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GROFF_MDOC(7)      FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual      GROFF_MDOC(7)

NAME
     groff_mdoc - reference for groff's mdoc implementation

SYNOPSIS
     groff -mdoc file ...

DESCRIPTION
     A complete reference for writing UNIX manual pages with the -mdoc macro
     package; a content-based and domain-based formatting package for GNU
     troff(1).  Its predecessor, the -man(7) package, addressed page layout
     leaving the manipulation of fonts and other typesetting details to the
     individual author.  In -mdoc, page layout macros make up the page
     structure domain which consists of macros for titles, section headers,
     displays and lists - essentially items which affect the physical position
     of text on a formatted page.  In addition to the page structure domain,
     there are two more domains, the manual domain and the general text
     domain.  The general text domain is defined as macros which perform tasks
     such as quoting or emphasizing pieces of text.  The manual domain is
     defined as macros that are a subset of the day to day informal language
     used to describe commands, routines and related UNIX files.  Macros in
     the manual domain handle command names, command line arguments and
     options, function names, function parameters, pathnames, variables, cross
     references to other manual pages, and so on.  These domain items have
     value for both the author and the future user of the manual page.
     Hopefully, the consistency gained across the manual set will provide
     easier translation to future documentation tools.

     Throughout the UNIX manual pages, a manual entry is simply referred to as
     a man page, regardless of actual length and without sexist intention.

GETTING STARTED
     The material presented in the remainder of this document is outlined as
     follows:

           1.   TROFF IDIOSYNCRASIES
                Macro Usage
                Passing Space Characters in an Argument
                Trailing Blank Space Characters
                Escaping Special Characters
                Other Possible Pitfalls

           2.   A MANUAL PAGE TEMPLATE

           3.   CONVENTIONS

           4.   TITLE MACROS

           5.   INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL AND GENERAL TEXT DOMAINS
                What's in a Name...
                General Syntax

           6.   MANUAL DOMAIN
                Addresses
                Author Name
                Arguments
                Configuration Declarations (Section Four Only)
                Command Modifiers
                Defined Variables
                Errno's
                Environment Variables
                Flags
                Function Declarations
                Function Types
                Functions (Library Routines)
                Function Arguments
                Return Values
                Exit Status
                Interactive Commands
                Library Names
                Literals
                Names
                Options
                Pathnames
                Standards
                Variable Types
                Variables
                Manual Page Cross References

           7.   GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN
                AT&T Macro
                BSD Macro
                NetBSD Macro
                FreeBSD Macro
                DragonFly Macro
                OpenBSD Macro
                BSD/OS Macro
                UNIX Macro
                Emphasis Macro
                Font Mode
                Enclosure and Quoting Macros
                No-Op or Normal Text Macro
                No-Space Macro
                Section Cross References
                Symbolics
                Mathematical Symbols
                References and Citations
                Trade Names (or Acronyms and Type Names)
                Extended Arguments

           8.   PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN
                Section Headers
                Subsection Headers
                Paragraphs and Line Spacing
                Keeps
                Examples and Displays
                Lists and Columns

           9.   MISCELLANEOUS MACROS

           10.  PREDEFINED STRINGS

           11.  DIAGNOSTICS

           12.  FORMATTING WITH GROFF, TROFF, AND NROFF

           13.  FILES

           14.  SEE ALSO

           15.  BUGS

TROFF IDIOSYNCRASIES
     The -mdoc package attempts to simplify the process of writing a man page.
     Theoretically, one should not have to learn the tricky details of GNU
     troff(1) to use -mdoc; however, there are a few limitations which are
     unavoidable and best gotten out of the way.  And, too, be forewarned,
     this package is not fast.

   Macro Usage
     As in GNU troff(1), a macro is called by placing a `.' (dot character) at
     the beginning of a line followed by the two-character (or three-
     character) name for the macro.  There can be space or tab characters
     between the dot and the macro name.  Arguments may follow the macro
     separated by spaces (but no tabs).  It is the dot character at the
     beginning of the line which causes GNU troff(1) to interpret the next two
     (or more) characters as a macro name.  A single starting dot followed by
     nothing is ignored.  To place a `.' (dot character) at the beginning of
     an input line in some context other than a macro invocation, precede the
     `.' (dot) with the `\&' escape sequence which translates literally to a
     zero-width space, and is never displayed in the output.

     In general, GNU troff(1) macros accept an unlimited number of arguments
     (contrary to other versions of troff which can't handle more than nine
     arguments).  In limited cases, arguments may be continued or extended on
     the next line (See Extended Arguments below).  Almost all macros handle
     quoted arguments (see Passing Space Characters in an Argument below).

     Most of the -mdoc general text domain and manual domain macros are
     special in that their argument lists are parsed for callable macro names.
     This means an argument on the argument list which matches a general text
     or manual domain macro name (and which is defined to be callable) will be
     executed or called when it is processed.  In this case the argument,
     although the name of a macro, is not preceded by a `.' (dot).  This makes
     it possible to nest macros; for example the option macro, `.Op', may call
     the flag and argument macros, `Fl' and `Ar', to specify an optional flag
     with an argument:

           [-s bytes]         is produced by `.Op Fl s Ar bytes'

     To prevent a string from being interpreted as a macro name, precede the
     string with the escape sequence `\&':

           [Fl s Ar bytes]    is produced by `.Op \&Fl s \&Ar bytes'

     Here the strings `Fl' and `Ar' are not interpreted as macros.  Macros
     whose argument lists are parsed for callable arguments are referred to as
     parsed and macros which may be called from an argument list are referred
     to as callable throughout this document.  This is a technical faux pas as
     almost all of the macros in -mdoc are parsed, but as it was cumbersome to
     constantly refer to macros as being callable and being able to call other
     macros, the term parsed has been used.

     In the following, we call an -mdoc macro which starts a line (with a
     leading dot) a command if this distinction is necessary.

   Passing Space Characters in an Argument
     Sometimes it is desirable to give as an argument a string containing one
     or more blank space characters, say, to specify arguments to commands
     which expect particular arrangement of items in the argument list.
     Additionally, it makes -mdoc working faster.  For example, the function
     command `.Fn' expects the first argument to be the name of a function and
     any remaining arguments to be function parameters.  As ANSI C stipulates
     the declaration of function parameters in the parenthesized parameter
     list, each parameter is guaranteed to be at minimum a two word string.
     For example, int foo.

     There are two possible ways to pass an argument which contains an
     embedded space.  One way of passing a string containing blank spaces is
     to use the hard or unpaddable space character `\ ', that is, a blank
     space preceded by the escape character `\'.  This method may be used with
     any macro but has the side effect of interfering with the adjustment of
     text over the length of a line.  Troff sees the hard space as if it were
     any other printable character and cannot split the string into blank or
     newline separated pieces as one would expect.  This method is useful for
     strings which are not expected to overlap a line boundary.  An
     alternative is to use `\~', a paddable (i.e. stretchable), unbreakable
     space (this is a GNU troff(1) extension).  The second method is to
     enclose the string with double quotes.

     For example:

           fetch(char *str)     is created by `.Fn fetch char\ *str'

           fetch(char *str)     can also be created by `.Fn fetch "char *str"'

     If the `\' before the space in the first example or double quotes in the
     second example were omitted, `.Fn' would see three arguments, and the
     result would be:

           fetch(char, *str)

   Trailing Blank Space Characters
     Troff can be confused by blank space characters at the end of a line.  It
     is a wise preventive measure to globally remove all blank spaces from
     <blank-space><end-of-line> character sequences.  Should the need arise to
     use a blank character at the end of a line, it may be forced with an
     unpaddable space and the `\&' escape character.  For example,
     `string\ \&'.

   Escaping Special Characters
     Special characters like the newline character `\n' are handled by
     replacing the `\' with `\e' (e.g. `\en') to preserve the backslash.

   Other Possible Pitfalls
     A warning is emitted when an empty input line is found outside of
     displays (see below).  Use `.sp' instead.  (Well, it is even better to
     use -mdoc macros to avoid the usage of low-level commands.)

     Leading spaces will cause a break and are output directly.  Avoid this
     behaviour if possible.  Similarly, do not use more than one space
     character between words in an ordinary text line; contrary to other text
     formatters, they are not replaced with a single space.

     You can't pass `"' directly as an argument.  Use `\*[q]' (or `\*q')
     instead.

     By default, troff(1) inserts two space characters after a punctuation
     mark closing a sentence; characters like `)' or `'' are treated
     transparently, not influencing the sentence-ending behaviour.  To change
     this, insert `\&' before or after the dot:

           The
           .Ql .
           character.
           .Pp
           The
           .Ql \&.
           character.
           .Pp
           .No test .
           test
           .Pp
           .No test.
           test

     gives

           The `'.  character

           The `.' character.

           test.  test

           test. test

     As can be seen in the first and third line, -mdoc handles punctuation
     characters specially in macro arguments.  This will be explained in
     section General Syntax below.  In the same way, you have to protect
     trailing full stops of abbreviations with a trailing zero-width space:
     `e.g.\&'.

     A comment in the source file of a man page can be either started with
     `.\"' on a single line, `\"' after some input, or `\#' anywhere (the
     latter is a GNU troff(1) extension); the rest of such a line is ignored.

