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MDOC(7)		     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       MDOC(7)

NAME
     mdoc -- semantic markup language for formatting manual pages

DESCRIPTION
     The mdoc language supports	authoring of manual pages for the man(1) util-
     ity by allowing semantic annotations of words, phrases, page sections and
     complete manual pages.  Such annotations are used by formatting tools to
     achieve a uniform presentation across all manuals written in mdoc,	and to
     support hyperlinking if supported by the output medium.

     This reference document describes the structure of	manual pages and the
     syntax and	usage of the mdoc language.  The reference implementation of a
     parsing and formatting tool is mandoc(1); the COMPATIBILITY section de-
     scribes compatibility with	other implementations.

     In	an mdoc	document, lines	beginning with the control character `.' are
     called "macro lines".  The	first word is the macro	name.  It consists of
     two or three letters.  Most macro names begin with	a capital letter.  For
     a list of available macros, see MACRO OVERVIEW.  The words	following the
     macro name	are arguments to the macro, optionally including the names of
     other, callable macros; see MACRO SYNTAX for details.

     Lines not beginning with the control character are	called "text lines".
     They provide free-form text to be printed;	the formatting of the text de-
     pends on the respective processing	context:

	   .Sh Macro lines change control state.
	   Text	lines are interpreted within the current state.

     Many aspects of the basic syntax of the mdoc language are based on	the
     roff(7) language; see the LANGUAGE	SYNTAX and MACRO SYNTAX	sections in
     the roff(7) manual	for details, in	particular regarding comments, escape
     sequences,	whitespace, and	quoting.  However, using roff(7) requests in
     mdoc documents is discouraged; mandoc(1) supports some of them merely for
     backward compatibility.

MANUAL STRUCTURE
     A well-formed mdoc	document consists of a document	prologue followed by
     one or more sections.

     The prologue, which consists of the Dd, Dt, and Os	macros in that order,
     is	required for every document.

     The first section (sections are denoted by	Sh) must be the	NAME section,
     consisting	of at least one	Nm followed by Nd.

     Following that, convention	dictates specifying at least the SYNOPSIS and
     DESCRIPTION sections, although this varies	between	manual sections.

     The following is a	well-formed skeleton mdoc file for a utility
     "progname":

	   .Dd $Mdocdate$
	   .Dt PROGNAME	section
	   .Os
	   .Sh NAME
	   .Nm progname
	   .Nd one line	about what it does
	   .\" .Sh LIBRARY
	   .\" For sections 2, 3, and 9	only.
	   .\" Not used	in OpenBSD.
	   .Sh SYNOPSIS
	   .Nm progname
	   .Op Fl options
	   .Ar
	   .Sh DESCRIPTION
	   The
	   .Nm
	   utility processes files ...
	   .\" .Sh CONTEXT
	   .\" For section 9 functions only.
	   .\" .Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
	   .\" Not used	in OpenBSD.
	   .\" .Sh RETURN VALUES
	   .\" For sections 2, 3, and 9	function return	values only.
	   .\" .Sh ENVIRONMENT
	   .\" For sections 1, 6, 7, and 8 only.
	   .\" .Sh FILES
	   .\" .Sh EXIT	STATUS
	   .\" For sections 1, 6, and 8	only.
	   .\" .Sh EXAMPLES
	   .\" .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
	   .\" For sections 1, 4, 6, 7,	8, and 9 printf/stderr messages	only.
	   .\" .Sh ERRORS
	   .\" For sections 2, 3, 4, and 9 errno settings only.
	   .\" .Sh SEE ALSO
	   .\" .Xr foobar 1
	   .\" .Sh STANDARDS
	   .\" .Sh HISTORY
	   .\" .Sh AUTHORS
	   .\" .Sh CAVEATS
	   .\" .Sh BUGS
	   .\" .Sh SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
	   .\" Not used	in OpenBSD.

     The sections in an	mdoc document are conventionally ordered as they ap-
     pear above.  Sections should be composed as follows:

	   NAME
	   The name(s) and a one line description of the documented material.
	   The syntax for this as follows:

		 .Nm name0 ,
		 .Nm name1 ,
		 .Nm name2
		 .Nd a one line	description

	   Multiple `Nm' names should be separated by commas.

	   The Nm macro(s) must	precede	the Nd macro.

	   See Nm and Nd.

	   LIBRARY
	   The name of the library containing the documented material, which
	   is assumed to be a function in a section 2, 3, or 9 manual.	The
	   syntax for this is as follows:

		 .Lb libarm

	   See Lb.

	   SYNOPSIS
	   Documents the utility invocation syntax, function call syntax, or
	   device configuration.

	   For the first, utilities (sections 1, 6, and	8), this is generally
	   structured as follows:

		 .Nm bar
		 .Op Fl	v
		 .Op Fl	o Ar file
		 .Op Ar
		 .Nm foo
		 .Op Fl	v
		 .Op Fl	o Ar file
		 .Op Ar

	   Commands should be ordered alphabetically.

	   For the second, function calls (sections 2, 3, 9):

		 .In header.h
		 .Vt extern const char *global;
		 .Ft "char *"
		 .Fn foo "const	char *src"
		 .Ft "char *"
		 .Fn bar "const	char *src"

	   Ordering of In, Vt, Fn, and Fo macros should	follow C header-file
	   conventions.

	   And for the third, configurations (section 4):

		 .Cd "it* at isa? port 0x2e"
		 .Cd "it* at isa? port 0x4e"

	   Manuals not in these	sections generally don't need a	SYNOPSIS.

	   Some	macros are displayed differently in the	SYNOPSIS section, par-
	   ticularly Nm, Cd, Fd, Fn, Fo, In, Vt, and Ft.  All of these macros
	   are output on their own line.  If two such dissimilar macros	are
	   pairwise invoked (except for	Ft before Fo or	Fn), they are sepa-
	   rated by a vertical space, unless in	the case of Fo,	Fn, and	Ft,
	   which are always separated by vertical space.

	   When	text and macros	following an Nm	macro starting an input	line
	   span	multiple output	lines, all output lines	but the	first will be
	   indented to align with the text immediately following the Nm	macro,
	   up to the next Nm, Sh, or Ss	macro or the end of an enclosing
	   block, whichever comes first.

	   DESCRIPTION
	   This	begins with an expansion of the	brief, one line	description in
	   NAME:

		 The
		 .Nm
		 utility does this, that, and the other.

	   It usually follows with a breakdown of the options (if documenting
	   a command), such as:

		 The arguments are as follows:
		 .Bl -tag -width Ds
		 .It Fl	v
		 Print verbose information.
		 .El

	   List	the options in alphabetical order, uppercase before lowercase
	   for each letter and with no regard to whether an option takes an
	   argument.  Put digits in ascending order before all letter options.

	   Manuals not documenting a command won't include the above fragment.

	   Since the DESCRIPTION section usually contains most of the text of
	   a manual, longer manuals often use the Ss macro to form subsec-
	   tions.  In very long	manuals, the DESCRIPTION may be	split into
	   multiple sections, each started by an Sh macro followed by a	non-
	   standard section name, and each having several subsections, like in
	   the present mdoc manual.

	   CONTEXT
	   This	section	lists the contexts in which functions can be called in
	   section 9.  The contexts are	autoconf, process, or interrupt.

	   IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
	   Implementation-specific notes should	be kept	here.  This is useful
	   when	implementing standard functions	that may have side effects or
	   notable algorithmic implications.

	   RETURN VALUES
	   This	section	documents the return values of functions in sections
	   2, 3, and 9.

	   See Rv.

	   ENVIRONMENT
	   Lists the environment variables used	by the utility,	and explains
	   the syntax and semantics of their values.  The environ(7) manual
	   provides examples of	typical	content	and formatting.

	   See Ev.

	   FILES
	   Documents files used.  It's helpful to document both	the file name
	   and a short description of how the file is used (created, modified,
	   etc.).

	   See Pa.

	   EXIT	STATUS
	   This	section	documents the command exit status for section 1, 6,
	   and 8 utilities.  Historically, this	information was	described in
	   DIAGNOSTICS,	a practise that	is now discouraged.

	   See Ex.

