fix some missing
	      keypad assignments, especially the HOP key (keypad "5") which is
	      ignored  by  kterm by default, and the Home and End keys of both
	      keypads.

       o      Note: Mouse wheel	scroll navigation in menus does	not work seam-
	      lessly  in  kterm	because	kterm sends incorrect escape sequences
	      on mouse wheel scrolling.

       o      Note: By default (i.e., without explicit -km  option  or	corre-
	      sponding	*vt100.kanjiMode  resource  configured), kterm runs in
	      ISO 2022 mode (yes, it does indeed) which	is  not	 supported  by
	      mined.

       hanterm

       o      CJK display is buggy at the line beginning or after a Tab, often
	      only the second byte of the character code is  displayed	as  an
	      ASCII  character	instead	of displaying the complete CJK charac-
	      ter.

       o      Character	attributes in hanterm used to be  all  mapped  to  re-
	      verse, so	there was a workaround to enable a visible position in
	      the scrollbar which is displayed as blank	 space.	 The  criteria
	      for this workaround to apply are:	CJK terminal (detected or con-
	      figured),	TERM=xterm, Korean encoding (UHC or Johab)  configured
	      with  parameter  or  locale. Replaced to enable nicer colours in
	      scrollbar. To reactivate workaround for older hanterm, set envi-
	      ronment variable MINEDSCROLLFG="0".

       KDE konsole

       o      Due  to  the  lack of decent Unicode font	support	in the default
	      configuration of the KDE konsole terminal, menu  appearance  op-
	      tions  -QQ  and -Qr should not be	used; rounded borders are dis-
	      abled by default.

       o      The Mined	runtime	support	library	includes a configuration  file
	      konsole/xterm-modified.keytab  which defines enhanced escape se-
	      quences for function keys	and other modified keys	 in  order  to
	      enable  the  functionality  described  in	 this manual. Unfortu-
	      nately, the qt framework used by konsole	inhibits  the  use  of
	      some keys	and many key combinations.

       o      It  is  especially irritating that konsole disregards the	middle
	      keypad key ("5" in application mode) completely;	so  the	 mined
	      HOP function has to be invoked by	alternative means.
	      As a remedy, the HOP function is also assigned to	the "Menu" key
	      (next to the "Windows" key on PC keyboards) by the configuration
	      sample  file konsole/xterm-modified.keytab; follow the installa-
	      tion instruction in that file and	select the  keyboard  type  it
	      defines  ("xterm	with  key modifiers") in konsole, "Settings" -
	      "Keyboard" menu.
	      Another remedy is	to reassign the	middle keypad key to the X key
	      symbol Menu (using xmodmap); the script kp5 in the Mined runtime
	      support library does this.

       gnome-terminal

       o      The gnome-terminal uses right mouse click	for its	 own  terminal
	      menu. To open a mined menu, use Ctrl-right-mouse-click.

       o      The gnome-terminal does not support modified keys	(e.g.  shifted
	      keypad keys).

       o      The gnome-terminal captures a number of Alt-letter key  combina-
	      tions  for  its  own menu	access (which can however also be con-
	      trolled with the mouse).	To disable this	unpleasant  capturing,
	      so  e.g. mined can open its own menus with Alt-letter, configure
	      gnome-terminal as	follows:
	      Open menu	"Edit" - "Keyboard Shortcuts..."  and  check  "Disable
	      all  menu	 access	 keys".	Even then, however, F1 and Ctrl-F1 are
	      suppressed by this quirky	terminal.

       o      Mined implicitly assumes its -f option (for limited  font	 usage
	      with  respect to graphic characters) when	detecting gnome-termi-
	      nal.

       Mac OS X	Terminal and others

       o      The Mac OS X Terminal app	does  not  support  mouse  escape  se-
	      quences.	Preferably, use	xterm or iTerm 2.

       o      In  iTerm	2, enable mouse	reporting in the settings menu Prefer-
	      ences - Profile -	Terminal.

       o      If any Mac terminal (Terminal, xterm, iTerm 2) does not  respond
	      to  the  ESC key,	it is likely to	be captured by Speech Recogni-
	      tion.  Disable Speech Recognition	or try Ctrl-ESC.

       Linux console

       o      Mined detects F11, F12, Shift-F1...Shift-F8  properly  (handling
	      the  shift of 2 applied by the Linux console to shifted function
	      key codes	compared with other terminals);	further	modified func-
	      tion keys	are apparently not supported in	the Linux console.

       screen

       Screen, like luit (see below), is a middle layer	between	the
	      actual terminal and the user terminal environment.
	      Running  screen in a cygwin console produces initial garbage in-
	      put in mined.
	      [Applies to older	screen before version 4: Unfortunately,	screen
	      does  not	 pass  character  width	 handling of its host terminal
	      transparently to the application	but  apparently	 it  maintains
	      cursor  position	information  with  reference to	the system-in-
	      stalled locale data. Which, however, does	not always reflect the
	      terminal properties!  Yet	mined detects the proper width proper-
	      ties of the host terminal	 (by  using  pass-through  escape  se-
	      quences of "screen") but only if the environment variable	is set
	      to "screen" (the default of "screen").]
	      Worse, however, screen apparently	transforms cursor  positioning
	      commands	from  the application into relative cursor positioning
	      towards the host terminal, which results	in  grossly  incorrect
	      display  positionining  if  e.g. screen runs in a	UTF-8 terminal
	      but assumes an 8 bit terminal. Also, it interprets certain UTF-8
	      continuation  bytes as control characters, so even using a work-
	      around it	is not possible	to fix display for all	cases.	 Mined
	      applies  a  workaround  to fix text positioning and menu display
	      problems with screen.  Another workaround	fixes  many  cases  of
	      UTF-8  character	display	 but cannot fix	all (since screen cap-
	      tures the	output of the 0x9C byte).  It is recommended to	invoke
	      screen  only  with  properly configured locale environment vari-
	      ables to match the actual	terminal encoding.