A MANUAL PAGE TEMPLATE
     The body of a man page is easily constructed from a basic template:

           .\" The following commands are required for all man pages.
           .Dd Month day, year
           .Dt DOCUMENT_TITLE [section number] [architecture/volume]
           .Os [OPERATING_SYSTEM] [version/release]
           .Sh NAME
           .Nm name
           .Nd one line description of name
           .\" This next command is for sections 2 and 3 only.
           .\" .Sh LIBRARY
           .Sh SYNOPSIS
           .Sh DESCRIPTION
           .\" The following commands should be uncommented and
           .\" used where appropriate.
           .\" .Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
           .\" This next command is for sections 2, 3 and 9 function
           .\" return values only.
           .\" .Sh RETURN VALUES
           .\" This next command is for sections 1, 6, 7 and 8 only.
           .\" .Sh ENVIRONMENT
           .\" .Sh FILES
           .\" .Sh EXAMPLES
           .\" This next command is for sections 1, 6, 7, 8 and 9 only
           .\"     (command return values (to shell) and
           .\"     fprintf/stderr type diagnostics).
           .\" .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
           .\" .Sh COMPATIBILITY
           .\" This next command is for sections 2, 3 and 9 error
           .\"     and signal handling only.
           .\" .Sh ERRORS
           .\" .Sh SEE ALSO
           .\" .Sh STANDARDS
           .\" .Sh HISTORY
           .\" .Sh AUTHORS
           .\" .Sh BUGS

     The first items in the template are the commands `.Dd', `.Dt', and `.Os';
     the document date, the operating system the man page or subject source is
     developed or modified for, and the man page title (in upper case) along
     with the section of the manual the page belongs in.  These commands
     identify the page and are discussed below in TITLE MACROS.

     The remaining items in the template are section headers (.Sh); of which
     NAME, SYNOPSIS, and DESCRIPTION are mandatory.  The headers are discussed
     in PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN, after presentation of MANUAL DOMAIN.  Several
     content macros are used to demonstrate page layout macros; reading about
     content macros before page layout macros is recommended.

CONVENTIONS
     In the description of all macros below, optional arguments are put into
     brackets.  An ellipsis (`...') represents zero or more additional
     arguments.  Alternative values for a parameter are separated with `|'.
     If there are alternative values for a mandatory parameter, braces are
     used (together with `|') to enclose the value set.  Meta-variables are
     specified within angles.

     Example:

           .Xx <foo> {bar1 | bar2} [-test1 [-test2 | -test3]] ...

     Except stated explicitly, all macros are parsed and callable.

     Note that a macro takes effect up to the next nested macro.  For example,
     `.Ic foo Aq bar' doesn't produce `foo <bar>' but `foo <bar>'.
     Consequently, a warning message is emitted for most commands if the first
     argument is a macro itself since it cancels the effect of the calling
     command completely.  Another consequence is that quoting macros never
     insert literal quotes; `foo <bar>' has been produced by `.Ic "foo
     <bar>"'.

     Most macros have a default width value which can be used to specify a
     label width (-width) or offset (-offset) for the `.Bl' and `.Bd' macros.
     It is recommended not to use this rather obscure feature to avoid
     dependencies on local modifications of the -mdoc package.

TITLE MACROS
     The title macros are part of the page structure domain but are presented
     first and separately for someone who wishes to start writing a man page
     yesterday.  Three header macros designate the document title or manual
     page title, the operating system, and the date of authorship.  These
     macros are called once at the very beginning of the document and are used
     to construct headers and footers only.

     .Dt [<document title>] [<section number>] [<volume>]
             The document title is the subject of the man page and must be in
             CAPITALS due to troff limitations.  If omitted, `UNTITLED' is
             used.  The section number may be a number in the range 1, ..., 9
             or `unass', `draft', or `paper'.  If it is specified, and no
             volume name is given, a default volume name is used.

             Under , the following sections are defined:

             1
             2
             3
             4
             5
             6
             7
             8
             9

             A volume name may be arbitrary or one of the following:

             USD
             PS1
             AMD
             SMM
             URM
             PRM
             KM
             IND
             LOCAL
             CON

             For compatibility, `MMI' can be used for `IND', and `LOC' for
             `LOCAL'.  Values from the previous table will specify a new
             volume name.  If the third parameter is a keyword designating a
             computer architecture, its value is prepended to the default
             volume name as specified by the second parameter.  By default,
             the following architecture keywords are defined:

                   acorn26, acorn32, algor, alpha, amd64, amiga, amigappc,
                   arc, arm, arm26, arm32, armish, atari, aviion, beagle,
                   bebox, cats, cesfic, cobalt, dreamcast, emips, evbarm,
                   evbmips, evbppc, evbsh3, ews4800mips, hp300, hp700, hpcarm,
                   hpcmips, hpcsh, hppa, hppa64, i386, ia64, ibmnws, iyonix,
                   landisk, loongson, luna68k, luna88k, m68k, mac68k, macppc,
                   mips, mips64, mipsco, mmeye, mvme68k, mvme88k, mvmeppc,
                   netwinder, news68k, newsmips, next68k, ofppc, palm, pc532,
                   playstation2, pmax, pmppc, powerpc, prep, rs6000,
                   sandpoint, sbmips, sgi, sgimips, sh3, shark, socppc,
                   solbourne, sparc, sparc64, sun2, sun3, tahoe, vax, x68k,
                   x86_64, xen, zaurus

             If the section number is neither a numeric expression in the
             range 1 to 9 nor one of the above described keywords, the third
             parameter is used verbatim as the volume name.

             In the following examples, the left (which is identical to the
             right) and the middle part of the manual page header strings are
             shown.  Note how `\&' prevents the digit 7 from being a valid
             numeric expression.

                   .Dt FOO 7           `FOO(7)' `'
                   .Dt FOO 7 bar       `FOO(7)' `'
                   .Dt FOO \&7 bar     `FOO(7)' `bar'
                   .Dt FOO 2 i386      `FOO(2)' `/'
                   .Dt FOO "" bar      `FOO' `bar'

             Local, OS-specific additions might be found in the file
             mdoc.local; look for strings named `volume-ds-XXX' (for the
             former type) and `volume-as-XXX' (for the latter type); `XXX'
             then denotes the keyword to be used with the `.Dt' macro.

             This macro is neither callable nor parsed.

     .Os [<operating system>] [<release>]
             If the first parameter is empty, the default `' is used.  This
             may be overridden in the local configuration file, mdoc.local.
             In general, the name of the operating system should be the common
             acronym, e.g. BSD or ATT.  The release should be the standard
             release nomenclature for the system specified.  In the following
             table, the possible second arguments for some predefined
             operating systems are listed.  Similar to `.Dt', local additions
             might be defined in mdoc.local; look for strings named
             `operating-system-XXX-YYY', where `XXX' is the acronym for the
             operating system and `YYY' the release ID.

                   ATT            7th, 7, III, 3, V, V.2, V.3, V.4

                   BSD            3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.3t, 4.3T, 4.3r, 4.3R,
                                  4.4

                   NetBSD         0.8, 0.8a, 0.9, 0.9a, 1.0, 1.0a, 1.1, 1.2,
                                  1.2a, 1.2b, 1.2c, 1.2d, 1.2e, 1.3, 1.3a,
                                  1.4, 1.4.1, 1.4.2, 1.4.3, 1.5, 1.5.1, 1.5.2,
                                  1.5.3, 1.6, 1.6.1, 1.6.2, 1.6.3, 2.0, 2.0.1,
                                  2.0.2, 2.0.3, 2.1, 3.0, 3.0.1, 3.0.2, 3.0.3,
                                  3.1, 3.1.1, 4.0, 4.0.1, 5.0, 5.0.1, 5.0.2,
                                  5.1, 6.0

                   FreeBSD        1.0, 1.1, 1.1.5, 1.1.5.1, 2.0, 2.0.5, 2.1,
                                  2.1.5, 2.1.6, 2.1.7, 2.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2,
                                  2.2.5, 2.2.6, 2.2.7, 2.2.8, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2,
                                  3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.0, 4.1, 4.1.1, 4.2, 4.3,
                                  4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.6.2, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10,
                                  4.11, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.2.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5,
                                  6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3,
                                  8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 9.0

                   OpenBSD        2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8,
                                  2.9, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7,
                                  3.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6,
                                  4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 5.0

                   DragonFly      1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8,
                                  1.8.1, 1.10, 1.12, 1.12.2, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4,
                                  2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 2.9.1, 2.10, 2.10.1, 2.11

                   Darwin         8.0.0, 8.1.0, 8.2.0, 8.3.0, 8.4.0, 8.5.0,
                                  8.6.0, 8.7.0, 8.8.0, 8.9.0, 8.10.0, 8.11.0,
                                  9.0.0, 9.1.0, 9.2.0, 9.3.0, 9.4.0, 9.5.0,
                                  9.6.0, 9.7.0, 9.8.0, 10.1.0, 10.2.0, 10.3.0,
                                  10.4.0, 10.5.0, 10.6.0, 10.7.0, 11.0.0

             For ATT, an unknown second parameter will be replaced with the
             string UNIX; for the other predefined acronyms it will be ignored
             and a warning message emitted.  Unrecognized arguments are
             displayed as given in the page footer.  For instance, a typical
             footer might be:

                   .Os BSD 4.3

             giving `4.3 Berkeley Distribution', or for a locally produced set

                   .Os CS Department

             which will produce `CS Department'.

             If the `.Os' macro is not present, the bottom left corner of the
             manual page will be ugly.

             This macro is neither callable nor parsed.

     .Dd [<month> <day>, <year>]
             If `Dd' has no arguments, `Epoch' is used for the date string.
             If it has exactly three arguments, they are concatenated,
             separated with unbreakable space:

                   .Dd January 25, 2001

             The month's name shall not be abbreviated.

             With any other number of arguments, the current date is used,
             ignoring the parameters.

             This macro is neither callable nor parsed.

INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL AND GENERAL TEXT DOMAINS
   What's in a Name...
     The manual domain macro names are derived from the day to day informal
     language used to describe commands, subroutines and related files.
     Slightly different variations of this language are used to describe the
     three different aspects of writing a man page.  First, there is the
     description of -mdoc macro command usage.  Second is the description of a
     UNIX command with -mdoc macros, and third, the description of a command
     to a user in the verbal sense; that is, discussion of a command in the
     text of a man page.