	   EXAMPLES
	   Example usages.  This often contains	snippets of well-formed, well-
	   tested invocations.	Make sure that examples	work properly!

	   DIAGNOSTICS
	   Documents error messages.  In section 4 and 9 manuals, these	are
	   usually messages printed by the kernel to the console and to	the
	   kernel log.	In section 1, 6, 7, and	8, these are usually messages
	   printed by userland programs	to the standard	error output.

	   Historically, this section was used in place	of EXIT	STATUS for
	   manuals in sections 1, 6, and 8; however, this practise is discour-
	   aged.

	   See Bl -diag.

	   ERRORS
	   Documents errno(2) settings in sections 2, 3, 4, and	9.

	   See Er.

	   SEE ALSO
	   References other manuals with related topics.  This section should
	   exist for most manuals.  Cross-references should conventionally be
	   ordered first by section, then alphabetically (ignoring case).

	   References to other documentation concerning	the topic of the man-
	   ual page, for example authoritative books or	journal	articles, may
	   also	be provided in this section.

	   See Rs and Xr.

	   STANDARDS
	   References any standards implemented	or used.  If not adhering to
	   any standards, the HISTORY section should be	used instead.

	   See St.

	   HISTORY
	   A brief history of the subject, including where it was first	imple-
	   mented, and when it was ported to or	reimplemented for the operat-
	   ing system at hand.

	   AUTHORS
	   Credits to the person or persons who	wrote the code and/or documen-
	   tation.  Authors should generally be	noted by both name and email
	   address.

	   See An.

	   CAVEATS
	   Common misuses and misunderstandings	should be explained in this
	   section.

	   BUGS
	   Known bugs, limitations, and	work-arounds should be described in
	   this	section.

	   SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
	   Documents any security precautions that operators should consider.

MACRO OVERVIEW
     This overview is sorted such that macros of similar purpose are listed
     together, to help find the	best macro for any given purpose.  Deprecated
     macros are	not included in	the overview, but can be found below in	the
     alphabetical MACRO	REFERENCE.

   Document preamble and NAME section macros
     Dd		      document date: $Mdocdate$	| month	day, year
     Dt		      document title: TITLE section [arch]
     Os		      operating	system version:	[system	[version]]
     Nm		      document name (one argument)
     Nd		      document description (one	line)

   Sections and	cross references
     Sh		      section header (one line)
     Ss		      subsection header	(one line)
     Sx		      internal cross reference to a section or subsection
     Xr		      cross reference to another manual	page: name section
     Pp		      start a text paragraph (no arguments)

   Displays and	lists
     Bd, Ed	      display block: -type [-offset width] [-compact]
     D1		      indented display (one line)
     Dl		      indented literal display (one line)
     Ql		      in-line literal display: `text'
     Bl, El	      list block: -type	[-width	val] [-offset val] [-compact]
     It		      list item	(syntax	depends	on -type)
     Ta		      table cell separator in Bl -column lists
     Rs, %*, Re	      bibliographic block (references)

   Spacing control
     Pf		      prefix, no following horizontal space (one argument)
     Ns		      roman font, no preceding horizontal space	(no arguments)
     Ap		      apostrophe without surrounding whitespace	(no arguments)
     Sm		      switch horizontal	spacing	mode: [on | off]
     Bk, Ek	      keep block: -words

   Semantic markup for command line utilities
     Nm		      start a SYNOPSIS block with the name of a	utility
     Fl		      command line options (flags) (>=0	arguments)
     Cm		      command modifier (>0 arguments)
     Ar		      command arguments	(>=0 arguments)
     Op, Oo, Oc	      optional syntax elements (enclosure)
     Ic		      internal or interactive command (>0 arguments)
     Ev		      environmental variable (>0 arguments)
     Pa		      file system path (>=0 arguments)

   Semantic markup for function	libraries
     Lb		      function library (one argument)
     In		      include file (one	argument)
     Fd		      other preprocessor directive (>0 arguments)
     Ft		      function type (>0	arguments)
     Fo, Fc	      function block: funcname
     Fn		      function name: funcname [argument	...]
     Fa		      function argument	(>0 arguments)
     Vt		      variable type (>0	arguments)
     Va		      variable name (>0	arguments)
     Dv		      defined variable or preprocessor constant	(>0 arguments)
     Er		      error constant (>0 arguments)
     Ev		      environmental variable (>0 arguments)

   Various semantic markup
     An		      author name (>0 arguments)
     Lk		      hyperlink: uri [display_name]
     Mt		      "mailto" hyperlink: localpart@domain
     Cd		      kernel configuration declaration (>0 arguments)
     Ad		      memory address (>0 arguments)
     Ms		      mathematical symbol (>0 arguments)

   Physical markup
     Em		      italic font or underline (emphasis) (>0 arguments)
     Sy		      boldface font (symbolic) (>0 arguments)
     No		      return to	roman font (normal) (>0	arguments)
     Bf, Ef	      font block: -type	| Em | Li | Sy

   Physical enclosures
     Dq, Do, Dc	      enclose in typographic double quotes: "text"
     Qq, Qo, Qc	      enclose in typewriter double quotes: "text"
     Sq, So, Sc	      enclose in single	quotes:	`text'
     Pq, Po, Pc	      enclose in parentheses: (text)
     Bq, Bo, Bc	      enclose in square	brackets: [text]
     Brq, Bro, Brc    enclose in curly braces: {text}
     Aq, Ao, Ac	      enclose in angle brackets: <text>
     Eo, Ec	      generic enclosure

   Text	production
     Ex	-std	      standard command exit values: [utility ...]
     Rv	-std	      standard function	return values: [function ...]
     St		      reference	to a standards document	(one argument)
     At		      AT&T UNIX
     Bx		      BSD
     Bsx	      BSD/OS
     Nx		      NetBSD
     Fx		      FreeBSD
     Ox		      OpenBSD
     Dx		      DragonFly

MACRO REFERENCE
     This section is a canonical reference of all macros, arranged alphabeti-
     cally.  For the scoping of	individual macros, see MACRO SYNTAX.

     %A	first_name ... last_name
	  Author name of an Rs block.  Multiple	authors	should each be ac-
	  corded their own %A line.  Author names should be ordered with full
	  or abbreviated forename(s) first, then full surname.

     %B	title
	  Book title of	an Rs block.  This macro may also be used in a non-
	  bibliographic	context	when referring to book titles.

     %C	location
	  Publication city or location of an Rs	block.

     %D	[month day,] year
	  Publication date of an Rs block.  Provide the	full English name of
	  the month and	all four digits	of the year.

     %I	name
	  Publisher or issuer name of an Rs block.

     %J	name
	  Journal name of an Rs	block.

     %N	number
	  Issue	number (usually	for journals) of an Rs block.

     %O	line
	  Optional information of an Rs	block.

     %P	number
	  Book or journal page number of an Rs block.  Conventionally, the ar-
	  gument starts	with `p.' for a	single page or `pp.' for a range of
	  pages, for example:

		.%P pp.	42\(en47

     %Q	name
	  Institutional	author (school,	government, etc.) of an	Rs block.
	  Multiple institutional authors should	each be	accorded their own %Q
	  line.

     %R	name
	  Technical report name	of an Rs block.

     %T	title
	  Article title	of an Rs block.	 This macro may	also be	used in	a non-
	  bibliographical context when referring to article titles.

     %U	protocol://path
	  URI of reference document.

     %V	number
	  Volume number	of an Rs block.

     Ac	  Close	an Ao block.  Does not have any	tail arguments.

     Ad	address
	  Memory address.  Do not use this for postal addresses.

	  Examples:
		.Ad [0,$]
		.Ad 0x00000000

     An	-split | -nosplit | first_name ... last_name
	  Author name.	Can be used both for the authors of the	program, func-
	  tion,	or driver documented in	the manual, or for the authors of the
	  manual itself.  Requires either the name of an author	or one of the
	  following arguments:

		-split	   Start a new output line before each subsequent in-
			   vocation of An.
		-nosplit   The opposite	of -split.