       mintty ("Cygwin Terminal")

       Mintty is a Windows-based (non-X) terminal running with cygwin.
	      Mined auto-detects mintty	and  adjusts  certain  properties  and
	      features accordingly.

       o      Mined detects font changes that change the CJK ambiguous charac-
	      ter width	properties of the terminal when	notified by mintty  if
	      running in UTF-8 mode.

       o      For  good	 coverage of Unicode characters, recommended fonts for
	      use with mintty are DejaVu Sans Mono,  Lucida  Console,  Courier
	      New,  Andale  Mono, Everson Mono,	SimSun.	Discouraged are	Lucida
	      Sans Typewriter, Letter Gothic, Courier, Monaco,	and  older  MS
	      CJK  fonts,  at least for	their lack of (proper) graphic charac-
	      ters (for	menu borders).	Mined uses the glyph detection feature
	      of  mintty  (since 0.9.9)	to configure a nice set	of useful line
	      markers and menu graphics.

       o      If break interruption (Control-\ key) does not work on  interna-
	      tional  keyboards	 (if  AltGr is involved), use the special Con-
	      trol-Break keyboard function instead.

       o      Note: For	right-to-left text editing, the	bidi feature of	mintty
	      interferes  with	the  scrollbar	of  mined; you may disable the
	      scrollbar	with -o	to reduce visual  confusion.   (Context-depen-
	      dent scrollbar display is	planned	for a later version.)

       o      Note:  With the command scripts wined or wined.bat, mined	is in-
	      voked in a separate Windows terminal session,  using  mintty  if
	      available.

       o      Note:  On	 some  systems,	mouse wheel scrolling does not work in
	      mintty if	the mintty scrollbar is	enabled. It can	be disabled in
	      the mintty "Options..." menu, section "Window".

       o      Note:  Mined  temporarily	disables mintty	shortcut keys for Win-
	      dows functions (like Alt-function	keys, Alt-space, Alt-Enter) in
	      order  to	 use  them  itself. To toggle mintty full-screen mode,
	      open  the	 mintty	 menu  with  Shift-right  mouse	 button,  item
	      "Fullscreen".
	      (With  mintty  versions  before 0.5.1, for proper	usage of Unix-
	      like keyboards functions,	 the  following	 settings  are	recom-
	      mended:  In  Options  - Keys, disable the	Shortcuts "Window com-
	      mands" and "Copy and paste".  In Options - Text,	disable	 "Show
	      bold as bright".)

       Cygwin console

       o      The cygwin console terminal emulation does not support Shift-F1,
	      Shift-F2 (which cannot be	distinguished from F11,	 F12),	Shift-
	      F11,  Shift-F12;	Control	or Alt modified	function keys are sup-
	      ported beginning cygwin 1.7.2.

       o      Mined detects UTF-8 mode of cygwin  1.7  console	(by  LC_*/LANG
	      setting  or  for	cygwin	1.7  beta  by CYGWIN containing	"code-
	      page:utf8").
	      Note: After rlogin from this console, UTF-8 indication has to be
	      ensured explicitly, e.g. by environment setting, or by mined op-
	      tion +U.

       o      Note: Cygwin console in UTF-8  mode  provides  extended  Unicode
	      font  support if you select "Lucida Console" or another TrueType
	      font from	its Properties menu.

       o      If the Windows program chcp.com is used within cygwin,  and  the
	      console  window is set up	to use "Raster Fonts", non-ASCII char-
	      acters may be mangled.

       o      Mouse coordinates	are not	properly reported with wheel scrolling
	      in  the  cygwin  console;	 for  that reason, opening a menu with
	      mouse scrolling does not work.

       o      See also README.cygwin for more detailed hints on	weird  details
	      about the	Windows	console	in different modes.

       o      See also PC terminals above.

       Windows console window (DOS command prompt)

       o      The  Windows  console  window  is	 normally configured to	run in
	      CP850 encoding or	other legacy encodings (depending on localized
	      Windows configuration), it may also turn out to use CP437.  Non-
	      displayable characters are replaced as  usual.   The  configured
	      font may also affect the effective display character set.

       o      However,	if  running a cygwin application (like the cygwin ver-
	      sion of mined) from a Windows console, the cygwin	emulated  ter-
	      minal encoding applies instead, e.g. UTF-8.

       o      Note:  The  (djgpp-compiled)  DOS	version	of mined automatically
	      adjusts to the selected console codepage (e.g.  using  the  chcp
	      command),	 it  is	advisable to set up the	console	windows	to use
	      "Raster Fonts" if	this is	used.  With the	 cygwin-compiled  ver-
	      sion,  on	 the  other hand, using	a TrueType font	is more	stable
	      with respect to character	set problems.

       o      With the djgpp-compiled version apparently  there	 is  a	Ctrl-C
	      problem  on older	Windows	versions. Every	first Ctrl-C will dis-
	      play ^C on the screen at	the  current  position	without	 mined
	      noticing	it, while every	second Ctrl-C will be passed to	mined.
	      This problem does	not occur on Windows XP.   It  does  occur  on
	      Windows  ME in a Windows console window.	It does	not occur with
	      the cygwin-compiled version.

       o      See also PC terminals above.

       Windows PowerShell

       o      ->NEW-> Mined detects a Windows PowerShell window	and adjusts to
	      its limitations.

       Poderosa

       o      This  Windows  terminal  emulator	can be used for	UTF-8 editing.
	      To ensure	proper function, do not	use Terminal Type  "kterm"  or
	      Encoding "euc-jp"	or "shift-jis"

       o      Mined  auto-detection  and  terminal  initialization  can	 cause
	      Poderosa to display warning popups. To avoid them, Select	 Tools
	      -	 Options...  -	Terminal;  for "Behavior in case of unexpected
	      chars", disable "Display a message box".	If you	get  a	notice
	      "Failed  to  decode  characters by the current encoding utf-8.",
	      click "Do	not display this message from next time".

       o      Poderosa does not	provide	mouse support for applications.