     In the first case, troff(1) macros are themselves a type of command; the
     general syntax for a troff command is:

           .Xx argument1 argument2 ...

     `.Xx' is a macro command, and anything following it are arguments to be
     processed.  In the second case, the description of a UNIX command using
     the content macros is a bit more involved; a typical SYNOPSIS command
     line might be displayed as:

           filter [-flag] <infile> <outfile>

     Here, filter is the command name and the bracketed string -flag is a flag
     argument designated as optional by the option brackets.  In -mdoc terms,
     <infile> and <outfile> are called meta arguments; in this example, the
     user has to replace the meta expressions given in angle brackets with
     real file names.  Note that in this document meta arguments are used to
     describe -mdoc commands; in most man pages, meta variables are not
     specifically written with angle brackets.  The macros which formatted the
     above example:

           .Nm filter
           .Op Fl flag
           .Ao Ar infile Ac Ao Ar outfile Ac

     In the third case, discussion of commands and command syntax includes
     both examples above, but may add more detail.  The arguments <infile> and
     <outfile> from the example above might be referred to as operands or file
     arguments.  Some command line argument lists are quite long:

           make      [-eiknqrstv] [-D variable] [-d flags] [-f makefile] [-I
                     directory] [-j max_jobs] [variable=value] [target ...]

     Here one might talk about the command make and qualify the argument,
     makefile, as an argument to the flag, -f, or discuss the optional file
     operand target.  In the verbal context, such detail can prevent
     confusion, however the -mdoc package does not have a macro for an
     argument to a flag.  Instead the `Ar' argument macro is used for an
     operand or file argument like target as well as an argument to a flag
     like variable.  The make command line was produced from:

           .Nm make
           .Op Fl eiknqrstv
           .Op Fl D Ar variable
           .Op Fl d Ar flags
           .Op Fl f Ar makefile
           .Op Fl I Ar directory
           .Op Fl j Ar max_jobs
           .Op Ar variable Ns = Ns Ar value
           .Bk
           .Op Ar target ...
           .Ek

     The `.Bk' and `.Ek' macros are explained in Keeps.

   General Syntax
     The manual domain and general text domain macros share a similar syntax
     with a few minor deviations; most notably, `.Ar', `.Fl', `.Nm', and `.Pa'
     differ only when called without arguments; and `.Fn' and `.Xr' impose an
     order on their argument lists.  All content macros are capable of
     recognizing and properly handling punctuation, provided each punctuation
     character is separated by a leading space.  If a command is given:

           .Ar sptr, ptr),

     The result is:

           sptr, ptr),

     The punctuation is not recognized and all is output in the font used by
     `.Ar'.  If the punctuation is separated by a leading white space:

           .Ar sptr , ptr ) ,

     The result is:

           sptr, ptr),

     The punctuation is now recognized and output in the default font
     distinguishing it from the argument strings.  To remove the special
     meaning from a punctuation character escape it with `\&'.

     The following punctuation characters are recognized by -mdoc:

               .         ,         :         ;         (
               )         [         ]         ?         !

     Troff is limited as a macro language, and has difficulty when presented
     with a string containing a member of the mathematical, logical or
     quotation set:

                 {+,-,/,*,%,<,>,<=,>=,=,==,&,`,',"}

     The problem is that troff may assume it is supposed to actually perform
     the operation or evaluation suggested by the characters.  To prevent the
     accidental evaluation of these characters, escape them with `\&'.
     Typical syntax is shown in the first content macro displayed below,
     `.Ad'.

MANUAL DOMAIN
   Addresses
     The address macro identifies an address construct.

           Usage: .Ad <address> ...

                    .Ad addr1               addr1
                    .Ad addr1 .             addr1.
                    .Ad addr1 , file2       addr1, file2
                    .Ad f1 , f2 , f3 :      f1, f2, f3:
                    .Ad addr ) ) ,          addr)),

     The default width is 12n.

   Author Name
     The `.An' macro is used to specify the name of the author of the item
     being documented, or the name of the author of the actual manual page.

           Usage: .An <author name> ...

                    .An "Joe Author"            Joe Author

                    .An "Joe Author" ,          Joe Author,

                    .An "Joe Author" Aq nobody@FreeBSD.org
                                                Joe Author
                                                <nobody@FreeBSD.org>

                    .An "Joe Author" ) ) ,      Joe Author)),

     The default width is 12n.

     In the AUTHORS section, the `.An' command causes a line break allowing
     each new name to appear on its own line.  If this is not desirable,

           .An -nosplit

     call will turn this off.  To turn splitting back on, write

           .An -split

   Arguments
     The .Ar argument macro may be used whenever an argument is referenced.
     If called without arguments, the `file ...' string is output.

           Usage: .Ar [<argument>] ...

                    .Ar                  file ...
                    .Ar file1            file1
                    .Ar file1 .          file1.
                    .Ar file1 file2      file1 file2
                    .Ar f1 f2 f3 :       f1 f2 f3:
                    .Ar file ) ) ,       file)),

     The default width is 12n.

   Configuration Declaration (Section Four Only)
     The `.Cd' macro is used to demonstrate a config(8) declaration for a
     device interface in a section four manual.

           Usage: .Cd <argument> ...

                    .Cd "device le0 at scode?"      device le0 at scode?

     In the SYNOPSIS section a `.Cd' command causes a line break before and
     after its arguments are printed.

     The default width is 12n.

   Command Modifiers
     The command modifier is identical to the `.Fl' (flag) command with the
     exception that the `.Cm' macro does not assert a dash in front of every
     argument.  Traditionally flags are marked by the preceding dash, however,
     some commands or subsets of commands do not use them.  Command modifiers
     may also be specified in conjunction with interactive commands such as
     editor commands.  See Flags.

     The default width is 10n.

   Defined Variables
     A variable (or constant) which is defined in an include file is specified
     by the macro `.Dv'.

           Usage: .Dv <defined variable> ...

                    .Dv MAXHOSTNAMELEN      MAXHOSTNAMELEN
                    .Dv TIOCGPGRP )         TIOCGPGRP)

     The default width is 12n.

   Errno's
     The `.Er' errno macro specifies the error return value for section 2, 3,
     and 9 library routines.  The second example below shows `.Er' used with
     the `.Bq' general text domain macro, as it would be used in a section two
     manual page.

           Usage: .Er <errno type> ...

                    .Er ENOENT          ENOENT
                    .Er ENOENT ) ;      ENOENT);
                    .Bq Er ENOTDIR      [ENOTDIR]

     The default width is 17n.

   Environment Variables
     The `.Ev' macro specifies an environment variable.

           Usage: .Ev <argument> ...

                    .Ev DISPLAY            DISPLAY
                    .Ev PATH .             PATH.
                    .Ev PRINTER ) ) ,      PRINTER)),

     The default width is 15n.

   Flags
     The `.Fl' macro handles command line flags.  It prepends a dash, `-', to
     the flag.  For interactive command flags, which are not prepended with a
     dash, the `.Cm' (command modifier) macro is identical, but without the
     dash.

           Usage: .Fl <argument> ...

                    .Fl              -
                    .Fl cfv          -cfv
                    .Fl cfv .        -cfv.
                    .Cm cfv .        cfv.
                    .Fl s v t        -s -v -t
                    .Fl - ,          --,
                    .Fl xyz ) ,      -xyz),
                    .Fl |            - |

     The `.Fl' macro without any arguments results in a dash representing
     stdin/stdout.  Note that giving `.Fl' a single dash will result in two
     dashes.

     The default width is 12n.

   Function Declarations
     The `.Fd' macro is used in the SYNOPSIS section with section two or three
     functions.  It is neither callable nor parsed.

           Usage: .Fd <argument> ...

                    .Fd "#include <sys/types.h>"      #include <sys/types.h>

     In the SYNOPSIS section a `.Fd' command causes a line break if a function
     has already been presented and a break has not occurred.  This leaves a
     nice vertical space in between the previous function call and the
     declaration for the next function.

     The `.In' macro, while in the SYNOPSIS section, represents the #include
     statement, and is the short form of the above example.  It specifies the
     C header file as being included in a C program.  It also causes a line
     break.

     While not in the SYNOPSIS section, it represents the header file enclosed
     in angle brackets.

           Usage: .In <header file>

                    .In stdio.h      <stdio.h>
                    .In stdio.h      <stdio.h>

   Function Types
     This macro is intended for the SYNOPSIS section.  It may be used anywhere
     else in the man page without problems, but its main purpose is to present
     the function type in kernel normal form for the SYNOPSIS of sections two
     and three (it causes a line break, allowing the function name to appear
     on the next line).

           Usage: .Ft <type> ...

                    .Ft struct stat      struct stat

   Functions (Library Routines)
     The `.Fn' macro is modeled on ANSI C conventions.

           Usage: .Fn <function> [<parameter>] ...

                    .Fn getchar                  getchar()
                    .Fn strlen ) ,               strlen()),
                    .Fn align "char *ptr" ,      align(char *ptr),

     Note that any call to another macro signals the end of the `.Fn' call (it
     will insert a closing parenthesis at that point).

     For functions with many parameters (which is rare), the macros `.Fo'
     (function open) and `.Fc' (function close) may be used with `.Fa'
     (function argument).

     Example:

           .Ft int
           .Fo res_mkquery
           .Fa "int op"
           .Fa "char *dname"
           .Fa "int class"
           .Fa "int type"
           .Fa "char *data"
           .Fa "int datalen"
           .Fa "struct rrec *newrr"
           .Fa "char *buf"
           .Fa "int buflen"
           .Fc

     Produces:

           int res_mkquery(int op, char *dname, int class, int type,
           char *data, int datalen, struct rrec *newrr, char *buf, int buflen)

     In the SYNOPSIS section, the function will always begin at the beginning
     of line.  If there is more than one function presented in the SYNOPSIS
     section and a function type has not been given, a line break will occur,
     leaving a nice vertical space between the current function name and the
     one prior.