	  The default is -nosplit.  The	effect of selecting either of the
	  -split modes ends at the beginning of	the AUTHORS section.  In the
	  AUTHORS section, the default is -nosplit for the first author	list-
	  ing and -split for all other author listings.

	  Examples:
		.An -nosplit
		.An Kristaps Dzonsons Aq Mt kristaps@bsd.lv

     Ao	block
	  Begin	a block	enclosed by angle brackets.  Does not have any head
	  arguments.  This macro is almost never useful.  See Aq for more de-
	  tails.

     Ap	  Inserts an apostrophe	without	any surrounding	whitespace.  This is
	  generally used as a grammatical device when referring	to the verb
	  form of a function.

	  Examples:
		.Fn execve Ap d

     Aq	line
	  Enclose the rest of the input	line in	angle brackets.	 The only im-
	  portant use case is for email	addresses.  See	Mt for an example.

	  Occasionally,	it is used for names of	characters and keys, for exam-
	  ple:

		Press the
		.Aq escape
		key to ...

	  For URIs, use	Lk instead, and	In for "#include" directives.  Never
	  wrap Ar in Aq.

	  Since	Aq usually renders with	non-ASCII characters in	non-ASCII out-
	  put modes, do	not use	it where the ASCII characters `<' and `>' are
	  required as syntax elements.	Instead, use these characters directly
	  in such cases, combining them	with the macros	Pf, Ns,	or Eo as
	  needed.

	  See also Ao.

     Ar	[placeholder ...]
	  Command arguments.  If an argument is	not provided, the string "file
	  ..." is used as a default.

	  Examples:
		.Fl o Ar file
		.Ar
		.Ar arg1 , arg2	.

	  The arguments	to the Ar macro	are names and placeholders for command
	  arguments; for fixed strings to be passed verbatim as	arguments, use
	  Fl or	Cm.

     At	[version]
	  Formats an AT&T UNIX version.	 Accepts one optional argument:

		v[1-7] | 32v   A version of AT&T UNIX.
		III	       AT&T System III UNIX.
		V | V.[1-4]    A version of AT&T System	V UNIX.

	  Note that these arguments do not begin with a	hyphen.

	  Examples:
		.At
		.At III
		.At V.1

	  See also Bsx,	Bx, Dx,	Fx, Nx,	and Ox.

     Bc	  Close	a Bo block.  Does not have any tail arguments.

     Bd	-type [-offset width] [-compact]
	  Begin	a display block.  Display blocks are used to select a differ-
	  ent indentation and justification than the one used by the surround-
	  ing text.  They may contain both macro lines and text	lines.	By de-
	  fault, a display block is preceded by	a vertical space.

	  The type must	be one of the following:

		-centered      Produce one output line from each input line,
			       and center-justify each line.  Using this dis-
			       play type is not	recommended; many mdoc imple-
			       mentations render it poorly.

		-filled	       Change the positions of line breaks to fill
			       each line, and left- and	right-justify the re-
			       sulting block.

		-literal       Produce one output line from each input line,
			       and do not justify the block at all.  Preserve
			       white space as it appears in the	input.	Always
			       use a constant-width font.  Use this for	dis-
			       playing source code.

		-ragged	       Change the positions of line breaks to fill
			       each line, and left-justify the resulting
			       block.

		-unfilled      The same	as -literal, but using the same	font
			       as for normal text, which is a variable width
			       font if supported by the	output device.

	  The type must	be provided first.  Additional arguments may follow:

		-offset	width  Indent the display by the width,	which may be
			       one of the following:

			       One of the pre-defined strings indent, the
			       width of	a standard indentation (six constant
			       width characters); indent-two, twice indent;
			       left, which has no effect; right, which justi-
			       fies to the right margin; or center, which
			       aligns around an	imagined center	axis.

			       A macro invocation, which selects a predefined
			       width associated	with that macro.  The most
			       popular is the imaginary	macro Ds, which	re-
			       solves to 6n.

			       A scaling width as described in roff(7).

			       An arbitrary string, which indents by the
			       length of this string.

			       When the	argument is missing, -offset is	ig-
			       nored.

		-compact       Do not assert vertical space before the dis-
			       play.

	  Examples:

		.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
		   Hello       world.
		.Ed

	  See also D1 and Dl.

     Bf	-emphasis | -literal | -symbolic | Em |	Li | Sy
	  Change the font mode for a scoped block of text.  The	-emphasis and
	  Em argument are equivalent, as are -symbolic and Sy, and -literal
	  and Li.  Without an argument,	this macro does	nothing.  The font
	  mode continues until broken by a new font mode in a nested scope or
	  Ef is	encountered.

	  See also Li, Ef, Em, and Sy.

     Bk	-words
	  For each macro, keep its output together on the same output line,
	  until	the end	of the macro or	the end	of the input line is reached,
	  whichever comes first.  Line breaks in text lines are	unaffected.

	  The -words argument is required; additional arguments	are ignored.

	  The following	example	will not break within each Op macro line:

		.Bk -words
		.Op Fl f Ar flags
		.Op Fl o Ar output
		.Ek

	  Be careful in	using over-long	lines within a keep block!  Doing so
	  will clobber the right margin.

     Bl	-type [-width val] [-offset val] [-compact] [col ...]
	  Begin	a list.	 Lists consist of items	specified using	the It macro,
	  containing a head or a body or both.

	  The list type	is mandatory and must be specified first.  The -width
	  and -offset arguments	accept macro names as described	for Bd
	  -offset, scaling widths as described in roff(7), or use the length
	  of the given string.	The -offset is a global	indentation for	the
	  whole	list, affecting	both item heads	and bodies.  For those list
	  types	supporting it, the -width argument requests an additional in-
	  dentation of item bodies, to be added	to the -offset.	 Unless	the
	  -compact argument is specified, list entries are separated by	verti-
	  cal space.

	  A list must specify one of the following list	types:

		-bullet	      No item heads can	be specified, but a bullet
			      will be printed at the head of each item.	 Item
			      bodies start on the same output line as the bul-
			      let and are indented according to	the -width ar-
			      gument.

		-column	      A	columnated list.  The -width argument has no
			      effect; instead, the string length of each argu-
			      ment specifies the width of one column.  If the
			      first line of the	body of	a -column list is not
			      an It macro line,	It contexts spanning one input
			      line each	are implied until an It	macro line is
			      encountered, at which point items	start being
			      interpreted as described in the It documenta-
			      tion.

		-dash	      Like -bullet, except that	dashes are used	in
			      place of bullets.

		-diag	      Like -inset, except that item heads are not
			      parsed for macro invocations.  Most often	used
			      in the DIAGNOSTICS section with error constants
			      in the item heads.

		-enum	      A	numbered list.	No item	heads can be speci-
			      fied.  Formatted like -bullet, except that car-
			      dinal numbers are	used in	place of bullets,
			      starting at 1.

		-hang	      Like -tag, except	that the first lines of	item
			      bodies are not indented, but follow the item
			      heads like in -inset lists.

		-hyphen	      Synonym for -dash.

		-inset	      Item bodies follow items heads on	the same line,
			      using normal inter-word spacing.	Bodies are not
			      indented,	and the	-width argument	is ignored.

		-item	      No item heads can	be specified, and none are
			      printed.	Bodies are not indented, and the
			      -width argument is ignored.

		-ohang	      Item bodies start	on the line following item
			      heads and	are not	indented.  The -width argument
			      is ignored.

		-tag	      Item bodies are indented according to the	-width
			      argument.	 When an item head fits	inside the in-
			      dentation, the item body follows this head on
			      the same output line.  Otherwise,	the body
			      starts on	the output line	following the head.

	  Lists	may be nested within lists and displays.  Nesting of -column
	  and -enum lists may not be portable.

	  See also El and It.

     Bo	block
	  Begin	a block	enclosed by square brackets.  Does not have any	head
	  arguments.

	  Examples:
		.Bo 1 ,
		.Dv BUFSIZ Bc

	  See also Bq.

     Bq	line
	  Encloses its arguments in square brackets.

	  Examples:
		.Bq 1, Dv BUFSIZ

	  Remarks: this	macro is sometimes abused to emulate optional argu-
	  ments	for commands; the correct macros to use	for this purpose are
	  Op, Oo, and Oc.

