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MERGEMASTER(8)          FreeBSD System Manager's Manual         MERGEMASTER(8)

     mergemaster - merge configuration files, et al during an upgrade

     mergemaster [-scrvahipCP] [-m /path/to/sources] [-t /path/to/temp/root]
                 [-d] [-u N] [-w N] [-D /path]

     The mergemaster utility is a Bourne shell script which is designed to aid
     you in updating the various configuration and other files associated with
     FreeBSD.  It is HIGHLY recommended that you back up your /etc directory
     before beginning this process.

     The script uses /usr/src/etc/Makefile to build a temporary root
     environment from / down, populating that environment with the various
     files.  You can specify a different source directory with the [-m]
     command line option, or specify the destination directory with the [-D]
     option.  It then compares each file in that environment to its installed
     counterpart.  When the script finds a change in the new file, or there is
     no installed version of the new file it gives you four options to deal
     with it.  You can install the new file as is, delete the new file, merge
     the old and new files (as appropriate) using sdiff(1) or leave the file
     in the temporary root environment to merge by hand later.

     By default it creates the temporary root in /var/tmp/temproot and
     compares the cvs(1) version $Id/$FreeBSD strings for files that have
     them, deleting the temporary file if the strings match.  If there is no
     $Id string, or if the strings are different it compares the files
     themselves.  You can also specify that the script ignore the $Id strings
     and compare every file.

     The merge menu option is designed to let you easily combine your
     customizations from the old version of a file into the new one.  While
     you can use the merge function to incorporate changes from files that you
     have not customized, it is not recommended.

     The mergemaster utility checks your umask and issues a warning for
     anything other than 022.  While it is not mandatory to grant world read
     permissions for most configuration files, you may run into problems
     without them.  If you choose a umask other than 022 and experience
     trouble later this could be the cause.  /etc/master.passwd is treated as
     a special case.  If you choose to install this file or a merged version
     of it the file permissions are always 600 (rw-------) for security
     reasons.  After installing an updated version of this file you should
     probably run pwd_mkdb(8) with the -p option to rebuild your password
     databases and recreate /etc/passwd.

     The script uses the owner and group id's that the files are created with
     by /usr/src/etc/Makefile, and file permissions as specified by the umask.
     Unified diffs are used by default to display any differences unless you
     choose context diffs.

     The mergemaster utility will source scripts that you specify right before
     it starts the comparison, and after it's done running.  The easiest way
     to handle this is to place the path to the script(s) in the appropriate
     variables in your .mergemasterrc file.  The script sourced before
     comparison is named in MM_PRE_COMPARE_SCRIPT, and the one sourced after
     the script is done is MM_EXIT_SCRIPT.  This is the recommended way to
     specify local modifications, or files that you want to give special
     handling to.  This includes files that you want to be deleted without
     being compared.  Because the named scripts are sourced from within
     mergemaster, all of the script's variables are available for use in your
     custom script.  You can also use /etc/mergemaster.rc which will be read
     before .mergemasterrc.  Options specified on the command line are updated
     last, and therefore can override both files.

     The options are as follows:

     -s          Perform a strict comparison, diff'ing every pair of files.
                 This comparison is performed line by line, without regard to
                 CVS $Id's.

     -c          Use context diffs instead of unified diffs.

     -r          Re-run mergemaster on a previously cleaned directory,
                 skipping the creation of the temporary root environment.
                 This option is compatible with all other options.

     -v          Be more verbose about the process.  You should probably use
                 this option the first time you run mergemaster.  This option
                 also gives you a list of files that exist only in the
                 installed version of /etc.

     -a          Run automatically.  This option will leave all the files that
                 differ from the installed versions in the temporary directory
                 to be dealt with by hand.  If the temproot directory exists,
                 it creates a new one in a previously non-existent directory.
                 This option unsets the verbose flag, but is compatible with
                 all other options.  Setting -a makes -w superfluous.

     -h          Display usage and help information.

     -i          Automatically install any files that do not exist in the
                 destination directory.