     The default width values of `.Fn' and `.Fo' are 12n and 16n,
     respectively.

   Function Arguments
     The `.Fa' macro is used to refer to function arguments (parameters)
     outside of the SYNOPSIS section of the manual or inside the SYNOPSIS
     section if the enclosure macros `.Fo' and `.Fc' instead of `.Fn' are
     used.  `.Fa' may also be used to refer to structure members.

           Usage: .Fa <function argument> ...

                    .Fa d_namlen ) ) ,      d_namlen)),
                    .Fa iov_len             iov_len

     The default width is 12n.

   Return Values
     The `.Rv' macro generates text for use in the RETURN VALUES section.

           Usage: .Rv [-std] [<function> ...]

     For example, `.Rv -std atexit' produces:

           The atexit() function returns the value 0 if successful; otherwise
           the value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to
           indicate the error.

     The -std option is valid only for manual page sections 2 and 3.
     Currently, this macro does nothing if used without the -std flag.

   Exit Status
     The `.Ex' macro generates text for use in the DIAGNOSTICS section.

           Usage: .Ex [-std] [<utility> ...]

     For example, `.Ex -std cat' produces:

           The cat utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     The -std option is valid only for manual page sections 1, 6 and 8.
     Currently, this macro does nothing if used without the -std flag.

   Interactive Commands
     The `.Ic' macro designates an interactive or internal command.

           Usage: .Ic <argument> ...

                    .Ic :wq                    :wq
                    .Ic "do while {...}"       do while {...}
                    .Ic setenv , unsetenv      setenv, unsetenv

     The default width is 12n.

   Library Names
     The `.Lb' macro is used to specify the library where a particular
     function is compiled in.

           Usage: .Lb <argument> ...

     Available arguments to `.Lb' and their results are:

           libarchive         Streaming Archive Library (libarchive,
                              -larchive)
           libarm             ARM Architecture Library (libarm, -larm)
           libarm32           ARM32 Architecture Library (libarm32, -larm32)
           libbluetooth       Bluetooth Library (libbluetooth, -lbluetooth)
           libbsm             Basic Security Module Library (libbsm, -lbsm)
           libc               Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
           libc_r             Reentrant C Library (libc_r, -lc_r)
           libcalendar        Calendar Arithmetic Library (libcalendar,
                              -lcalendar)
           libcam             Common Access Method User Library (libcam,
                              -lcam)
           libcdk             Curses Development Kit Library (libcdk, -lcdk)
           libcipher          FreeSec Crypt Library (libcipher, -lcipher)
           libcompat          Compatibility Library (libcompat, -lcompat)
           libcrypt           Crypt Library (libcrypt, -lcrypt)
           libcurses          Curses Library (libcurses, -lcurses)
           libdevinfo         Device and Resource Information Utility Library
                              (libdevinfo, -ldevinfo)
           libdevstat         Device Statistics Library (libdevstat,
                              -ldevstat)
           libdisk            Interface to Slice and Partition Labels Library
                              (libdisk, -ldisk)
           libdwarf           DWARF Access Library (libdwarf, -ldwarf)
           libedit            Command Line Editor Library (libedit, -ledit)
           libelf             ELF Access Library (libelf, -lelf)
           libevent           Event Notification Library (libevent, -levent)
           libfetch           File Transfer Library (libfetch, -lfetch)
           libform            Curses Form Library (libform, -lform)
           libgeom            Userland API Library for Kernel GEOM subsystem
                              (libgeom, -lgeom)
           libgpib            library ``libgpib''
           libi386            i386 Architecture Library (libi386, -li386)
           libintl            Internationalized Message Handling Library
                              (libintl, -lintl)
           libipsec           IPsec Policy Control Library (libipsec, -lipsec)
           libipx             library ``libipx''
           libiscsi           iSCSI protocol library (libiscsi, -liscsi)
           libjail            Jail Library (libjail, -ljail)
           libkiconv          Kernel-side iconv Library (libkiconv, -lkiconv)
           libkse             N:M Threading Library (libkse, -lkse)
           libkvm             Kernel Data Access Library (libkvm, -lkvm)
           libm               Math Library (libm, -lm)
           libm68k            m68k Architecture Library (libm68k, -lm68k)
           libmagic           Magic Number Recognition Library (libmagic,
                              -lmagic)
           libmd              Message Digest (MD4, MD5, etc.) Support Library
                              (libmd, -lmd)
           libmemstat         Kernel Memory Allocator Statistics Library
                              (libmemstat, -lmemstat)
           libmenu            Curses Menu Library (libmenu, -lmenu)
           libnetgraph        Netgraph User Library (libnetgraph, -lnetgraph)
           libnetpgp          Netpgp Signing, Verification, Encryption and
                              Decryption (libnetpgp, -lnetpgp)
           libossaudio        OSS Audio Emulation Library (libossaudio,
                              -lossaudio)
           libpam             Pluggable Authentication Module Library (libpam,
                              -lpam)
           libpcap            Packet Capture Library (libpcap, -lpcap)
           libpci             PCI Bus Access Library (libpci, -lpci)
           libpmc             Performance Counters Library (libpmc, -lpmc)
           libposix           POSIX Compatibility Library (libposix, -lposix)
           libprop            Property Container Object Library (libprop,
                              -lprop)
           libpthread         POSIX Threads Library (libpthread, -lpthread)
           libpuffs           puffs Convenience Library (libpuffs, -lpuffs)
           librefuse          File System in Userspace Convenience Library
                              (librefuse, -lrefuse)
           libresolv          DNS Resolver Library (libresolv, -lresolv)
           librpcsec_gss      RPC GSS-API Authentication Library
                              (librpcsec_gss, -lrpcsec_gss)
           librpcsvc          RPC Service Library (librpcsvc, -lrpcsvc)
           librt              POSIX Real-time Library (librt, -lrt)
           libsdp             Bluetooth Service Discovery Protocol User
                              Library (libsdp, -lsdp)
           libssp             Buffer Overflow Protection Library (libssp,
                              -lssp)
           libSystem          System Library (libSystem, -lSystem)
           libtermcap         Termcap Access Library (libtermcap, -ltermcap)
           libterminfo        Terminal Information Library (libterminfo,
                              -lterminfo)
           libthr             1:1 Threading Library (libthr, -lthr)
           libufs             UFS File System Access Library (libufs, -lufs)
           libugidfw          File System Firewall Interface Library
                              (libugidfw, -lugidfw)
           libulog            User Login Record Library (libulog, -lulog)
           libusbhid          USB Human Interface Devices Library (libusbhid,
                              -lusbhid)
           libutil            System Utilities Library (libutil, -lutil)
           libvgl             Video Graphics Library (libvgl, -lvgl)
           libx86_64          x86_64 Architecture Library (libx86_64,
                              -lx86_64)
           libz               Compression Library (libz, -lz)

     Local, OS-specific additions might be found in the file mdoc.local; look
     for strings named `str-Lb-XXX'.  `XXX' then denotes the keyword to be
     used with the `.Lb' macro.

     In the LIBRARY section an `.Lb' command causes a line break before and
     after its arguments are printed.

   Literals
     The `.Li' literal macro may be used for special characters, variable
     constants, etc. - anything which should be displayed as it would be
     typed.

           Usage: .Li <argument> ...

                    .Li \en              \n
                    .Li M1 M2 M3 ;       M1 M2 M3;
                    .Li cntrl-D ) ,      cntrl-D),
                    .Li 1024 ...         1024 ...

     The default width is 16n.

   Names
     The `.Nm' macro is used for the document title or subject name.  It has
     the peculiarity of remembering the first argument it was called with,
     which should always be the subject name of the page.  When called without
     arguments, `.Nm' regurgitates this initial name for the sole purpose of
     making less work for the author.  `.Nm' causes a line break within the
     SYNOPSIS section.

     Note: A section two or three document function name is addressed with the
     `.Nm' in the NAME section, and with `.Fn' in the SYNOPSIS and remaining
     sections.  For interactive commands, such as the `while' command keyword
     in csh(1), the `.Ic' macro should be used.  While `.Ic' is nearly
     identical to `.Nm', it can not recall the first argument it was invoked
     with.

           Usage: .Nm [<argument>] ...

                    .Nm groff_mdoc      groff_mdoc
                    .Nm \-mdoc          -mdoc
                    .Nm foo ) ) ,       foo)),
                    .Nm :               groff_mdoc:

     The default width is 10n.

   Options
     The `.Op' macro places option brackets around any remaining arguments on
     the command line, and places any trailing punctuation outside the
     brackets.  The macros `.Oo' and `.Oc' (which produce an opening and a
     closing option bracket respectively) may be used across one or more lines
     or to specify the exact position of the closing parenthesis.

           Usage: .Op [<option>] ...

                    .Op                                    []
                    .Op Fl k                               [-k]
                    .Op Fl k ) .                           [-k]).
                    .Op Fl k Ar kookfile                   [-k kookfile]
                    .Op Fl k Ar kookfile ,                 [-k kookfile],
                    .Op Ar objfil Op Ar corfil             [objfil [corfil]]
                    .Op Fl c Ar objfil Op Ar corfil ,      [-c objfil
                                                           [corfil]],
                    .Op word1 word2                        [word1 word2]
                    .Li .Op Oo Ao option Ac Oc ...         .Op [<option>] ...

     Here a typical example of the `.Oo' and `.Oc' macros:

           .Oo
           .Op Fl k Ar kilobytes
           .Op Fl i Ar interval
           .Op Fl c Ar count
           .Oc

     Produces:

           [[-k kilobytes] [-i interval] [-c count]]

     The default width values of `.Op' and `.Oo' are 14n and 10n,
     respectively.