       Terminator

       o      In Edit -	Preferences, enable "Use alt key as meta key".

       o      Terminator does not provide mouse	support	for applications.

       PuTTY

       o      This Windows terminal emulation for remote login provides	 vari-
	      ous  keyboard  (esp.  keypad and function	key) assignment	emula-
	      tions. In	SCO mode, shifted function  keys  are  different  from
	      those of xterm SCO function key emulation; both are supported.

       Better Terminal and Terminal Emulator (Android)

       o      There  are  lots of deficiencies in screen control; mined	adapts
	      to Better	Terminal.

       o      There are	lots of	deficiencies in	using a	real keyboard.

       o      To use a real keyboard, in the terminal settings,	map Control to
	      Left Alt key.

       luit

       o      The  locale support add-on for text terminals luit which applies
	      encoding transformations (e.g. with LC_ALL=zh_CN.gb18030)	 often
	      maps  characters	incorrectly,  including	 using	the wrong cell
	      width.

       DECterm

       On a VMS	system,	a DECterm window should	be started with:
	      CREATE /TERMINAL /DETACH

       o      Mined cannot disable flow	control	option (terminal using ^S  and
	      ^Q  characters)  despite its handling of the TTSYNC and HOSTSYNC
	      terminal driver options. To make them usable, DECterm  needs  to
	      be  configured  manually:	 Options  menu - Keyboard... - disable
	      Ctrl-Q, Ctrl-S = Hold; then Options - Save Options.

       o      On a remote DECterm, numeric keypad and function	keys  may  not
	      work properly without additional X configuration (xmodmap). Also
	      the AltGr	key does not work, making some characters  unreachable
	      on international keyboards.

       o      For  VT100  graphics  characters	(used  for  menu borders), the
	      DECtech fonts (X fonts with -DEC-DECtech encoding)  need	to  be
	      installed	 on  the X server. If the Cygwin/X server is used, the
	      font-bitstream-dpi* packages should be installed to this aim.

       dtterm

       o      With the SCO default font, dtterm	 does  not  display  non-ASCII
	      characters  and even worse, they corrupt further display.	 Mined
	      does not,	however, set its screen	encoding assumption  to	 ASCII
	      as dtterm	behaves	properly with all other	fonts (e.g. 10x20, lu-
	      cidasanstypewriter, courier).

       o      Home/End,	PgUp/PgDn, and HOP keys	need to	be used	with Shift.

       SCO Caldera Linux (konsole and xterm)

       o      Window size change signals don't seem to be supported.

       Haiku Terminal

       For a number of deficiencies of the Haiku Terminal application,
	      it is preferable to use xterm instead.  Most notable are display
	      problems with the	VT Gothic font;	use DejaVu Sans	Mono instead.

       o      No wide characters and combining characters.

       o      No Alt-letter escape sequences.

       o      No modified function and cursor keys.

       o      Ignorance	of middle keypad key.

       o      Cursor visibility	problems (cursor colour	vs. reverse mode).

       o      Wrong Control-space key (sends Control-C).

       o      No mouse controls	for wheel scrolling.

       o      Unconforming mouse mode handling.

	Work-around support to enable 8-bit character set on weird terminals
       There  exist  some exceptionally	weird 7	bit terminals that have	an al-
       ternative character set containing composed  characters	which  can  be
       displayed  simultaneously  with	the  default  character	set. For those
       there is	optional output	translation which embeds non-ASCII  characters
       into  the respective code switching sequences. To enable	output charac-
       ter transformation, set the environment variable	 MINEDOUT  to  contain
       the upper half (with respect to an 8 bit	character set) of the transla-
       tion table into the terminal's alternate	character set.	(Character set
       switching  will be done as specified in the termcap (as/ae) or terminfo
       (smacs/rmacs) entry.)  An example setting of MINEDOUT  is  included  in
       the  environment	sample file profile.mined in the Mined runtime support
       library for Siemens 9780x terminals.

	Concerning some	especially stupid terminal drivers
       There used to be	terminal drivers which make use	of the soft  handshake
       mechanism by exchange of	^S and ^Q characters but yet pass them through
       to application programs which is	quite stupid.  If it is	 necessary  to
       ignore such hazardous ^S	and ^Q keys, the environment variable NoCtrlSQ
       or NoControlSQ must be set.  Mined will then not	disable	the tty	 chan-
       nel soft	handshake setting either.

   Keyboard mapping / Input method preselection
       With the	environment variable MINEDKEYMAP the active or standby mapping
       or both can be preselected. The value is	a two-letter script tag	to set
       the active mapping, or it is prepended with "-" to set the standby map-
       ping, or	a combination.
       Example:	 export	 MINEDKEYMAP=-gr  will	set  Greek  keyboard   mapping
       standby.	  export MINEDKEYMAP=py-rs will	set Pinyin input method	active
       and Radical/Stroke input	method standby.
       The respective tags attached to the keyboard mappings can be looked  up
       in the Input Method flag	menu; the HOP function toggles between display
       of the full input method	name and its tag.

   Smart Quotes	style configuration
       Smart quotes style can also be preselected with the  environment	 vari-
       able  MINEDQUOTES  (in addition to command line option -q=..., standard
       locale environment variables, or	additional  locale  environment	 vari-
       ables  LANGUAGE	or  TEXTLANG  which  also  implicitly set smart	quotes
       mode).
       The value of MINEDQUOTES	should contain the opening/closing quote  pair
       (or  just  the opening quote mark, double or single quotes) and must be
       UTF-8 encoded. It can optionally	append a space and an inner  quotation
       mark  (as  used	for nested quotations) for more	specific selection. It
       can also	indicate French	spacing	as shown in the	example.
       Examples	(for values of -q parameter or MINEDQUOTES variable): >>  sets
       >>Danish<<  quotes  style  and corresponding single smart quotes.  >>>>
       sets >>Finnish>>	quotes style and corresponding	single	smart  quotes.
       <<>>  ''	 (where	 ''  denotes a left double quotation mark U+201C) sets
       <<Spanish>> quotes style	with English style inner quotation marks.   <<
       >> sets << French >> quotes style with embedded spacing.
       See Smart Quotes	for more options.