	  See also Bo.

     Brc  Close	a Bro block.  Does not have any	tail arguments.

     Bro block
	  Begin	a block	enclosed by curly braces.  Does	not have any head ar-
	  guments.

	  Examples:
		.Bro 1 , ... ,
		.Va n Brc

	  See also Brq.

     Brq line
	  Encloses its arguments in curly braces.

	  Examples:
		.Brq 1,	..., Va	n

	  See also Bro.

     Bsx [version]
	  Format the BSD/OS version provided as	an argument, or	a default
	  value	if no argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Bsx 1.0
		.Bsx

	  See also At, Bx, Dx, Fx, Nx, and Ox.

     Bt	  Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
	  Prints "is currently in beta test."

     Bx	[version [variant]]
	  Format the BSD version provided as an	argument, or a default value
	  if no	argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Bx 4.3	Tahoe
		.Bx 4.4
		.Bx

	  See also At, Bsx, Dx,	Fx, Nx,	and Ox.

     Cd	line
	  Kernel configuration declaration.  This denotes strings accepted by
	  config(8).  It is most often used in section 4 manual	pages.

	  Examples:
		.Cd device le0 at scode?

	  Remarks: this	macro is commonly abused by using quoted literals to
	  retain whitespace and	align consecutive Cd declarations.  This prac-
	  tise is discouraged.

     Cm	keyword	...
	  Command modifiers.  Typically	used for fixed strings passed as argu-
	  ments	to interactive commands, to commands in	interpreted scripts,
	  or to	configuration file directives, unless Fl is more appropriate.

	  Examples:
		.Nm mt Fl f Ar device Cm rewind
		.Nm ps Fl o Cm pid , Ns	Cm command
		.Nm dd Cm if= Ns Ar file1 Cm of= Ns Ar file2
		.Ic set	Fl o Cm	vi
		.Ic lookup Cm file bind
		.Ic permit Ar identity Op Cm as	Ar target

     D1	line
	  One-line indented display.  This is formatted	by the default rules
	  and is useful	for simple indented statements.	 It is followed	by a
	  newline.

	  Examples:
		.D1 Fl abcdefgh

	  See also Bd and Dl.

     Db	  This macro is	obsolete.  No replacement is needed.  It is ignored by
	  mandoc(1) and	groff including	its arguments.	It was formerly	used
	  to toggle a debugging	mode.

     Dc	  Close	a Do block.  Does not have any tail arguments.

     Dd	$Mdocdate$ | month day,	year
	  Document date	for display in the page	footer.	 This is the mandatory
	  first	macro of any mdoc manual.

	  The month is the full	English	month name, the	day is an integer num-
	  ber, and the year is the full	four-digit year.

	  Other	arguments are not portable; the	mandoc(1) utility handles them
	  as follows:
	     -	 To have the date automatically	filled in by the OpenBSD ver-
		 sion of cvs(1), the special string "$Mdocdate$" can be	given
		 as an argument.
	     -	 The traditional, purely numeric man(7)	format year-month-day
		 is accepted, too.
	     -	 If a date string cannot be parsed, it is used verbatim.
	     -	 If no date string is given, the current date is used.

	  Examples:
		.Dd $Mdocdate$
		.Dd $Mdocdate: July 2 2018$
		.Dd July 2, 2018

	  See also Dt and Os.

     Dl	line
	  One-line indented display.  This is formatted	as literal text	and is
	  useful for commands and invocations.	It is followed by a newline.

	  Examples:
		.Dl % mandoc mdoc.7 \(ba less

	  See also Ql, Bd -literal, and	D1.

     Do	block
	  Begin	a block	enclosed by double quotes.  Does not have any head ar-
	  guments.

	  Examples:
		.Do
		April is the cruellest month
		.Dc
		\(em T.S. Eliot

	  See also Dq.

     Dq	line
	  Encloses its arguments in "typographic" double-quotes.

	  Examples:
		.Dq April is the cruellest month
		\(em T.S. Eliot

	  See also Qq, Sq, and Do.

     Dt	TITLE section [arch]
	  Document title for display in	the page header.  This is the manda-
	  tory second macro of any mdoc	file.

	  Its arguments	are as follows:

	    TITLE    The document's title (name), defaulting to	"UNTITLED" if
		     unspecified.  To achieve a	uniform	appearance of page
		     header lines, it should by	convention be all caps.

	    section  The manual	section.  This may be one of 1 (General
		     Commands),	2 (System Calls), 3 (Library Functions), 3p
		     (Perl Library), 4 (Device Drivers), 5 (File Formats), 6
		     (Games), 7	(Miscellaneous Information), 8 (System
		     Manager's Manual),	or 9 (Kernel Developer's Manual).  It
		     should correspond to the manual's filename	suffix and de-
		     faults to the empty string	if unspecified.

	    arch     This specifies the	machine	architecture a manual page ap-
		     plies to, where relevant, for example alpha, amd64, i386,
		     or	sparc64.  The list of valid architectures varies by
		     operating system.

	  Examples:
		.Dt FOO	1
		.Dt FOO	9 i386

	  See also Dd and Os.

     Dv	identifier ...
	  Defined variables such as preprocessor constants, constant symbols,
	  enumeration values, and so on.

	  Examples:
		.Dv NULL
		.Dv BUFSIZ
		.Dv STDOUT_FILENO

	  See also Er and Ev for special-purpose constants, Va for variable
	  symbols, and Fd for listing preprocessor variable definitions	in the
	  SYNOPSIS.

     Dx	[version]
	  Format the DragonFly version provided	as an argument,	or a default
	  value	if no argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Dx 2.4.1
		.Dx

	  See also At, Bsx, Bx,	Fx, Nx,	and Ox.

     Ec	[closing_delimiter]
	  Close	a scope	started	by Eo.

	  The closing_delimiter	argument is used as the	enclosure tail,	for
	  example, specifying \(rq will	emulate	Dc.

     Ed	  End a	display	context	started	by Bd.

     Ef	  End a	font mode context started by Bf.

     Ek	  End a	keep context started by	Bk.

     El	  End a	list context started by	Bl.  See also It.

     Em	word ...
	  Request an italic font.  If the output device	does not provide that,
	  underline.

	  This is most often used for stress emphasis (not to be confused with
	  importance, see Sy).	In the rare cases where	none of	the semantic
	  markup macros	fit, it	can also be used for technical terms and
	  placeholders,	except that for	syntax elements, Sy and	Ar are pre-
	  ferred, respectively.

	  Examples:
		Selected lines are those
		.Em not
		matching any of	the specified patterns.
		Some of	the functions use a
		.Em hold space
		to save	the pattern space for subsequent retrieval.

	  See also No, Ql, and Sy.

     En	word ...
	  This macro is	obsolete.  Use Eo or any of the	other enclosure
	  macros.

	  It encloses its argument in the delimiters specified by the last Es
	  macro.

     Eo	[opening_delimiter]
	  An arbitrary enclosure.  The opening_delimiter argument is used as
	  the enclosure	head, for example, specifying \(lq will	emulate	Do.

     Er	identifier ...
	  Error	constants for definitions of the errno libc global variable.
	  This is most often used in section 2 and 3 manual pages.

	  Examples:
		.Er EPERM
		.Er ENOENT

	  See also Dv for general constants.

     Es	opening_delimiter closing_delimiter
	  This macro is	obsolete.  Use Eo or any of the	other enclosure
	  macros.

	  It takes two arguments, defining the delimiters to be	used by	subse-
	  quent	En macros.

     Ev	identifier ...
	  Environmental	variables such as those	specified in environ(7).

	  Examples:
		.Ev DISPLAY
		.Ev PATH

	  See also Dv for general constants.

     Ex	-std [utility ...]
	  Insert a standard sentence regarding command exit values of 0	on
	  success and >0 on failure.  This is most often used in section 1, 6,
	  and 8	manual pages.

	  If utility is	not specified, the document's name set by Nm is	used.
	  Multiple utility arguments are treated as separate utilities.

	  See also Rv.