   Pathnames
     The `.Pa' macro formats path or file names.  If called without arguments,
     the `~' string is output, which represents the current user's home
     directory.

           Usage: .Pa [<pathname>] ...

                    .Pa                        ~
                    .Pa /usr/share             /usr/share
                    .Pa /tmp/fooXXXXX ) .      /tmp/fooXXXXX).

     The default width is 32n.

   Standards
     The `.St' macro replaces standard abbreviations with their formal names.

           Usage: .St <abbreviation> ...

     Available pairs for ``Abbreviation/Formal Name'' are:

     ANSI/ISO C

           -ansiC              ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89'')
           -ansiC-89           ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89'')
           -isoC               ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO C90'')
           -isoC-90            ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO C90'')
           -isoC-99            ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'')
           -isoC-2011          ISO/IEC 9899:2011 (``ISO C11'')

     POSIX Part 1: System API

           -iso9945-1-90       ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'')
           -iso9945-1-96       ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1            IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1-88         IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1-90         IEEE Std 1003.1-1990 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1-96         ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1b-93        IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993 (``POSIX.1b'')
           -p1003.1c-95        IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 (``POSIX.1c'')
           -p1003.1g-2000      IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000 (``POSIX.1g'')
           -p1003.1i-95        IEEE Std 1003.1i-1995 (``POSIX.1i'')
           -p1003.1-2001       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1-2004       IEEE Std 1003.1-2004 (``POSIX.1'')
           -p1003.1-2008       IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'')

     POSIX Part 2: Shell and Utilities

           -iso9945-2-93       ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993 (``POSIX.2'')
           -p1003.2            IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'')
           -p1003.2-92         IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (``POSIX.2'')
           -p1003.2a-92        IEEE Std 1003.2a-1992 (``POSIX.2'')

     X/Open

           -susv2              Version 2 of the Single UNIX Specification
                               (``SUSv2'')
           -susv3              Version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification
                               (``SUSv3'')
           -svid4              System V Interface Definition, Fourth Edition
                               (``SVID4'')
           -xbd5               X/Open Base Definitions Issue 5 (``XBD5'')
           -xcu5               X/Open Commands and Utilities Issue 5
                               (``XCU5'')
           -xcurses4.2         X/Open Curses Issue 4, Version 2
                               (``XCURSES4.2'')
           -xns5               X/Open Networking Services Issue 5 (``XNS5'')
           -xns5.2             X/Open Networking Services Issue 5.2
                               (``XNS5.2'')
           -xpg3               X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3 (``XPG3'')
           -xpg4               X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (``XPG4'')
           -xpg4.2             X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4, Version 2
                               (``XPG4.2'')
           -xsh5               X/Open System Interfaces and Headers Issue 5
                               (``XSH5'')

     Miscellaneous

           -ieee754            IEEE Std 754-1985
           -iso8802-3          ISO 8802-3: 1989

   Variable Types
     The `.Vt' macro may be used whenever a type is referenced.  In the
     SYNOPSIS section, it causes a line break (useful for old style variable
     declarations).

           Usage: .Vt <type> ...

                    .Vt extern char *optarg ;      extern char *optarg;
                    .Vt FILE *                     FILE *

   Variables
     Generic variable reference.

           Usage: .Va <variable> ...

                    .Va count                 count
                    .Va settimer ,            settimer,
                    .Va "int *prt" ) :        int *prt):
                    .Va "char s" ] ) ) ,      char s])),

     The default width is 12n.

   Manual Page Cross References
     The `.Xr' macro expects the first argument to be a manual page name.  The
     optional second argument, if a string (defining the manual section), is
     put into parentheses.

           Usage: .Xr <man page name> [<section>] ...

                    .Xr mdoc            mdoc
                    .Xr mdoc ,          mdoc,
                    .Xr mdoc 7          mdoc(7)
                    .Xr xinit 1x ;      xinit(1x);

     The default width is 10n.

GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN
   AT&T Macro
           Usage: .At [<version>] ...

                    .At           AT&T UNIX
                    .At v6 .      Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

     The following values for <version> are possible:

           32v, v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6, v7, V, V.1, V.2, V.3, V.4

   BSD Macro
           Usage: .Bx {-alpha | -beta | -devel} ...
                  .Bx [<version> [<release>]] ...

                    .Bx             BSD
                    .Bx 4.3 .       4.3BSD.
                    .Bx -devel      -develBSD

     <version> will be prepended to the string `BSD'.  The following values
     for <release> are possible:

           Reno, reno, Tahoe, tahoe, Lite, lite, Lite2, lite2

   NetBSD Macro
           Usage: .Nx [<version>] ...

                    .Nx            NetBSD
                    .Nx 1.4 .      NetBSD 1.4.

     For possible values of <version> see the description of the `.Os' command
     above in section TITLE MACROS.

   FreeBSD Macro
           Usage: .Fx [<version>] ...

                    .Fx            FreeBSD
                    .Fx 2.2 .      FreeBSD 2.2.

     For possible values of <version> see the description of the `.Os' command
     above in section TITLE MACROS.

   DragonFly Macro
           Usage: .Dx [<version>] ...

                    .Dx            DragonFly
                    .Dx 1.4 .      DragonFly 1.4.

     For possible values of <version> see the description of the `.Os' command
     above in section TITLE MACROS.

   OpenBSD Macro
           Usage: .Ox [<version>] ...

                    .Ox 1.0      OpenBSD 1.0

   BSD/OS Macro
           Usage: .Bsx [<version>] ...

                    .Bsx 1.0      BSD/OS 1.0

   UNIX Macro
           Usage: .Ux ...

                    .Ux      UNIX

   Emphasis Macro
     Text may be stressed or emphasized with the `.Em' macro.  The usual font
     for emphasis is italic.

           Usage: .Em <argument> ...

                    .Em does not              does not
                    .Em exceed 1024 .         exceed 1024.
                    .Em vide infra ) ) ,      vide infra)),

     The default width is 10n.

   Font Mode
     The `.Bf' font mode must be ended with the `.Ef' macro (the latter takes
     no arguments).  Font modes may be nested within other font modes.

     `.Bf' has the following syntax:

           .Bf <font mode>

     <font mode> must be one of the following three types:

           Em | -emphasis        Same as if the `.Em' macro was used for the
                                 entire block of text.
           Li | -literal         Same as if the `.Li' macro was used for the
                                 entire block of text.
           Sy | -symbolic        Same as if the `.Sy' macro was used for the
                                 entire block of text.

     Both macros are neither callable nor parsed.

   Enclosure and Quoting Macros
     The concept of enclosure is similar to quoting.  The object being to
     enclose one or more strings between a pair of characters like quotes or
     parentheses.  The terms quoting and enclosure are used interchangeably
     throughout this document.  Most of the one-line enclosure macros end in
     small letter `q' to give a hint of quoting, but there are a few
     irregularities.  For each enclosure macro there is also a pair of open
     and close macros which end in small letters `o' and `c' respectively.

     Quote   Open   Close   Function                  Result
     .Aq     .Ao    .Ac     Angle Bracket Enclosure   <string>
     .Bq     .Bo    .Bc     Bracket Enclosure         [string]
     .Brq    .Bro   .Brc    Brace Enclosure           {string}
     .Dq     .Do    .Dc     Double Quote              "string"
     .Eq     .Eo    .Ec     Enclose String (in XX)    XXstring
     .Pq     .Po    .Pc     Parenthesis Enclosure     (string)
     .Ql                    Quoted Literal            "string" or string
     .Qq     .Qo    .Qc     Straight Double Quote     "string"
     .Sq     .So    .Sc     Single Quote              'string'

     All macros ending with `q' and `o' have a default width value of 12n.

     .Eo, .Ec       These macros expect the first argument to be the opening
                    and closing strings respectively.

     .Es, .En       Due to the nine-argument limit in the original troff
                    program two other macros have been implemented which are
                    now rather obsolete: `.Es' takes the first and second
                    parameter as the left and right enclosure string, which
                    are then used to enclose the arguments of `.En'.  The
                    default width value is 12n for both macros.

     .Eq            The first and second arguments of this macro are the
                    opening and closing strings respectively, followed by the
                    arguments to be enclosed.

     .Ql            The quoted literal macro behaves differently in troff and
                    nroff mode.  If formatted with nroff, a quoted literal is
                    always quoted.  If formatted with troff, an item is only
                    quoted if the width of the item is less than three
                    constant width characters.  This is to make short strings
                    more visible where the font change to literal (constant
                    width) is less noticeable.

                    The default width is 16n.

     .Pf            The prefix macro suppresses the whitespace between its
                    first and second argument:

                          .Pf ( Fa name2      (name2

                    The default width is 12n.

                    The `.Ns' macro (see below) performs the analogous suffix
                    function.

     .Ap            The `.Ap' macro inserts an apostrophe and exits any
                    special text modes, continuing in `.No' mode.

     Examples of quoting:

           .Aq                          <>
           .Aq Pa ctype.h ) ,           <ctype.h>),
           .Bq                          []
           .Bq Em Greek , French .      [Greek, French].
           .Dq                          ``''
           .Dq string abc .             ``string abc''.
           .Dq '^[A-Z]'                 ``'^[A-Z]'''
           .Ql man mdoc                 `man mdoc'
           .Qq                          ""
           .Qq string ) ,               "string"),
           .Qq string Ns ),             "string),"
           .Sq                          `'
           .Sq string                   `string'
           .Em or Ap ing                or'ing

     For a good example of nested enclosure macros, see the `.Op' option
     macro.  It was created from the same underlying enclosure macros as those
     presented in the list above.  The `.Xo' and `.Xc' extended argument list
     macros are discussed below.

   No-Op or Normal Text Macro
     The `.No' macro can be used in a macro command line for parameters which
     should not be formatted.  Be careful to add `\&' to the word `No' if you
     really want that English word (and not the macro) as a parameter.

           Usage: .No <argument> ...