   Han info configuration
       With  the  environment variable MINEDHANINFO, the information shown for
       Han characters can be preselected.  If the  variable  is	 defined,  Han
       info  mode  is  enabled.	 It may	contain	letters	to select description,
       pronunciation information, and display mode to be used:

       M      show Mandarin pronunciation

       C      show Cantonese pronunciation

       J      show Japanese pronunciation

       S      show Sino-Japanese pronunciation

       H      show Hangul pronunciation

       K      show Korean pronunciation

       V      show Vietnamese pronunciation

       P      show Hanyu Pinlu pronunciation

       Y      show Hanyu Pinyin	pronunciation

       X      show XHC Hanyu Pinyin pronunciation

       T      show Tang	pronunciation

       D      show character description

       F      display full information (in popup-menu form);  without  F,  the
	      information will be shown	on the status line where it is subject
	      to truncation

   Common paste	buffer configuration
       The paste buffers, used for cut/copy/paste operations, as well  as  the
       inter-window  paste buffer, are located in a temporary directory, using
       system conventions by default.	To  maintain  the  inter-window	 paste
       functionality  even  remotely,  mined  uses  the	environement variables
       MINEDTMP	and MINEDUSER which, in	combination, point to  a  user-defined
       temporary directory and file name pattern to be used for	buffer files:

	      o	     Set  MINEDTMP to refer to a common	mounted	network	direc-
		     tory on all  machines  which  means  that	the  value  of
		     $MINEDTMP	may  have to be	different to reflect different
		     mount  points  across  the	  network.    (On   VMS,   use
		     SYS$MINEDTMP).

	      o	     Set MINEDUSER to the same name within the network even if
		     using different user name accounts.
       For details, see	also the FILES section below.

   Keypad configuration
       Some X configuration may	have to	be applied to  enable  keyboard	 input
       features	as used	by mined:

	      o	     Alt key modifier for quicker entry	of "ESC" commands.

	      o	     Assignment	 of  the HOP function to the middle keypad key
		     ("5").

	      o	     Assignment	of the HOP function to other keys  (especially
		     for  convenience on laptops which do not have the numeric
		     keypad), e.g. the Pause or	Scroll Lock key.

	      o	     Distinguish "Home"	and "End" keys of the two  keypads  in
		     order  to make use	of this	redundancy of typical keyboard
		     layout (which is actually a waste of physical  resources,
		     causing  unnecessary wrist	strain because it increase the
		     distance to be moved over for reaching to the mouse).

	      o	     Enable control and	shift modifiers	for keypad  and	 func-
		     tion keys.

	      o	     Enable  control  and  shift modifiers for digit keys (for
		     use as accent prefix).

	      o	     Enable control modifier for punctuation keys (for use  as
		     accent prefix).
       See  the	 example file Xdefaults.mined in the Mined runtime support li-
       brary for suggestions.

   Printing configuration
       Mined uses the script uprint from the Mined runtime support library  to
       print the current contents of the text being edited in any selected en-
       coding (unless the environment variable MINEDPRINT  is  set  to	direct
       mined to	use a different	print command).
       If  the	support	 library is not	installed in one of its	standard loca-
       tions (system-dependent), it should be made available in	the usual com-
       mand search path.
       The  script offers a choice of configured printers to select one	(using
       either Windows registry or ->NEW-> CUPS lpstat).
       The script uses either paps or uniprint for  actual  formatting	(print
       preprocessing).	 Under	Windows	 (cygwin/stand-alone/djgpp  versions),
       mined also considers printing with notepad /p.
       paps is available at http://paps.sourceforge.net/ and  uses  the	 Pango
       layout  engine for formatting.  uniprint	is part	of the yudit distribu-
       tion; if	you don't have it installed on your system, there  is  another
       script  makeprint  in the support library which can be used to download
       and build the needed uniprint program.  The mined print script (uprint)
       prefers	paps if	it is available	as it has more capabilities for	print-
       ing a wide range	of Unicode characters, and it does right-to-left  for-
       matting.
       The  font to be used with uprint	can be configured with the environment
       variables FONT, FONTPATH, FONTSIZE.  It is recommended to put a	suffi-
       cient  font  in the directories of $FONTPATH, e.g. DroidSansMono, Luci-
       daTypewriterRegular, Bitstream Cyberbit.
       The preferred printer can be configured as usual	with  the  environment
       variable	 PRINTER.   In addition, uprint	checks an environment variable
       LPR for an alternative for the system printing command (lpr/lp) if that
       is needed.
       Note:  If  printing  with  uprint fails for some	reason,	mined tries to
       print with either the print command configured in the environment vari-
       able  LPR as a fallback,	or with	lp/lpr as a last resort. Working char-
       acter encoding support cannot be	expected in this case, however.
       See Environment variables to configure Printing for further details.