     Fa	argument ...
	  Function argument or parameter.  Each	argument may be	a name and a
	  type (recommended for	the SYNOPSIS section), a name alone (for func-
	  tion invocations), or	a type alone (for function prototypes).	 If
	  both a type and a name are given or if the type consists of multiple
	  words, all words belonging to	the same function argument have	to be
	  given	in a single argument to	the Fa macro.

	  This macro is	also used to specify the field name of a structure.

	  Most often, the Fa macro is used in the SYNOPSIS within Fo blocks
	  when documenting multi-line function prototypes.  If invoked with
	  multiple arguments, the arguments are	separated by a comma.  Fur-
	  thermore, if the following macro is another Fa, the last argument
	  will also have a trailing comma.

	  Examples:
		.Fa "const char	*p"
		.Fa "int a" "int b" "int c"
		.Fa "char *" size_t

	  See also Fo.

     Fc	  End a	function context started by Fo.

     Fd	#directive [argument ...]
	  Preprocessor directive, in particular	for listing it in the
	  SYNOPSIS.  Historically, it was also used to document	include	files.
	  The latter usage has been deprecated in favour of In.

	  Examples:
		.Fd #define sa_handler __sigaction_u.__sa_handler
		.Fd #define SIO_MAXNFDS
		.Fd #ifdef FS_DEBUG
		.Ft void
		.Fn dbg_open "const char *"
		.Fd #endif

	  See also MANUAL STRUCTURE, In, and Dv.

     Fl	[word ...]
	  Command-line flag or option.	Used when listing arguments to com-
	  mand-line utilities.	Prints a fixed-width hyphen `-'	directly fol-
	  lowed	by each	argument.  If no arguments are provided, a hyphen is
	  printed followed by a	space.	If the argument	is a macro, a hyphen
	  is prefixed to the subsequent	macro output.

	  Examples:
		.Fl R Op Fl H |	L | P
		.Op Fl 1AaCcdFfgHhikLlmnopqRrSsTtux
		.Fl type Cm d Fl name Pa CVS
		.Fl Ar signal_number
		.Fl o Fl

	  See also Cm.

     Fn	funcname [argument ...]
	  A function name.

	  Function arguments are surrounded in parenthesis and are delimited
	  by commas.  If no arguments are specified, blank parenthesis are
	  output.  In the SYNOPSIS section, this macro starts a	new output
	  line,	and a blank line is automatically inserted between function
	  definitions.

	  Examples:
		.Fn "int funcname" "int	arg0" "int arg1"
		.Fn funcname "int arg0"
		.Fn funcname arg0

		.Ft functype
		.Fn funcname

	  When referring to a function documented in another manual page, use
	  Xr instead.  See also	MANUAL STRUCTURE, Fo, and Ft.

     Fo	funcname
	  Begin	a function block.  This	is a multi-line	version	of Fn.

	  Invocations usually occur in the following context:

		.Ft functype
		.Fo funcname
		.Fa "argtype argname"
		...
		.Fc

	  A Fo scope is	closed by Fc.

	  See also MANUAL STRUCTURE, Fa, Fc, and Ft.

     Fr	number
	  This macro is	obsolete.  No replacement markup is needed.

	  It was used to show numerical	function return	values in an italic
	  font.

     Ft	functype
	  A function type.

	  In the SYNOPSIS section, a new output	line is	started	after this
	  macro.

	  Examples:
		.Ft int
		.Ft functype
		.Fn funcname

	  See also MANUAL STRUCTURE, Fn, and Fo.

     Fx	[version]
	  Format the FreeBSD version provided as an argument, or a default
	  value	if no argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Fx 7.1
		.Fx

	  See also At, Bsx, Bx,	Dx, Nx,	and Ox.

     Hf	filename
	  This macro is	not implemented	in mandoc(1).  It was used to include
	  the contents of a (header) file literally.

     Ic	keyword	...
	  Internal or interactive command, or configuration instruction	in a
	  configuration	file.  See also	Cm.

	  Examples:
		.Ic :wq
		.Ic hash
		.Ic alias

	  Note that using Ql, Dl, or Bd	-literal is preferred for displaying
	  code samples;	the Ic macro is	used when referring to an individual
	  command name.

     In	filename
	  The name of an include file.	This macro is most often used in sec-
	  tion 2, 3, and 9 manual pages.

	  When invoked as the first macro on an	input line in the SYNOPSIS
	  section, the argument	is displayed in	angle brackets and preceded by
	  "#include", and a blank line is inserted in front if there is	a pre-
	  ceding function declaration.	In other sections, it only encloses
	  its argument in angle	brackets and causes no line break.

	  Examples:
		.In sys/types.h

	  See also MANUAL STRUCTURE.

     It	[head]
	  A list item.	The syntax of this macro depends on the	list type.

	  Lists	of type	-hang, -ohang, -inset, and -diag have the following
	  syntax:

		.It args

	  Lists	of type	-bullet, -dash,	-enum, -hyphen and -item have the fol-
	  lowing syntax:

		.It

	  with subsequent lines	interpreted within the scope of	the It until
	  either a closing El or another It.

	  The -tag list	has the	following syntax:

		.It [args]

	  Subsequent lines are interpreted as with -bullet and family.	The
	  line arguments correspond to the list's left-hand side; body argu-
	  ments	correspond to the list's contents.

	  The -column list is the most complicated.  Its syntax	is as follows:

		.It cell [Ta cell ...]
		.It cell [<TAB>	cell ...]

	  The arguments	consist	of one or more lines of	text and macros	repre-
	  senting a complete table line.  Cells	within the line	are delimited
	  by the special Ta block macro	or by literal tab characters.

	  Using	literal	tabs is	strongly discouraged because they are very
	  hard to use correctly	and mdoc code using them is very hard to read.
	  In particular, a blank character is syntactically significant	before
	  and after the	literal	tab character.	If a word precedes or follows
	  the tab without an intervening blank,	that word is never interpreted
	  as a macro call, but always output literally.

	  The tab cell delimiter may only be used within the It	line itself;
	  on following lines, only the Ta macro	can be used to delimit cells,
	  and portability requires that	Ta is called by	other macros: some
	  parsers do not recognize it when it appears as the first macro on a
	  line.

	  Note that quoted strings may span tab-delimited cells	on an It line.
	  For example,

		.It "col1 , <TAB> col2 ," ;

	  will preserve	the whitespace before both commas, but not the white-
	  space	before the semicolon.

	  See also Bl.

     Lb	libname
	  Specify a library.

	  The name parameter may be a system library, such as z	or pam,	in
	  which	case a small library description is printed next to the	linker
	  invocation; or a custom library, in which case the library name is
	  printed in quotes.  This is most commonly used in the	SYNOPSIS sec-
	  tion as described in MANUAL STRUCTURE.

	  Examples:
		.Lb libz
		.Lb libmandoc

     Li	word ...
	  Request a typewriter (literal) font.	Deprecated because on terminal
	  output devices, this is usually indistinguishable from normal	text.
	  For literal displays,	use Ql (in-line), Dl (single line), or Bd
	  -literal (multi-line)	instead.

     Lk	uri [display_name]
	  Format a hyperlink.

	  Examples:
		.Lk http://bsd.lv "The BSD.lv Project"
		.Lk http://bsd.lv

	  See also Mt.

     Lp	  Deprecated synonym for Pp.

     Ms	name
	  Display a mathematical symbol.

	  Examples:
		.Ms sigma
		.Ms aleph

     Mt	localpart@domain
	  Format a "mailto:" hyperlink.

	  Examples:
		.Mt discuss@manpages.bsd.lv
		.An Kristaps Dzonsons Aq Mt kristaps@bsd.lv

     Nd	line
	  A one	line description of the	manual's content.  This	is the manda-
	  tory last macro of the NAME section and not appropriate for other
	  sections.

	  Examples:
		.Nd mdoc language reference
		.Nd format and display UNIX manuals

	  The Nd macro technically accepts child macros	and terminates with a
	  subsequent Sh	invocation.  Do	not assume this	behaviour: some
	  whatis(1) database generators	are not	smart enough to	parse more
	  than the line	arguments and will display macros verbatim.

	  See also Nm.