                    .No test Ta with Ta tabs      test with Ta tabs

     The default width is 12n.

   No-Space Macro
     The `.Ns' macro suppresses insertion of a space between the current
     position and its first parameter.  For example, it is useful for old
     style argument lists where there is no space between the flag and
     argument:

           Usage: ... <argument> Ns [<argument>] ...
                  .Ns <argument> ...

                    .Op Fl I Ns Ar directory      [-Idirectory]

     Note: The `.Ns' macro always invokes the `.No' macro after eliminating
     the space unless another macro name follows it.  If used as a command
     (i.e., the second form above in the `Usage' line), `.Ns' is identical to
     `.No'.

   Section Cross References
     The `.Sx' macro designates a reference to a section header within the
     same document.

           Usage: .Sx <section reference> ...

                    .Sx FILES      FILES

     The default width is 16n.

   Symbolics
     The symbolic emphasis macro is generally a boldface macro in either the
     symbolic sense or the traditional English usage.

           Usage: .Sy <symbol> ...

                    .Sy Important Notice      Important Notice

     The default width is 6n.

   Mathematical Symbols
     Use this macro for mathematical symbols and similar things.

           Usage: .Ms <math symbol> ...

                    .Ms sigma      sigma

     The default width is 6n.

   References and Citations
     The following macros make a modest attempt to handle references.  At
     best, the macros make it convenient to manually drop in a subset of
     refer(1) style references.

           .Rs     Reference start (does not take arguments).  Causes a line
                   break in the SEE ALSO section and begins collection of
                   reference information until the reference end macro is
                   read.
           .Re     Reference end (does not take arguments).  The reference is
                   printed.
           .%A     Reference author name; one name per invocation.
           .%B     Book title.
           .%C     City/place.
           .%D     Date.
           .%I     Issuer/publisher name.
           .%J     Journal name.
           .%N     Issue number.
           .%O     Optional information.
           .%P     Page number.
           .%Q     Corporate or foreign author.
           .%R     Report name.
           .%T     Title of article.
           .%U     Optional hypertext reference.
           .%V     Volume.

     Macros beginning with `%' are not callable but accept multiple arguments
     in the usual way.  Only the `.Tn' macro is handled properly as a
     parameter; other macros will cause strange output.  `.%B' and `.%T' can
     be used outside of the `.Rs/.Re' environment.

     Example:

           .Rs
           .%A "Matthew Bar"
           .%A "John Foo"
           .%T "Implementation Notes on foobar(1)"
           .%R "Technical Report ABC-DE-12-345"
           .%Q "Drofnats College"
           .%C "Nowhere"
           .%D "April 1991"
           .Re

     produces

           Matthew Bar and John Foo, Implementation Notes on foobar(1),
           Technical Report ABC-DE-12-345, Drofnats College, Nowhere, April
           1991.

   Trade Names (or Acronyms and Type Names)
     The trade name macro prints its arguments in a smaller font.  Its
     intended use is to imitate a small caps fonts for uppercase acronyms.

           Usage: .Tn <symbol> ...

                    .Tn DEC        DEC
                    .Tn ASCII      ASCII

     The default width is 10n.

   Extended Arguments
     The .Xo and .Xc macros allow one to extend an argument list on a macro
     boundary for the `.It' macro (see below).  Note that .Xo and .Xc are
     implemented similarly to all other macros opening and closing an
     enclosure (without inserting characters, of course).  This means that the
     following is true for those macros also.

     Here is an example of `.Xo' using the space mode macro to turn spacing
     off:

           .Sm off
           .It Xo Sy I Ar operation
           .No \en Ar count No \en
           .Xc
           .Sm on

     produces

           Ioperation\ncount\n

     Another one:

           .Sm off
           .It Cm S No / Ar old_pattern Xo
           .No / Ar new_pattern
           .No / Op Cm g
           .Xc
           .Sm on

     produces

           S/old_pattern/new_pattern/[g]

     Another example of `.Xo' and enclosure macros: Test the value of a
     variable.

           .It Xo
           .Ic .ifndef
           .Oo \&! Oc Ns Ar variable Oo
           .Ar operator variable ...
           .Oc Xc

     produces

           .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]

PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN
   Section Headers
     The following `.Sh' section header macros are required in every man page.
     The remaining section headers are recommended at the discretion of the
     author writing the manual page.  The `.Sh' macro is parsed but not
     generally callable.  It can be used as an argument in a call to `.Sh'
     only; it then reactivates the default font for `.Sh'.

     The default width is 8n.

     .Sh NAME               The `.Sh NAME' macro is mandatory.  If not
                            specified, headers, footers and page layout
                            defaults will not be set and things will be rather
                            unpleasant.  The NAME section consists of at least
                            three items.  The first is the `.Nm' name macro
                            naming the subject of the man page.  The second is
                            the name description macro, `.Nd', which separates
                            the subject name from the third item, which is the
                            description.  The description should be the most
                            terse and lucid possible, as the space available
                            is small.

                            `.Nd' first prints `-', then all its arguments.

     .Sh LIBRARY            This section is for section two and three function
                            calls.  It should consist of a single `.Lb' macro
                            call; see Library Names.

     .Sh SYNOPSIS           The SYNOPSIS section describes the typical usage
                            of the subject of a man page.  The macros required
                            are either `.Nm', `.Cd', or `.Fn' (and possibly
                            `.Fo', `.Fc', `.Fd', and `.Ft').  The function
                            name macro `.Fn' is required for manual page
                            sections 2 and 3; the command and general name
                            macro `.Nm' is required for sections 1, 5, 6, 7,
                            and 8.  Section 4 manuals require a `.Nm', `.Fd'
                            or a `.Cd' configuration device usage macro.
                            Several other macros may be necessary to produce
                            the synopsis line as shown below:

                                  cat [-benstuv] [-] file ...

                            The following macros were used:

                                  .Nm cat
                                  .Op Fl benstuv
                                  .Op Fl
                                  .Ar

     .Sh DESCRIPTION        In most cases the first text in the DESCRIPTION
                            section is a brief paragraph on the command,
                            function or file, followed by a lexical list of
                            options and respective explanations.  To create
                            such a list, the `.Bl' (begin list), `.It' (list
                            item) and `.El' (end list) macros are used (see
                            Lists and Columns below).

     .Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
                            Implementation specific information should be
                            placed here.

     .Sh RETURN VALUES      Sections 2, 3 and 9 function return values should
                            go here.  The `.Rv' macro may be used to generate
                            text for use in the RETURN VALUES section for most
                            section 2 and 3 library functions; see Return
                            Values.

     The following `.Sh' section headers are part of the preferred manual page
     layout and must be used appropriately to maintain consistency.  They are
     listed in the order in which they would be used.

     .Sh ENVIRONMENT        The ENVIRONMENT section should reveal any related
                            environment variables and clues to their behavior
                            and/or usage.

     .Sh FILES              Files which are used or created by the man page
                            subject should be listed via the `.Pa' macro in
                            the FILES section.

     .Sh EXAMPLES           There are several ways to create examples.  See
                            the EXAMPLES section below for details.

     .Sh DIAGNOSTICS        Diagnostic messages from a command should be
                            placed in this section.  The `.Ex' macro may be
                            used to generate text for use in the DIAGNOSTICS
                            section for most section 1, 6 and 8 commands; see
                            Exit Status.

     .Sh COMPATIBILITY      Known compatibility issues (e.g. deprecated
                            options or parameters) should be listed here.

     .Sh ERRORS             Specific error handling, especially from library
                            functions (man page sections 2, 3, and 9) should
                            go here.  The `.Er' macro is used to specify an
                            error (errno).

     .Sh SEE ALSO           References to other material on the man page topic
                            and cross references to other relevant man pages
                            should be placed in the SEE ALSO section.  Cross
                            references are specified using the `.Xr' macro.
                            Currently refer(1) style references are not
                            accommodated.

                            It is recommended that the cross references are
                            sorted on the section number, then alphabetically
                            on the names within a section, and placed in that
                            order and comma separated.  Example:

                            ls(1), ps(1), group(5), passwd(5)

     .Sh STANDARDS          If the command, library function or file adheres
                            to a specific implementation such as IEEE Std
                            1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') or ANSI X3.159-1989
                            (``ANSI C89'') this should be noted here.  If the
                            command does not adhere to any standard, its
                            history should be noted in the HISTORY section.

     .Sh HISTORY            Any command which does not adhere to any specific
                            standards should be outlined historically in this
                            section.

     .Sh AUTHORS            Credits should be placed here.  Use the `.An'
                            macro for names and the `.Aq' macro for e-mail
                            addresses within optional contact information.
                            Explicitly indicate whether the person authored
                            the initial manual page or the software or
                            whatever the person is being credited for.

     .Sh BUGS               Blatant problems with the topic go here.

     User-specified `.Sh' sections may be added; for example, this section was
     set with:

                    .Sh "PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN"

   Subsection Headers
     Subsection headers have exactly the same syntax as section headers: `.Ss'
     is parsed but not generally callable.  It can be used as an argument in a
     call to `.Ss' only; it then reactivates the default font for `.Ss'.

     The default width is 8n.

   Paragraphs and Line Spacing
     .Pp      The `.Pp' paragraph command may be used to specify a line space
              where necessary.  The macro is not necessary after a `.Sh' or
              `.Ss' macro or before a `.Bl' or `.Bd' macro (which both assert
              a vertical distance unless the -compact flag is given).

              The macro is neither callable nor parsed and takes no arguments;
              an alternative name is `.Lp'.

   Keeps
     The only keep that is implemented at this time is for words.  The macros
     are `.Bk' (begin keep) and `.Ek' (end keep).  The only option that `.Bk'
     accepts currently is -words (this is also the default if no option is
     given) which is useful for preventing line breaks in the middle of
     options.  In the example for the make command line arguments (see What's
     in a Name), the keep prevented nroff from placing up the flag and the
     argument on separate lines.