     -p          Pre-buildworld mode.  Compares only files known to be
                 essential to the success of {build|install}world, including

     -C          After a standard mergemaster run, compares your
                 rc.conf[.local] options to the defaults.

     -P          Preserve files that you replace in
                 /var/tmp/mergemaster/preserved-files-_date_, or another
                 directory you specify in your mergemaster rc file.

     -m /path/to/sources
                 Specify the path to the directory where you want to do the
                 make(1).  (In other words, where your sources are, but -s was
                 already taken.)

     -t /path/to/temp/root
                 Create the temporary root environment in /path/to/temp/root
                 instead of the default /var/tmp/temproot.

     -d          Add the date and time to the name of the temporary root
                 directory.  If -t is specified, this option must follow it if
                 you want the date added too.

     -u N        Specify a numeric umask.  The default is 022.

     -w N        Supply an alternate screen width to the sdiff(1) command in
                 numbers of columns.  The default is 80.

     -D /path    Specify the destination directory for the installed files.

     The mergemaster utility uses the PAGER environment variable if set.
     Otherwise it uses more(1).  If PAGER specifies a program outside its
     limited PATH without specifying the full path, mergemaster prompts you
     with options on how to proceed.  The MM_PRE_COMPARE_SCRIPT and
     MM_EXIT_SCRIPT variables are used as described above.  Other variables
     that are used by the script internally can be specified in .mergemasterrc
     as described in more detail below.

     Typically all you will need to do is type mergemaster at the prompt and
     the script will do all the work for you.

     To use context diff's and have mergemaster explain more things as it goes
     along, use:

           # mergemaster -cv

     To specify that mergemaster put the temporary root environment in
     /usr/tmp/root, use:

           # mergemaster -t /usr/tmp/root

     To specify a 110 column screen with a strict comparison, use:

           # mergemaster -sw 110


     The mergemaster utility will . (source) these files if they exist.
     Command line options will override rc file options.  $HOME/.mergemasterrc
     overrides /etc/mergemaster.rc.  Here is an example with all values
     commented out:

     # These are options for mergemaster, with their default values listed
     # The following options have command line overrides
     # Directory to install the temporary root environment into
     # Strict comparison bypasses the CVS $Id tests and compares every file
     # Type of diff, such as unified, context, etc.
     # Additional options for diff.  This will get unset when using -s.
     #DIFF_OPTIONS='-I$FreeBSD:.*[$]'        # Ignores CVS Id tags
     # Verbose mode includes more details and additional checks
     # Automatically install files that do not exist on the system already
     # Compare /etc/rc.conf[.local] to /etc/defaults/rc.conf
     # Preserve files that you replace
     #PRESERVE_FILES_DIR=/var/tmp/mergemaster/preserved-files-`date +%y%m%d-%H%M%S`
     # Sourcedir is the directory to do the 'make' in (where the new files are)
     # The umask for mergemaster to compare the default file's modes to
     # Specify the destination directory for the installed files
     # The following options have no command line overrides
     # For those who just cannot stand including the full path to PAGER
     # If you set 'yes' above, make sure to include the PATH to your pager
     # Don't compare the old and new motd files
     # Specify the path to scripts to run before the comparison starts,
     # and/or after the script has finished its work

     cvs(1), diff(1), make(1), more(1), sdiff(1), pwd_mkdb(8)


     Nik Clayton, The Cutting Edge (using make world),

     Exit status is 0 on successful completion, or if the user bails out
     manually at some point during execution.

     Exit status is 1 if it fails for one of the following reasons:

     Invalid command line option

     Failure to create the temporary root environment

     Failure to populate the temporary root

     The mergemaster utility was first publicly available on one of my web
     pages in a much simpler form under the name comproot on 13 March 1998.
     The idea for creating the temporary root environment comes from Nik
     Clayton's make world tutorial which is referenced above.

     This manual page and the script itself were written by Douglas Barton

     There are no known bugs.  Please report any problems, comments or
     suggestions to the author.  Several of the improvements to this program
     have come from user suggestions.  Thank you.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        February 5, 2001        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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