     Nm	[name]
	  The name of the manual page, or -- in	particular in section 1, 6,
	  and 8	pages -- of an additional command or feature documented	in the
	  manual page.	When first invoked, the	Nm macro expects a single ar-
	  gument, the name of the manual page.	Usually, the first invocation
	  happens in the NAME section of the page.  The	specified name will be
	  remembered and used whenever the macro is called again without argu-
	  ments	later in the page.  The	Nm macro uses Block full-implicit se-
	  mantics when invoked as the first macro on an	input line in the
	  SYNOPSIS section; otherwise, it uses ordinary	In-line	semantics.

	  Examples:

		.Sh SYNOPSIS
		.Nm cat
		.Op Fl benstuv
		.Op Ar

	  In the SYNOPSIS of section 2,	3 and 9	manual pages, use the Fn macro
	  rather than Nm to mark up the	name of	the manual page.

     No	word ...
	  Normal text.	Closes the scope of any	preceding in-line macro.  When
	  used after physical formatting macros	like Em	or Sy, switches	back
	  to the standard font face and	weight.	 Can also be used to embed
	  plain	text strings in	macro lines using semantic annotation macros.

	  Examples:
		.Em italic , Sy	bold , No and roman

		.Sm off
		.Cm :C No / Ar pattern No / Ar replacement No /
		.Sm on

	  See also Em, Ql, and Sy.

     Ns	  Suppress a space between the output of the preceding macro and the
	  following text or macro.  Following invocation, input	is interpreted
	  as normal text just like after an No macro.

	  This has no effect when invoked at the start of a macro line.

	  Examples:
		.Ar name Ns = Ns Ar value
		.Cm :M Ns Ar pattern
		.Fl o Ns Ar output

	  See also No and Sm.

     Nx	[version]
	  Format the NetBSD version provided as	an argument, or	a default
	  value	if no argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Nx 5.01
		.Nx

	  See also At, Bsx, Bx,	Dx, Fx,	and Ox.

     Oc	  Close	multi-line Oo context.

     Oo	block
	  Multi-line version of	Op.

	  Examples:
		.Oo
		.Op Fl flag Ns Ar value
		.Oc

     Op	line
	  Optional part	of a command line.  Prints the argument(s) in brack-
	  ets.	This is	most often used	in the SYNOPSIS	section	of section 1
	  and 8	manual pages.

	  Examples:
		.Op Fl a Ar b
		.Op Ar a | b

	  See also Oo.

     Os	[system	[version]]
	  Operating system version for display in the page footer.  This is
	  the mandatory	third macro of any mdoc	file.

	  The optional system parameter	specifies the relevant operating sys-
	  tem or environment.  It is suggested to leave	it unspecified,	in
	  which	case mandoc(1) uses its	-Ios argument or, if that isn't	speci-
	  fied either, sysname and release as returned by uname(3).

	  Examples:
		.Os
		.Os KTH/CSC/TCS
		.Os BSD	4.3

	  See also Dd and Dt.

     Ot	functype
	  This macro is	obsolete.  Use Ft instead; with	mandoc(1), both	have
	  the same effect.

	  Historical mdoc packages described it	as "old	function type
	  (FORTRAN)".

     Ox	[version]
	  Format the OpenBSD version provided as an argument, or a default
	  value	if no argument is provided.

	  Examples:
		.Ox 4.5
		.Ox

	  See also At, Bsx, Bx,	Dx, Fx,	and Nx.

     Pa	name ...
	  An absolute or relative file system path, or a file or directory
	  name.	 If an argument	is not provided, the character `~' is used as
	  a default.

	  Examples:
		.Pa /usr/bin/mandoc
		.Pa /usr/share/man/man7/mdoc.7

	  See also Lk.

     Pc	  Close	parenthesised context opened by	Po.

     Pf	prefix macro [argument ...]
	  Removes the space between its	argument and the following macro.  It
	  is equivalent	to:

		No \&prefix Ns macro [argument ...]

	  The prefix argument is not parsed for	macro names or delimiters, but
	  used verbatim	as if it were escaped.

	  Examples:
		.Pf $ Ar variable_name
		.Pf . Ar macro_name
		.Pf 0x Ar hex_digits

	  See also Ns and Sm.

     Po	block
	  Multi-line version of	Pq.

     Pp	  Break	a paragraph.  This will	assert vertical	space between prior
	  and subsequent macros	and/or text.

	  Paragraph breaks are not needed before or after Sh or	Ss macros or
	  before displays (Bd line) or lists (Bl) unless the -compact flag is
	  given.

     Pq	line
	  Parenthesised	enclosure.

	  See also Po.

     Qc	  Close	quoted context opened by Qo.

     Ql	line
	  In-line literal display.  This can be	used for complete command in-
	  vocations and	for multi-word code examples when an indented display
	  is not desired.

	  See also Dl and Bd -literal.

     Qo	block
	  Multi-line version of	Qq.

     Qq	line
	  Encloses its arguments in "typewriter" double-quotes.	 Consider us-
	  ing Dq.

	  See also Dq, Sq, and Qo.

     Re	  Close	an Rs block.  Does not have any	tail arguments.

     Rs	  Begin	a bibliographic	("reference") block.  Does not have any	head
	  arguments.  The block	macro may only contain %A, %B, %C, %D, %I, %J,
	  %N, %O, %P, %Q, %R, %T, %U, and %V child macros (at least one	must
	  be specified).

	  Examples:
		.Rs
		.%A J. E. Hopcroft
		.%A J. D. Ullman
		.%B Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages,	and Computation
		.%I Addison-Wesley
		.%C Reading, Massachusetts
		.%D 1979
		.Re

	  If an	Rs block is used within	a SEE ALSO section, a vertical space
	  is asserted before the rendered output, else the block continues on
	  the current line.

     Rv	-std [function ...]
	  Insert a standard sentence regarding a function call's return	value
	  of 0 on success and -1 on error, with	the errno libc global variable
	  set on error.

	  If function is not specified,	the document's name set	by Nm is used.
	  Multiple function arguments are treated as separate functions.

	  See also Ex.

     Sc	  Close	single-quoted context opened by	So.

     Sh	TITLE LINE
	  Begin	a new section.	For a list of conventional manual sections,
	  see MANUAL STRUCTURE.	 These sections	should be used unless it's ab-
	  solutely necessary that custom sections be used.

	  Section names	should be unique so that they may be keyed by Sx.  Al-
	  though this macro is parsed, it should not consist of	child node or
	  it may not be	linked with Sx.

	  See also Pp, Ss, and Sx.

     Sm	[on | off]
	  Switches the spacing mode for	output generated from macros.

	  By default, spacing is on.  When switched off, no white space	is in-
	  serted between macro arguments and between the output	generated from
	  adjacent macros, but text lines still	get normal spacing between
	  words	and sentences.

	  When called without an argument, the Sm macro	toggles	the spacing
	  mode.	 Using this is not recommended because it makes	the code
	  harder to read.

     So	block
	  Multi-line version of	Sq.

     Sq	line
	  Encloses its arguments in `typewriter' single-quotes.

	  See also Dq, Qq, and So.

     Ss	Title line
	  Begin	a new subsection.  Unlike with Sh, there is no convention for
	  the naming of	subsections.  Except DESCRIPTION, the conventional
	  sections described in	MANUAL STRUCTURE rarely	have subsections.

	  Sub-section names should be unique so	that they may be keyed by Sx.
	  Although this	macro is parsed, it should not consist of child	node
	  or it	may not	be linked with Sx.

	  See also Pp, Sh, and Sx.

     St	-abbreviation
	  Replace an abbreviation for a	standard with the full form.  The fol-
	  lowing standards are recognised.  Where multiple lines are given
	  without a blank line in between, they	all refer to the same stan-
	  dard,	and using the first form is recommended.

	  C language standards

	     -ansiC	     ANSI X3.159-1989 ("ANSI C89")
	     -ansiC-89	     ANSI X3.159-1989 ("ANSI C89")
	     -isoC	     ISO/IEC 9899:1990 ("ISO C90")
	     -isoC-90	     ISO/IEC 9899:1990 ("ISO C90")
			     The original C standard.