     Both macros are neither callable nor parsed.

     More work needs to be done with the keep macros; specifically, a -line
     option should be added.

   Examples and Displays
     There are seven types of displays.

     .D1      (This is D-one.)  Display one line of indented text.  This macro
              is parsed but not callable.

                    -ldghfstru

              The above was produced by: .D1 Fl ldghfstru.

     .Dl      (This is D-ell.)  Display one line of indented literal text.
              The `.Dl' example macro has been used throughout this file.  It
              allows the indentation (display) of one line of text.  Its
              default font is set to constant width (literal).  `.Dl' is
              parsed but not callable.

                    % ls -ldg /usr/local/bin

              The above was produced by: .Dl % ls \-ldg /usr/local/bin.

     .Bd      Begin display.  The `.Bd' display must be ended with the `.Ed'
              macro.  It has the following syntax:

                    .Bd {-literal | -filled | -unfilled | -ragged | -centered}
                             [-offset <string>] [-file <file name>] [-compact]

              -ragged                       Fill, but do not adjust the right
                                            margin (only left-justify).
              -centered                     Center lines between the current
                                            left and right margin.  Note that
                                            each single line is centered.
              -unfilled                     Do not fill; display a block of
                                            text as typed, using line breaks
                                            as specified by the user.  This
                                            can produce overlong lines without
                                            warning messages.
              -filled                       Display a filled block.  The block
                                            of text is formatted (i.e., the
                                            text is justified on both the left
                                            and right side).
              -literal                      Display block with literal font
                                            (usually fixed-width).  Useful for
                                            source code or simple tabbed or
                                            spaced text.
              -file <file name>             The file whose name follows the
                                            -file flag is read and displayed
                                            before any data enclosed with
                                            `.Bd' and `.Ed', using the
                                            selected display type.  Any
                                            troff/-mdoc commands in the file
                                            will be processed.
              -offset <string>              If -offset is specified with one
                                            of the following strings, the
                                            string is interpreted to indicate
                                            the level of indentation for the
                                            forthcoming block of text:

                                            left            Align block on the
                                                            current left
                                                            margin; this is
                                                            the default mode
                                                            of `.Bd'.
                                            center          Supposedly center
                                                            the block.  At
                                                            this time
                                                            unfortunately, the
                                                            block merely gets
                                                            left aligned about
                                                            an imaginary
                                                            center margin.
                                            indent          Indent by one
                                                            default indent
                                                            value or tab.  The
                                                            default indent
                                                            value is also used
                                                            for the `.D1' and
                                                            `.Dl' macros, so
                                                            one is guaranteed
                                                            the two types of
                                                            displays will line
                                                            up.  The
                                                            indentation value
                                                            is normally set
                                                            to 6n or about two
                                                            thirds of an inch
                                                            (six constant
                                                            width characters).
                                            indent-two      Indent two times
                                                            the default indent
                                                            value.
                                            right           This left aligns
                                                            the block about
                                                            two inches from
                                                            the right side of
                                                            the page.  This
                                                            macro needs work
                                                            and perhaps may
                                                            never do the right
                                                            thing within
                                                            troff.

                                            If <string> is a valid numeric
                                            expression instead (with a scale
                                            indicator other than `u'), use
                                            that value for indentation.  The
                                            most useful scale indicators are
                                            `m' and `n', specifying the so-
                                            called Em and En square.  This is
                                            approximately the width of the
                                            letters `m' and `n' respectively
                                            of the current font (for nroff
                                            output, both scale indicators give
                                            the same values).  If <string>
                                            isn't a numeric expression, it is
                                            tested whether it is an -mdoc
                                            macro name, and the default offset
                                            value associated with this macro
                                            is used.  Finally, if all tests
                                            fail, the width of <string>
                                            (typeset with a fixed-width font)
                                            is taken as the offset.
              -compact                      Suppress insertion of vertical
                                            space before begin of display.

     .Ed      End display (takes no arguments).

   Lists and Columns
     There are several types of lists which may be initiated with the `.Bl'
     begin-list macro.  Items within the list are specified with the `.It'
     item macro, and each list must end with the `.El' macro.  Lists may be
     nested within themselves and within displays.  The use of columns inside
     of lists or lists inside of columns is unproven.

     In addition, several list attributes may be specified such as the width
     of a tag, the list offset, and compactness (blank lines between items
     allowed or disallowed).  Most of this document has been formatted with a
     tag style list (-tag).

     It has the following syntax forms:

           .Bl {-hang | -ohang | -tag | -diag | -inset} [-width <string>]
                    [-offset <string>] [-compact]
           .Bl -column [-offset <string>] <string1> <string2> ...
           .Bl {-item | -enum [-nested] | -bullet | -hyphen | -dash} [-offset
                    <string>] [-compact]

     And now a detailed description of the list types.

     -bullet     A bullet list.

                       .Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
                       .It
                       Bullet one goes here.
                       .It
                       Bullet two here.
                       .El

                 Produces:

                       +o   Bullet one goes here.
                       +o   Bullet two here.

     -dash (or -hyphen)
                 A dash list.

                       .Bl -dash -offset indent -compact
                       .It
                       Dash one goes here.
                       .It
                       Dash two here.
                       .El

                 Produces:

                       -   Dash one goes here.
                       -   Dash two here.

     -enum       An enumerated list.

                       .Bl -enum -offset indent -compact
                       .It
                       Item one goes here.
                       .It
                       And item two here.
                       .El

                 The result:

                       1.   Item one goes here.
                       2.   And item two here.

                 If you want to nest enumerated lists, use the -nested flag
                 (starting with the second-level list):

                       .Bl -enum -offset indent -compact
                       .It
                       Item one goes here
                       .Bl -enum -nested -compact
                       .It
                       Item two goes here.
                       .It
                       And item three here.
                       .El
                       .It
                       And item four here.
                       .El

                 Result:

                       1.   Item one goes here.
                            1.   Item two goes here.
                            2.   And item three here.
                       2.   And item four here.

     -item       A list of type -item without list markers.

                       .Bl -item -offset indent
                       .It
                       Item one goes here.
                       Item one goes here.
                       Item one goes here.
                       .It
                       Item two here.
                       Item two here.
                       Item two here.
                       .El

                 Produces:

                       Item one goes here.  Item one goes here.  Item one goes
                       here.

                       Item two here.  Item two here.  Item two here.

     -tag        A list with tags.  Use -width to specify the tag width.

                       SL    sleep time of the process (seconds blocked)
                       PAGEIN
                             number of disk I/O's resulting from references by
                             the process to pages not loaded in core.
                       UID   numerical user-id of process owner
                       PPID  numerical id of parent of process priority (non-
                             positive when in non-interruptible wait)

                 The raw text:

                       .Bl -tag -width "PPID" -compact -offset indent
                       .It SL
                       sleep time of the process (seconds blocked)
                       .It PAGEIN
                       number of disk
                       .Tn I/O Ns 's
                       resulting from references by the process
                       to pages not loaded in core.
                       .It UID
                       numerical user-id of process owner
                       .It PPID
                       numerical id of parent of process priority
                       (non-positive when in non-interruptible wait)
                       .El

     -diag       Diag lists create section four diagnostic lists and are
                 similar to inset lists except callable macros are ignored.
                 The -width flag is not meaningful in this context.

                 Example:

                       .Bl -diag
                       .It You can't use Sy here.
                       The message says all.
                       .El

                 produces

                 You can't use Sy here.  The message says all.

     -hang       A list with hanging tags.

                       Hanged  labels appear similar to tagged lists when the
                               label is smaller than the label width.

                       Longer hanged list labels blend into the paragraph
                               unlike tagged paragraph labels.

                 And the unformatted text which created it:

                       .Bl -hang -offset indent
                       .It Em Hanged
                       labels appear similar to tagged lists when the
                       label is smaller than the label width.
                       .It Em Longer hanged list labels
                       blend into the paragraph unlike
                       tagged paragraph labels.
                       .El

     -ohang      Lists with overhanging tags do not use indentation for the
                 items; tags are written to a separate line.

                       SL
                       sleep time of the process (seconds blocked)

                       PAGEIN
                       number of disk I/O's resulting from references by the
                       process to pages not loaded in core.

                       UID
                       numerical user-id of process owner

                       PPID
                       numerical id of parent of process priority (non-
                       positive when in non-interruptible wait)

                 The raw text:

                       .Bl -ohang -offset indent
                       .It Sy SL
                       sleep time of the process (seconds blocked)
                       .It Sy PAGEIN
                       number of disk
                       .Tn I/O Ns 's
                       resulting from references by the process
                       to pages not loaded in core.
                       .It Sy UID
                       numerical user-id of process owner
                       .It Sy PPID
                       numerical id of parent of process priority
                       (non-positive when in non-interruptible wait)
                       .El

     -inset      Here is an example of inset labels:

                       Tag The tagged list (also called a tagged paragraph) is
                       the most common type of list used in the Berkeley
                       manuals.  Use a -width attribute as described below.

                       Diag Diag lists create section four diagnostic lists
                       and are similar to inset lists except callable macros
                       are ignored.

                       Hang Hanged labels are a matter of taste.

                       Ohang Overhanging labels are nice when space is
                       constrained.

                       Inset Inset labels are useful for controlling blocks of
                       paragraphs and are valuable for converting -mdoc
                       manuals to other formats.