   Display layout
       Some of the special indication  characters  (that  substitute  non-dis-
       playable	 contents)  and	 some of the colours used by mined for special
       indications and interactive elements may	be configured  to  the	user's
       preference.
       Note: For the configurable character indications, two environment vari-
       ables exist each, to configure an 8 bit value (Latin-1 encoded) and  to
       configure  a  Unicode  value (UTF-8 encoded).  The UTF-8	encoded	values
       (e.g. MINEDUTFRET) take precedence in a UTF-8 terminal.	In  an	8  bit
       terminal,  or  if  the respective UTF-8 variable	is not configured, the
       Latin-1 encoded value applies.  See the example script profile.mined in
       the  Mined runtime support library for more details and for a number of
       suggestions of suitable values.	Mined does not apply any default  non-
       Latin-1	indications in order to	avoid display problems with fonts that
       do not support them.  Depending on your visual preference, there	are  a
       number of suitable Unicode characters for use as	indications especially
       in  the	Unicode	 ranges	 of  Arrows,  Geometric	 Shapes	 and   Symbols
       (U+2190-U+2BFF).
       Note:  For the Latin-1 encoded configured indication markers (variables
       MINEDRET	etc, not MINEDUTFRET etc), if the configured character	is  in
       the small letters range (actually
	'`'...DEL)  the	 alternate  character  set  is used for	display.  This
       works also  in  a  UTF-8	 terminal,  provided  that  the	 corresponding
       UTF-8-encoded  indication configuration variable	is not set, e.g. MINE-
       DRET=j MINEDUTFRET= (or not defined) would indicate line-ends  by  dis-
       playing a graphic lower right corner, MINEDTAB='`' MINEDUTFTAB= (or not
       defined)	would indicate Tab  characters	with  VT100  graphics  lozenge
       rhombs.
       Note:  For  the	UTF-8-encoded configured indication markers (variables
       MINEDUTFRET etc), if the	marker is a double-width character, a replace-
       ment will be displayed instead.
       Note: Mined reduces its assumptions about available graphic and special
       characters for display purposes with the	options	-f or -F.  The -F  op-
       tion  also  suppresses  the interpretation of the MINEDUTF* environment
       variables.

	Line ends
       Line ends are usually marked by a "<<"  double  left  angle  character.
       This  visual  indication	 can  be changed with the environment variable
       MINEDRET	(8 bit terminals) or MINEDUTFRET (UTF-8	terminals).   The  de-
       fault  or configured marker is used as an indicator at the end of every
       text line on screen (so you can see how many blank spaces there are).
       Multi-character markers:	If a second character  is  configured,	it  is
       used  to	fill the rest of the screen line, a third configured character
       would terminate the indication at the end of the	screen	line.  ("..<<"
       is  a  nice  setting for	people who used	to work	at Siemens terminals.)
       Pattern:
		 <span>MINEDRET=123  # line end	displays as 122222223
	Suggestion for a nice line end on UTF-8	mode terminals (check if char-
       acter is	included in your font, however!):
		 <span>MINEDUTFRET=[U+23CE]    # U+23CE

       The  indication	of  DOS	line ends (CRLF) and Mac line ends (CR)	may be
       configured with the variables MINEDDOSRET or MINEDUTFDOSRET, and	MINED-
       MACRET or MINEDUTFMACRET, respectively.	They are also distinguished by
       different colours.

	Paragraph ends
       With the	option -p, mined displays distinct indicators  for  line  ends
       and paragraph ends.  A paragraph	is defined to continue while lines end
       with white space	(space	or  Tab	 character).   The  default  paragraph
       marker is "<paragraph>" and is also used	to indicate a line ending with
       a Unicode Paragraph Separator. It can be	changed	with  the  environment
       variable	MINEDPARA or MINEDUTFPARA.

	Tab characters
       Tab  characters are usually indicated by	a sequence of '.' (middle dot)
       characters.  This can be	changed	with the environment variable MINEDTAB
       (8 bit terminal)	or MINEDUTFTAB (UTF-8 terminals).
       Multi-character	markers:  If two characters are	configured, the	second
       is used to mark the middle of the Tab span.  If	three  characters  are
       configured,  the	 first and last	are used to mark the beginning and end
       of the Tab span.	 Pattern:
		 <span>MINEDTAB=123  # Tab displays as 12222223
		 <span>MINEDTAB=12   # Tab displays as 11112111

	Long lines
       Lines which are too long	for the	screen are usually indicated by	a '>>'
       double  right  angle  (guillemot) character. If the current position is
       behind the screen margin, the line is shifted out left which  is	 indi-
       cated  by  a '<<' double	left angle.  These markers can be changed with
       the environment variable	MINEDSHIFT or MINEDUTFSHIFT. The first charac-
       ter is used to indicate a line continued	to the left of the screen, the
       second character	is used	to indicate a line continued to	the  right  of
       the screen.

	Unicode	characters
       For  a description of special display indications in UTF-8 text editing
       mode see	"Unicode display" above.  The indication and highlighting mode
       of  a non-displayable Unicode character (typically a UTF-8 character in
       a Latin-1 terminal), as well as the highlighting	mode (colour)  of  the
       indication of illegal UTF-8 sequences, can be configured	with the vari-
       able MINEDUNI.

	Display	mode of	indicators
       It is recommended to display these indicator characters in a  dim  dis-
       play mode to prevent distraction	from the text contents.	The default is
       a red colour which is a moderate	dark red in xterm.  The	 display  mode
       can  be	used  by  placing the code part	of an ANSI display control se-
       quence in the environment variable MINEDDIM.  E.g.,  MINEDDIM=31	 would
       select  the  default  mode,  red	 foreground;  in  xterm	 only,	MINED-
       DIM="38;5;83;38;5;245" gives a moderate gray in either 88 or 256	 color
       mode; in	rxvt only, MINEDDIM="38;5;83" gives a moderate gray.
       MINEDDIM	 can  also  be	set  to	 an  integer  percentage  value	 (e.g.
       MINEDIM="50%") to have mined apply dim colour to	the  indications;  the
       colour  value  is  computed  from the current foreground	and background
       colours (works in xterm,	or mintty from version 404). The ANSI colour 7
       (white)	is  temporarily	 redefined  for	this purpose and restored when
       mined exits.

	Display	mode of	menu borders
       The display colour of menu borders and menu headers can	be  configured
       with  the  environment  variable	MINEDBORDER.  Suitable values are "35"
       (magenta), "34" (blue) and "31" (default).

	Status line highlighting
       Highlighted parts of status line	messages  (e.g.	 initial  letters  for
       help  selection	after F1) can be configured with the environment vari-
       able MINEDEMPH, using foreground	ANSI modes.  The default is "31"  (ef-
       fectively red background).