	     -isoC-amd1	     ISO/IEC 9899/AMD1:1995 ("ISO C90, Amendment 1")

	     -isoC-tcor1     ISO/IEC 9899/TCOR1:1994 ("ISO C90,	Technical
			     Corrigendum 1")

	     -isoC-tcor2     ISO/IEC 9899/TCOR2:1995 ("ISO C90,	Technical
			     Corrigendum 2")

	     -isoC-99	     ISO/IEC 9899:1999 ("ISO C99")
			     The second	major version of the C language	stan-
			     dard.

	     -isoC-2011	     ISO/IEC 9899:2011 ("ISO C11")
			     The third major version of	the C language stan-
			     dard.

	  POSIX.1 before the Single UNIX Specification

	     -p1003.1-88     IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 ("POSIX.1")
	     -p1003.1	     IEEE Std 1003.1 ("POSIX.1")
			     The original POSIX	standard, based	on ANSI	C.

	     -p1003.1-90     ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 ("POSIX.1")
	     -iso9945-1-90   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 ("POSIX.1")
			     The first update of POSIX.1.

	     -p1003.1b-93    IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993 ("POSIX.1")
	     -p1003.1b	     IEEE Std 1003.1b ("POSIX.1")
			     Real-time extensions.

	     -p1003.1c-95    IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 ("POSIX.1")
			     POSIX thread interfaces.

	     -p1003.1i-95    IEEE Std 1003.1i-1995 ("POSIX.1")
			     Technical Corrigendum.

	     -p1003.1-96     ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 ("POSIX.1")
	     -iso9945-1-96   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 ("POSIX.1")
			     Includes POSIX.1-1990, 1b,	1c, and	1i.

	  X/Open Portability Guide version 4 and related standards

	     -xpg3	     X/Open Portability	Guide Issue 3 ("XPG3")
			     An	XPG4 precursor,	published in 1989.

	     -p1003.2	     IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2")
	     -p1003.2-92     IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 ("POSIX.2")
	     -iso9945-2-93   ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993 ("POSIX.2")
			     An	XCU4 precursor.

	     -p1003.2a-92    IEEE Std 1003.2a-1992 ("POSIX.2")
			     Updates to	POSIX.2.

	     -xpg4	     X/Open Portability	Guide Issue 4 ("XPG4")
			     Based on POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, published in	1992.

	  Single UNIX Specification version 1 and related standards

	     -susv1
	     -xpg4.2	     X/Open Portability	Guide Issue 4, Version 2
			     ("XPG4.2")
			     This standard was published in 1994.  It was used
			     as	the basis for UNIX 95 certification.  The fol-
			     lowing three refer	to parts of it.

	     -xsh4.2

	     -xcurses4.2     X/Open Curses Issue 4, Version 2 ("XCURSES4.2")

	     -p1003.1g-2000  IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000 ("POSIX.1")
			     Networking	APIs, including	sockets.

	     -svid4	     System V Interface	Definition, Fourth Edition
			     ("SVID4"),
			     Published in 1995.

	  Single UNIX Specification version 2 and related standards

	     -susv2	     Version 2 of the Single UNIX Specification
			     ("SUSv2") This Standard was published in 1997 and
			     is	also called X/Open Portability Guide version
			     5.	 It was	used as	the basis for UNIX 98 certifi-
			     cation.  The following refer to parts of it.

	     -xbd5	     X/Open Base Definitions Issue 5 ("XBD5")

	     -xsh5	     X/Open System Interfaces and Headers Issue	5
			     ("XSH5")

	     -xcu5	     X/Open Commands and Utilities Issue 5 ("XCU5")

	     -xns5	     X/Open Networking Services	Issue 5	("XNS5")
	     -xns5.2	     X/Open Networking Services	Issue 5.2 ("XNS5.2")

	  Single UNIX Specification version 3

	     -p1003.1-2001  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 ("POSIX.1")
	     -susv3	    Version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification
			    ("SUSv3")
			    This standard is based on C99, SUSv2,
			    POSIX.1-1996, 1d, and 1j.  It is also called
			    X/Open Portability Guide version 6.	 It is used as
			    the	basis for UNIX 03 certification.

	     -p1003.1-2004  IEEE Std 1003.1-2004 ("POSIX.1")
			    The	second and last	Technical Corrigendum.

	  Single UNIX Specification version 4

	     -p1003.1-2008   IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1")
	     -susv4
			     This standard is also called X/Open Portability
			     Guide version 7.

	  Other	standards

	     -ieee754	     IEEE Std 754-1985
			     Floating-point arithmetic.

	     -iso8601	     ISO 8601
			     Representation of dates and times,	published in
			     1988.

	     -iso8802-3	     ISO/IEC 8802-3:1989
			     Ethernet local area networks.

	     -ieee1275-94    IEEE Std 1275-1994	("Open Firmware")

     Sx	Title line
	  Reference a section or subsection in the same	manual page.  The ref-
	  erenced section or subsection	name must be identical to the enclosed
	  argument, including whitespace.

	  Examples:
		.Sx MANUAL STRUCTURE

	  See also Sh and Ss.

     Sy	word ...
	  Request a boldface font.

	  This is most often used to indicate importance or seriousness	(not
	  to be	confused with stress emphasis, see Em).	 When none of the se-
	  mantic macros	fit, it	is also	adequate for syntax elements that have
	  to be	given or that appear verbatim.

	  Examples:
		.Sy Warning :
		If
		.Sy s
		appears	in the owner permissions, set-user-ID mode is set.
		This utility replaces the former
		.Sy dumpdir
		program.

	  See also Em, No, and Ql.

     Ta	  Table	cell separator in Bl -column lists; can	only be	used below It.

     Tn	word ...
	  Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
	  Even though the macro	name ("tradename") suggests a semantic func-
	  tion,	historic usage is inconsistent,	mostly using it	as a presenta-
	  tion-level macro to request a	small caps font.

     Ud	  Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
	  Prints out "currently	under development."

     Ux	  Supported only for compatibility, do not use this in new manuals.
	  Prints out "UNIX".

     Va	[type] identifier ...
	  A variable name.

	  Examples:
		.Va foo
		.Va const char *bar;

	  For function arguments and parameters, use Fa	instead.  For declara-
	  tions	of global variables in the SYNOPSIS section, use Vt.

     Vt	type [identifier]
	  A variable type.

	  This is also used for	indicating global variables in the SYNOPSIS
	  section, in which case a variable name is also specified.  Note that
	  it accepts Block partial-implicit syntax when	invoked	as the first
	  macro	on an input line in the	SYNOPSIS section, else it accepts or-
	  dinary In-line syntax.  In the former	case, this macro starts	a new
	  output line, and a blank line	is inserted in front if	there is a
	  preceding function definition	or include directive.

	  Examples:
		.Vt unsigned char
		.Vt extern const char *	const sys_signame[] ;

	  For parameters in function prototypes, use Fa	instead, for function
	  return types Ft, and for variable names outside the SYNOPSIS section
	  Va, even when	including a type with the name.	 See also MANUAL
	  STRUCTURE.

     Xc	  Close	a scope	opened by Xo.

     Xo	block
	  Extend the header of an It macro or the body of a partial-implicit
	  block	macro beyond the end of	the input line.	 This macro originally
	  existed to work around the 9-argument	limit of historic roff(7).

     Xr	name section
	  Link to another manual ("cross-reference").

	  Cross	reference the name and section number of another man page.

	  Examples:
		.Xr mandoc 1
		.Xr mandoc 1 ;
		.Xr mandoc 1 Ns	s behaviour

MACRO SYNTAX
     The syntax	of a macro depends on its classification.  In this section,
     `-arg' refers to macro arguments, which may be followed by	zero or	more
     `parm' parameters;	`Yo' opens the scope of	a macro; and if	specified,
     `Yc' closes it out.

     The Callable column indicates that	the macro may also be called by	pass-
     ing its name as an	argument to another macro.  For	example, `.Op Fl O Ar
     file' produces `[-O file]'.  To prevent a macro call and render the macro
     name literally, escape it by prepending a zero-width space, `\&'.	For
     example, `Op \&Fl O' produces `[Fl	O]'.  If a macro is not	callable but
     its name appears as an argument to	another	macro, it is interpreted as
     opaque text.  For example,	`.Fl Sh' produces `-Sh'.