                 Here is the source text which produced the above example:

                       .Bl -inset -offset indent
                       .It Em Tag
                       The tagged list (also called a tagged paragraph)
                       is the most common type of list used in the
                       Berkeley manuals.
                       .It Em Diag
                       Diag lists create section four diagnostic lists
                       and are similar to inset lists except callable
                       macros are ignored.
                       .It Em Hang
                       Hanged labels are a matter of taste.
                       .It Em Ohang
                       Overhanging labels are nice when space is constrained.
                       .It Em Inset
                       Inset labels are useful for controlling blocks of
                       paragraphs and are valuable for converting
                       .Nm -mdoc
                       manuals to other formats.
                       .El

     -column     This list type generates multiple columns.  The number of
                 columns and the width of each column is determined by the
                 arguments to the -column list, <string1>, <string2>, etc.  If
                 <stringN> starts with a `.' (dot) immediately followed by a
                 valid -mdoc macro name, interpret <stringN> and use the width
                 of the result.  Otherwise, the width of <stringN> (typeset
                 with a fixed-width font) is taken as the Nth column width.

                 Each `.It' argument is parsed to make a row, each column
                 within the row is a separate argument separated by a tab or
                 the `.Ta' macro.

                 The table:

                       String        Nroff        Troff
                       <=            <=           <=
                       >=            >=           >=

                 was produced by:

                 .Bl -column -offset indent ".Sy String" ".Sy Nroff" ".Sy Troff"
                 .It Sy String Ta Sy Nroff Ta Sy Troff
                 .It Li <= Ta <= Ta \*(<=
                 .It Li >= Ta >= Ta \*(>=
                 .El

                 Don't abuse this list type!  For more complicated cases it
                 might be far better and easier to use tbl(1), the table
                 preprocessor.

     Other keywords:

     -width <string>             If <string> starts with a `.' (dot)
                                 immediately followed by a valid -mdoc macro
                                 name, interpret <string> and use the width of
                                 the result.  Almost all lists in this
                                 document use this option.

                                 Example:

                                       .Bl -tag -width ".Fl test Ao Ar string Ac"
                                       .It Fl test Ao Ar string Ac
                                       This is a longer sentence to show how the
                                       .Fl width
                                       flag works in combination with a tag list.
                                       .El

                                 gives:

                                 -test <string>            This is a longer
                                                           sentence to show
                                                           how the -width flag
                                                           works in
                                                           combination with a
                                                           tag list.

                                 (Note that the current state of -mdoc is
                                 saved before <string> is interpreted;
                                 afterwards, all variables are restored again.
                                 However, boxes (used for enclosures) can't be
                                 saved in GNU troff(1); as a consequence,
                                 arguments must always be balanced to avoid
                                 nasty errors.  For example, do not write `.Ao
                                 Ar string' but `.Ao Ar string Xc' instead if
                                 you really need only an opening angle
                                 bracket.)

                                 Otherwise, if <string> is a valid numeric
                                 expression (with a scale indicator other than
                                 `u'), use that value for indentation.  The
                                 most useful scale indicators are `m' and `n',
                                 specifying the so-called Em and En square.
                                 This is approximately the width of the
                                 letters `m' and `n' respectively of the
                                 current font (for nroff output, both scale
                                 indicators give the same values).  If
                                 <string> isn't a numeric expression, it is
                                 tested whether it is an -mdoc macro name, and
                                 the default width value associated with this
                                 macro is used.  Finally, if all tests fail,
                                 the width of <string> (typeset with a fixed-
                                 width font) is taken as the width.

                                 If a width is not specified for the tag list
                                 type, every time `.It' is invoked, an attempt
                                 is made to determine an appropriate width.
                                 If the first argument to `.It' is a callable
                                 macro, the default width for that macro will
                                 be used; otherwise, the default width of
                                 `.No' is used.

     -offset <string>            If <string> is indent, a default indent value
                                 (normally set to 6n, similar to the value
                                 used in `.Dl' or `.Bd') is used.  If <string>
                                 is a valid numeric expression instead (with a
                                 scale indicator other than `u'), use that
                                 value for indentation.  The most useful scale
                                 indicators are `m' and `n', specifying the
                                 so-called Em and En square.  This is
                                 approximately the width of the letters `m'
                                 and `n' respectively of the current font (for
                                 nroff output, both scale indicators give the
                                 same values).  If <string> isn't a numeric
                                 expression, it is tested whether it is an
                                 -mdoc macro name, and the default offset
                                 value associated with this macro is used.
                                 Finally, if all tests fail, the width of
                                 <string> (typeset with a fixed-width font) is
                                 taken as the offset.

     -compact                    Suppress insertion of vertical space before
                                 the list and between list items.

MISCELLANEOUS MACROS
     Here a list of the remaining macros which do not fit well into one of the
     above sections.  We couldn't find real examples for the following macros:
     `.Me' and `.Ot'.  They are documented here for completeness - if you know
     how to use them properly please send a mail to bug-groff@gnu.org
     (including an example).

     .Bt      prints

                    is currently in beta test.

              It is neither callable nor parsed and takes no arguments.

     .Fr

                    Usage: .Fr <function return value> ...

              Don't use this macro.  It allows a break right before the return
              value (usually a single digit) which is bad typographical
              behaviour.  Use `\~' to tie the return value to the previous
              word.

     .Hf      Use this macro to include a (header) file literally.  It first
              prints `File:' followed by the file name, then the contents of
              <file>.

                    Usage: .Hf <file>

              It is neither callable nor parsed.

     .Lk      To be written.

     .Me      Exact usage unknown.  The documentation in the -mdoc source file
              describes it as a macro for ``menu entries''.

              Its default width is 6n.

     .Mt      To be written.

     .Ot      Exact usage unknown.  The documentation in the -mdoc source file
              describes it as ``old function type (fortran)''.

     .Sm      Activate (toggle) space mode.

                    Usage: .Sm [on | off] ...

              If space mode is off, no spaces between macro arguments are
              inserted.  If called without a parameter (or if the next
              parameter is neither `on' nor `off', `.Sm' toggles space mode.

     .Ud      prints

                    currently under development.

              It is neither callable nor parsed and takes no arguments.

PREDEFINED STRINGS
     The following strings are predefined:

     String   Nroff      Troff      Meaning
     <=       <=         <=         less equal
     >=       >=         >=         greater equal
     Rq       ''         "          right double quote
     Lq       ``         "          left double quote
     ua       ^          ^        upwards arrow
     aa       '          '          acute accent
     ga       `          `          grave accent
     q        "          "          straight double quote
     Pi       pi         pi         greek pi
     Ne       !=         !=         not equal
     Le       <=         <=         less equal
     Ge       >=         >=         greater equal
     Lt       <          <          less than
     Gt       >          >          greater than
     Pm       +-         +-         plus minus
     If       infinity   infinity   infinity
     Am       &          &          ampersand
     Na       NaN        NaN        not a number
     Ba       |          |          vertical bar

     The names of the columns Nroff and Troff are a bit misleading; Nroff
     shows the ASCII representation, while Troff gives the best glyph form
     available.  For example, a Unicode enabled TTY-device will have proper
     glyph representations for all strings, whereas the enhancement for a
     Latin1 TTY-device is only the plus-minus sign.

     String names which consist of two characters can be written as `\*(xx';
     string names which consist of one character can be written as `\*x'.  A
     generic syntax for a string name of any length is `\*[xxx]' (this is a
     GNU troff(1) extension).

DIAGNOSTICS
     The debugging macro `.Db' available in previous versions of -mdoc has
     been removed since GNU troff(1) provides better facilities to check
     parameters; additionally, many error and warning messages have been added
     to this macro package, making it both more robust and verbose.

     The only remaining debugging macro is `.Rd' which yields a register dump
     of all global registers and strings.  A normal user will never need it.

FORMATTING WITH GROFF, TROFF, AND NROFF
     By default, the package inhibits page breaks, headers, and footers if
     displayed with a TTY device like `latin1' or `unicode', to make the
     manual more efficient for viewing on-line.  This behaviour can be changed
     (e.g. to create a hardcopy of the TTY output) by setting the register
     `cR' to zero while calling groff(1), resulting in multiple pages instead
     of a single, very long page:

           groff -Tlatin1 -rcR=0 -mdoc foo.man > foo.txt

     For double-sided printing, set register `D' to 1:

           groff -Tps -rD1 -mdoc foo.man > foo.ps

     To change the document font size to 11pt or 12pt, set register `S'
     accordingly:

           groff -Tdvi -rS11 -mdoc foo.man > foo.dvi

     Register `S' is ignored for TTY devices.

     The line and title length can be changed by setting the registers `LL'
     and `LT', respectively:

           groff -Tutf8 -rLL=100n -rLT=100n -mdoc foo.man | less

     If not set, both registers default to 78n for TTY devices and 6.5i
     otherwise.

FILES
     doc.tmac          The main manual macro package.
     mdoc.tmac         A wrapper file to call doc.tmac.
     mdoc/doc-common   Common strings, definitions, stuff related typographic
                       output.
     mdoc/doc-nroff    Definitions used for a TTY output device.
     mdoc/doc-ditroff  Definitions used for all other devices.
     mdoc.local        Local additions and customizations.
     andoc.tmac        Use this file if you don't know whether the -mdoc or
                       the -man package should be used.  Multiple man pages
                       (in either format) can be handled.

SEE ALSO
     groff(1), man(1), troff(1), groff_man(7)

BUGS
     Section 3f has not been added to the header routines.

     `.Nm' font should be changed in NAME section.

     `.Fn' needs to have a check to prevent splitting up if the line length is
     too short.  Occasionally it separates the last parenthesis, and sometimes
     looks ridiculous if a line is in fill mode.

     The list and display macros do not do any keeps and certainly should be
     able to.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        November 2, 2010        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GETTING STARTED | TROFF IDIOSYNCRASIES | A MANUAL PAGE TEMPLATE | CONVENTIONS | TITLE MACROS | INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL AND GENERAL TEXT DOMAINS | MANUAL DOMAIN | GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN | PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN | MISCELLANEOUS MACROS | PREDEFINED STRINGS | DIAGNOSTICS | FORMATTING WITH GROFF, TROFF, AND NROFF | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS

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