	Scrollbar colour
       The  foreground	and background colours of the scrollbar	can be config-
       ured with MINEDSCROLLFG and  MINEDSCROLLBG,  respectively,  using  ANSI
       modes;  if only the background is configured, the foreground is the re-
       verse of	it. In general,	to support fine-grained	scrollbar  display  in
       UTF-8  terminals,  the foreground and background	colour settings	should
       be the reverse of each  other.	The  default  for  the	background  is
       "46;34;48;5;45"	if use of 256 colour mode is enabled, or "46;34" if it
       is disabled.  The default for the foreground is "",  meaning  that  the
       reverse background is used, with	a workaround for hanterm (see above).

	Menu colour and	border style
       The  highlighting  background  colour  of the selected menu item	can be
       configured with MINEDSEL, using reverse ANSI modes (i.e.	  using	 fore-
       ground  parameters  for	the  background)  and MINEDSELFG for the fore-
       ground, using  reverse  ANSI  modes.  The  default  values  are	MINED-
       SELFG="43"  and MINEDSEL="34", giving yellow on blue.  If selected menu
       items appear too	dark (which mined tries	to  avoid,  depending  on  the
       terminal),  try	one  of	 the  workarounds  MINEDSEL="34;1"  or	MINED-
       SELFG="43;1".
       Menu border styles can be selected with the option -Q.  For a nice  se-
       lection	bar  that  extends from	left to	right menu border, the setting
       -QQ is recommended (this	is the default unless the terminal is  assumed
       not  to	provide	 sufficient font configuration for this	option;	it de-
       pends on	certain	graphic	Unicode	characters being included in the  ter-
       minal font and can be disabled with -Qq).

	Combining character display
       The highlighting	background colour of combining characters displayed in
       separated mode can be configured	with MINEDCOMBINING, using ANSI	 back-
       ground modes.  The default value	is MINEDCOMBINING=46, to change	colour
       e.g.  to	yellow background, use MINEDCOMBINING=43.

   Interactive Help access
       Mined looks for its help	file in	a number of  typical  directories  for
       installation  of	the Mined runtime support library.  If it is placed in
       a non-standard location,	the environment	variable MINEDDIR should point
       to  the	directory.  (Mined also	tries to find the help file in the di-
       rectory where it	was started from; this is especially  useful  for  the
       DOS/Windows version.)

   Mined compile-time configuration
	Script highlighting
       The the mined distribution contains a file src/colours.cfg; it contains
       entries with the	script name  (as  listed  in  the  Unicode  data  file
       Scripts.txt), blank space, and a	colour index into the xterm 256-colour
       mode. (To make good use of 256 colour mode, the terminal	program	should
       be  compiled with 256 colour support enabled. Configure xterm with con-
       figure --enable-256-color .)
       Edit colours.cfg	before building	mined to adapt coloured	script display
       to your preferences.

	Encodings and Encoding menu
       The  mined  distribution	contains a file	src/charmaps.cfg which defines
       the character encodings that mined knows	and how	they are presented  in
       the  Encoding  menu, together with flags	for indication in the Encoding
       flag and	tags for use with the -E and +E	options	(and  the  MINEDDETECT
       environment variable).
       The  configuration file allows the definition of	submenus in the	Encod-
       ing menu.
       Each character encoding entry charmap-name must correspond to an	exist-
       ing character mapping file charmaps/charmap-name.map.  Additional char-
       acter mappings can be generated with the	script mkchrmap.

	Encodings recognised by	locale names
       The mined distribution contains a file src/locales.cfg which  maps  lo-
       cale names to associated	character encodings.  While this list contains
       mainly locale names without explicit encoding suffix, mined also	checks
       generic	locale name suffix values and assumes the corresponding	termi-
       nal encoding.  Thus the given names or suffixes can  be	used  even  on
       legacy systems without locale support to	indicate the terminal environ-
       ment and	preferred text encoding	properly to mined.

	Keyboard mapping (Input	method)
       The mined distribution contains a file  src/keymaps.cfg	and  a	script
       mkkbmap;	go into	the src	directory and use the script to	generate addi-
       tional keyboard mappings: The parameter to the mkkbmap  script  can  be
       one of

	      path.../name.mim
		     a	keyboard  mapping file of the m17n-db multilingualiza-
		     tion package

	      path.../name.kmap
		     a keyboard	mapping	file of	the yudit text editor

	      path.../name.vim
		     a keyboard	mapping	file of	the vim	text editor

	      path.../name.cit
		     an	input method mapping file of the cxterm	terminal,  bi-
		     nary  form;  only works if	the cxterm binary/text conver-
		     sion utility cit2tit is accessible

	      path.../name.tit
		     an	input method mapping file of the cxterm	terminal, text
		     form;  only works if the character	set conversion utility
		     iconv is accessible and works on the mapping file

	      path.../name.utf
		     an	input method mapping file of the cxterm	terminal,  al-
		     ready converted to	UTF-8 encoding (e.g. with iconv)

	      Cangjie [	< HKSCS	Changjie table file name > ]
		     with  this	 tag, a	keyboard mapping for the Cangjie input
		     method will be generated,	taking	information  from  the
		     Unihan database (unicode.org);
		     with  a  second  parameter, a Big5-encoded	table of HKSCS
		     Changjie input codes will be merged in, the parameter  is
		     either  the file name or a	+ sign which is	implicitly ex-
		     panded	 to	 the	  relative	path	  name
		     etc/charmaps/hkscs/hkscs-2004-cj.txt;   the  HKSCS	 input
		     codes file	should be taken	from  http://info.gov.hk/digi-
		     tal21/eng/hkscs/

	      MainlandTelegraph	, TaiwanTelegraph
		     with one of these tags, a keyboard	mapping	will be	gener-
		     ated using	one of	these  telegraph  codes	 as  an	 input
		     method, taking information	from the Unihan	database (uni-
		     code.org)

	      Cantonese	, HanyuPinlu , Mandarin	, Tang
		     with one of these tags, a keyboard	mapping	will be	gener-
		     ated  using the according Chinese pronunciation as	an in-
		     put method, taking	information from the  Unihan  database
		     (unicode.org)

	      JapaneseKun , JapaneseOn
		     with one of these tags, a keyboard	mapping	will be	gener-
		     ated using	Japanese or Sino-Japanese pronunciation	as  an
		     input method, taking information from the Unihan database
		     (unicode.org)

	      Korean , Vietnamese
		     with one of these tags, a keyboard	mapping	will be	gener-
		     ated using	Korean or Vietnamese pronunciation as an input
		     method, taking information	from the Unihan	database (uni-
		     code.org)

	      VIQR , VNI , Vtelex
		     with one of these tags, a keyboard	mapping	will be	gener-
		     ated for the respective Vietnamese	input methods,	taking
		     character	information  from  the	Unicode	database (uni-
		     code.org)

	      script tag
		     for many scripts listed in	the UnicodeData.txt  database,
		     character	names listed there can build a useful keyboard
		     mapping; mkkbmap will then	generate an according keyboard
		     mapping file, e.g.	for Bopomofo
       Each successful generation of a mapping table adds an entry to the con-
       figuration file keymaps.cfg; the	entry is however initially disabled as
       it usually needs	manual adjustment: edit	the configuration file;	enable
       the new entry by	removing the leading '#' character,  check  the	 first
       element	which  will  be	the name of the	mapping	to appear in the Input
       Method menu, check the last element of the entry	which is a  two-letter
       shortcut	 and  must  be unique for all mappings,	then move the entry to
       the position where you want it to appear	in  the	 menu.	You  can  also
       group mappings by adding	"-" lines in this configuration	file.
       For  the	 Unicode data version used for included	keyboard mappings, see
       the mined change	log.
       For the keyboard	mappings generated from	Unihan	data,  characters  are
       sorted  according  to the priorities of their Unicode ranges (assigning
       lower priority to  "Supplement"	and  "Extension"  and  "Compatibility"
       ranges).	 So for	some input mnemos, the "pick list" for the Cangjie in-
       put method is displayed more in order of	relevance.
       For keyboard mappings for CJK encodings,	mkkbmap	will  add  appropriate
       punctuation  mapping  entries  for  Chinese,  Japanese, Korean, respec-
       tively, in addition to the entries derived  from	 the  respective  data
       source.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Environment  variables  for  configuration  of  mined are listed	in the
       script file profile.mined in the	Mined runtime support library together
       with explanations and suggested values.
	    Further variables used by mined in the usual meaning are:

	    HOME

	    USER

	    SHELL

	    MINEDOPT

	    LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
	      Locale  variables	affect assumed terminal	encoding, default text
	      encoding,	and language-related features (such as quote style).

	    LANGUAGE
	      Affects language-related features. Affects assumed text encoding
	      only  if it has an explicit encoding suffix (like	.UTF-8).  Does
	      not affect assumed terminal encoding.

	    TEXTLANG
	      Deprecated: like LANGUAGE.

	    CYGWIN

	    TMPDIR

	    TMP

	    TEMP (MSDOS)

	    SYS$SCRATCH	(VMS)

	    TERM
	      Terminal type to be assumed.

	    ESCDELAY
	      Delay after an ESCAPE character that mined waits for recognition
	      of a function key	control	sequence. Default is 450 ms.

	    MAPDELAY (non-standard)
	      Similar  delay  that  mined applies to wait for subsequent input
	      characters when applying keyboard	mapping	for an	input  method.
	      Default is 900 ms.

	    LINES, COLUMNS (MSDOS ANSI mode only)
	      Line / column count of terminal to be assumed.

	    windir
	      Used  to	determine if it	runs under MS Windows and set some de-
	      faults (screen output delay) accordingly.

	Environment variables to configure Printing
	    MINEDPRINT
	      Print command to use instead of uprint; the value	 must  contain
	      the string '%s' (quoting recommended) to insert the file name.

	    FONT
	      Name  of a font file, e.g. LucidaBrightRegular or	bodoni.ttf for
	      use with uprint/uniprint (the file must reside in	the configured
	      font  path),  or name of a font as specified with	fontconfig (in
	      $HOME/.fonts.conf	or /etc/fonts/fonts.conf)  for	use  with  up-
	      rint/paps.

	    FONTPATH
	      Directory	 search	 path  (separate directory names with ":") for
	      use with uprint/uniprint which uses Truetype fonts.

	    FONTSIZE
	      Font size	to be used with	uprint (paps or	uniprint).

	    LPR
	      Print spooling command to	be used	by uprint (or mined itself  if
	      uprint  does  not	 work)	instead	 of  the system-specific print
	      spooling command (e.g. lpr).

	    PRINTER
	      Name of printer to spool to.

FILES
   Unix
       $MINEDDIR
	      directory	in which the Mined  runtime  support  library  is  in-
	      stalled,	including  the	help  file  mined.hlp and the printing
	      script uprint

       mined.hlp
	      help file	for interactive	hints (F1 commands); mined  looks  for
	      the  file	 in  $MINEDDIR/help, $0, and a number of other typical
	      directories where	program	support	files are installed on various
	      systems

       $MINEDTMP
	      directory	for auxiliary files, first attempt Using this variable
	      and $MINEDUSER (see below), you can  establish  copy  and	 paste
	      among  machines  that share network directories but are normally
	      configured to use	separate (usually  local)  temporary  directo-
	      ries.

       $TMPDIR
	      directory	for auxiliary files, next attempt

       $TMP   directory	for auxiliary files, next attempt

       $TEMP  directory	for auxiliary files, next attempt

       /usr/tmp
	      directory	for auxiliary files, next attempt

       /tmp   directory	for auxiliary files, next attempt

       Note: $MINEDUSER
	      user  name  assumed instead of $USER for building	auxiliary file
	      names; using this, common	copy-and-paste buffers can be used  on
	      a	 network  file	system	from different machines	where the user
	      possibly has different user names

       $HOME/.fonts.conf
	      fonts configuration file for use with uprint/paps; for  descrip-
	      tion,   see  http://fontconfig.org/fontconfig-user.html  or  man
	      fonts.conf

       minedbuf.< USER >.< PID >.< NN >
	      temporary	file for paste buffer; USER is	either	$MINEDUSER  or
	      $USER

       minedbuf.< USER >
	      file for inter-window paste buffer; USER is either $MINEDUSER or
	      $USER; see descriptions of $MINEDTMP and	$MINEDUSER  above  for
	      how  to set up a common inter-window paste buffer	in a heteroge-
	      neous network

       minedrecover.< USER >.< PID >
	      panic file to rescue text	in case	of crash  or  external	signal
	      caught

   VMS
       SYS$MINEDTMP:$MINED$user_BUF.pid_nn
	      paste buffer

       SYS$MINEDTMP:$MINEDBUF$user
	      inter-window paste buffer

       SYS$SCRATCH:$MINEDRECOVER$user$pid
	      panic file

       SYS$SCRATCH:$MINEDPRINT$user$pid$n.lis
	      print spool file

       MINED$HELP
	      help file	(may be	configured as a	logical	name)

       If SYS$MINEDTMP is not available,
	      SYS$SCRATCH  is  used instead.  If SYS$SCRATCH is	not available,
	      SYS$LOGIN	is used	instead.

   MSDOS / Windows
       %MINEDDIR%\help\mined.hlp
	      help file, first attempt (to find	it)

       mined.hlp (in mined program directory)
	      help file, next attempt

       %MINEDTMP%\minedbuf.nn
	      paste buffer

       %MINEDTMP%\minedbuf
	      inter-window paste buffer

       %MINEDTMP%\minedbuf.%MINEDUSER%
	      inter-window paste buffer, as configured to use the same file as
	      other  mined versions in a heterogeneous network;	note, however,
	      that %MINEDUSER% will be shortened to 3 characters in pure DOS

       %MINEDTMP%\minedsv_.*
	      panic file

       If %MINEDTMP% is	not available,
	      %TEMP% or	%TMP% or \ are used.

DIAGNOSTICS
       In all cases where it is	considered sensible, the  appropriate  message
       of  a system error occurred is displayed	(instead of printing numerical
       hieroglyphs or indistinguished commonplace messages as many other  UNIX
       tools do).

BUGS
       In  an  extremely  narrow  terminal window (less	than 8 characters), if
       lines are shifted out of	the display,  moving  the  cursor  around  may
       cause positioning errors	and display garbage.

       (MSDOS,	Windows:) With non-cygwin versions (djgpp), piped editing from
       standard	input does not work for	unknown	reason.

       (Windows:) Non-cygwin versions (djgpp) do not work in xterm,  rxvt,  or
       mintty.

AUTHOR AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Long ago, the initial version of	mined was written for the Minix	educa-
       tional operating	system by Michiel Huisjes.  It was adapted to Unix  by
       Achim  Muller  who  added  termcap  support.  Mined was later debugged,
       partly rewritten	and enhanced and is now	maintained by Thomas Wolff.
       Please send comments, suggestions, bug reports to mined@towo.net.

   Mailing list
       Mined is	also hosted as a sourceforge  project  (sf.net/projects/mined)
       where  a	 mailing list is available. To subscribe for information about
       updates,	or discussion, error reports, and feature requests, or to send
       a mail, please go to the	Mined mailing list page.

   Acknowledgements
	      o	     Thanks  to	Nadim Shaikli <	shaikli	@ yahoo.com > for dis-
		     cussion of	right-to-left issues and interworking with ml-
		     term.

	      o	     Thanks  to	 Mike  Fabian <	mfabian	@ suse.de > for	making
		     the RPM package included in the SuSE distribution.

	      o	     Thanks to Ziying Sherwin <	sherwin	@ nlm.nih.gov >	and R.
		     P.	Channing Rodgers < rodgers @ nlm.nih.gov > for sugges-
		     tions and information about CJK input method support  and
		     multiple choice handling (pick lists).

	      o	     Thanks to Tobias Ernst < tobias_ernst @ eml.cc > for pro-
		     viding a Mac OS X makefile	and suggestion and information
		     to	implement Emacs	command	mode.

	      o	     Thanks  to	 [U+5434][U+548F][U+709C] (Wu Yongwei) < yong-
		     wei @ eastday.com > for suggestions and information about
		     Pinyin  input methods, for	discussion about keyboard map-
		     pings for CJK punctuation,	and  for  further  maintaining
		     the Pinyin	input method.

	      o	     Thanks  to	 Ramakrishnan  Muthukrishnan < rkrishnan @ de-
		     bian.org >	for making the Debian package.

	      o	     Thanks to Thierry	Thomas	< thierry @ FreeBSD.org	>  for
		     making the	FreeBSD	package.

	      o	     Thanks  to	 Tobias	Nygren < tnn @ NetBSD.org > for	making
		     the NetBSD	package.

	      o	     Thanks to Jim Breen for suggesting	better overview	of in-
		     put  methods  and	more language-specific advice for non-
		     techy persons which led to	the new	 chapter  on  Language
		     support.

mined 2015.25			  March	2015			      mined(1)

NAME | SYNTAX | DESCRIPTION | Command line options | Editing text with mined | Overview: input support features | Handling files with mined | Working with mined | Language support | Character handling support | Character input support | Character encoding support | Unicode support | CJK support (Chinese/Japanese/Korean Han character features) | Terminal encoding support | ->NEW-> Configuration of user preferences | Environment interworking and configuration hints | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | FILES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | AUTHOR AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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