     The Parsed	column indicates whether the macro may call other macros by
     receiving their names as arguments.  If a macro is	not parsed but the
     name of another macro appears as an argument, it is interpreted as	opaque
     text.

     The Scope column, if applicable, describes	closure	rules.

   Block full-explicit
     Multi-line	scope closed by	an explicit closing macro.  All	macros con-
     tains bodies; only	Bf and (optionally) Bl contain a head.

	   .Yo [-arg [parm...]]	[head...]
	   [body...]
	   .Yc

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed     Scope
	   Bd	     No		  No	     closed by Ed
	   Bf	     No		  No	     closed by Ef
	   Bk	     No		  No	     closed by Ek
	   Bl	     No		  No	     closed by El
	   Ed	     No		  No	     opened by Bd
	   Ef	     No		  No	     opened by Bf
	   Ek	     No		  No	     opened by Bk
	   El	     No		  No	     opened by Bl

   Block full-implicit
     Multi-line	scope closed by	end-of-file or implicitly by another macro.
     All macros	have bodies; some (It -bullet, -hyphen,	-dash, -enum, -item)
     don't have	heads; only one	(It in Bl -column) has multiple	heads.

	   .Yo [-arg [parm...]]	[head... [Ta head...]]
	   [body...]

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed     Scope
	   It	     No		  Yes	     closed by It, El
	   Nd	     No		  No	     closed by Sh
	   Nm	     No		  Yes	     closed by Nm, Sh, Ss
	   Sh	     No		  Yes	     closed by Sh
	   Ss	     No		  Yes	     closed by Sh, Ss

     Note that the Nm macro is a Block full-implicit macro only	when invoked
     as	the first macro	in a SYNOPSIS section line, else it is In-line.

   Block partial-explicit
     Like block	full-explicit, but also	with single-line scope.	 Each has at
     least a body and, in limited circumstances, a head	(Fo, Eo) and/or	tail
     (Ec).

	   .Yo [-arg [parm...]]	[head...]
	   [body...]
	   .Yc [tail...]

	   .Yo [-arg [parm...]]	[head...] [body...] Yc [tail...]

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed     Scope
	   Ac	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Ao
	   Ao	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Ac
	   Bc	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Bo
	   Bo	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Bc
	   Brc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Bro
	   Bro	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Brc
	   Dc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Do
	   Do	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Dc
	   Ec	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Eo
	   Eo	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Ec
	   Fc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Fo
	   Fo	     No		  No	     closed by Fc
	   Oc	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Oo
	   Oo	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Oc
	   Pc	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Po
	   Po	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Pc
	   Qc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Oo
	   Qo	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Oc
	   Re	     No		  No	     opened by Rs
	   Rs	     No		  No	     closed by Re
	   Sc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by So
	   So	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Sc
	   Xc	     Yes	  Yes	     opened by Xo
	   Xo	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Xc

   Block partial-implicit
     Like block	full-implicit, but with	single-line scope closed by the	end of
     the line.

	   .Yo [-arg [val...]] [body...] [res...]

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed
	   Aq	     Yes	  Yes
	   Bq	     Yes	  Yes
	   Brq	     Yes	  Yes
	   D1	     No		  Yes
	   Dl	     No		  Yes
	   Dq	     Yes	  Yes
	   En	     Yes	  Yes
	   Op	     Yes	  Yes
	   Pq	     Yes	  Yes
	   Ql	     Yes	  Yes
	   Qq	     Yes	  Yes
	   Sq	     Yes	  Yes
	   Vt	     Yes	  Yes

     Note that the Vt macro is a Block partial-implicit	only when invoked as
     the first macro in	a SYNOPSIS section line, else it is In-line.

   Special block macro
     The Ta macro can only be used below It in Bl -column lists.  It delimits
     blocks representing table cells; these blocks have	bodies,	but no heads.

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed     Scope
	   Ta	     Yes	  Yes	     closed by Ta, It

   In-line
     Closed by the end of the line, fixed argument lengths, and/or subsequent
     macros.  In-line macros have only text children.  If a number (or in-
     equality) of arguments is (n), then the macro accepts an arbitrary	number
     of	arguments.

	   .Yo [-arg [val...]] [args...] [res...]

	   .Yo [-arg [val...]] [args...] Yc...

	   .Yo [-arg [val...]] arg0 arg1 argN

	   Macro     Callable	  Parsed     Arguments
	   %A	     No		  No	     >0
	   %B	     No		  No	     >0
	   %C	     No		  No	     >0
	   %D	     No		  No	     >0
	   %I	     No		  No	     >0
	   %J	     No		  No	     >0
	   %N	     No		  No	     >0
	   %O	     No		  No	     >0
	   %P	     No		  No	     >0
	   %Q	     No		  No	     >0
	   %R	     No		  No	     >0
	   %T	     No		  No	     >0
	   %U	     No		  No	     >0
	   %V	     No		  No	     >0
	   Ad	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   An	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ap	     Yes	  Yes	     0
	   Ar	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   At	     Yes	  Yes	     1
	   Bsx	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Bt	     No		  No	     0
	   Bx	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Cd	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Cm	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Db	     No		  No	     1
	   Dd	     No		  No	     n
	   Dt	     No		  No	     n
	   Dv	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Dx	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Em	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Er	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Es	     Yes	  Yes	     2
	   Ev	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ex	     No		  No	     n
	   Fa	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Fd	     No		  No	     >0
	   Fl	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Fn	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Fr	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ft	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Fx	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Hf	     No		  No	     n
	   Ic	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   In	     No		  No	     1
	   Lb	     No		  No	     1
	   Li	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Lk	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Lp	     No		  No	     0
	   Ms	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Mt	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Nm	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   No	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ns	     Yes	  Yes	     0
	   Nx	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Os	     No		  No	     n
	   Ot	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ox	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Pa	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Pf	     Yes	  Yes	     1
	   Pp	     No		  No	     0
	   Rv	     No		  No	     n
	   Sm	     No		  No	     <2
	   St	     No		  Yes	     1
	   Sx	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Sy	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Tn	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Ud	     No		  No	     0
	   Ux	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Va	     Yes	  Yes	     n
	   Vt	     Yes	  Yes	     >0
	   Xr	     Yes	  Yes	     2

   Delimiters
     When a macro argument consists of one single input	character considered
     as	a delimiter, the argument gets special handling.  This does not	apply
     when delimiters appear in arguments containing more than one character.
     Consequently, to prevent special handling and just	handle it like any
     other argument, a delimiter can be	escaped	by prepending a	zero-width
     space (`\&').  In text lines, delimiters never need escaping, but may be
     used as normal punctuation.

     For many macros, when the leading arguments are opening delimiters, these
     delimiters	are put	before the macro scope,	and when the trailing argu-
     ments are closing delimiters, these delimiters are	put after the macro
     scope.  Spacing is	suppressed after opening delimiters and	before closing
     delimiters.  For example,

	   .Aq ( [ word	] ) .

     renders as:

	   ([<word>]).

     Opening delimiters	are:

	   (	   left	parenthesis
	   [	   left	bracket

     Closing delimiters	are:

	   .	   period
	   ,	   comma
	   :	   colon
	   ;	   semicolon
	   )	   right parenthesis
	   ]	   right bracket
	   ?	   question mark
	   !	   exclamation mark

     Note that even a period preceded by a backslash (`\.') gets this special
     handling; use `\&.' to prevent that.

     Many in-line macros interrupt their scope when they encounter delimiters,
     and resume	their scope when more arguments	follow that are	not delim-
     iters.  For example,

	   .Fl a ( b | c \*(Ba d ) e

     renders as:

	   -a (-b | -c | -d) -e

     This applies to both opening and closing delimiters, and also to the mid-
     dle delimiter, which does not suppress spacing:

	   |	   vertical bar

     As	a special case,	the predefined string \*(Ba is handled and rendered in
     the same way as a plain `|' character.  Using this	predefined string is
     not recommended in	new manuals.

     Appending a zero-width space (`\&') to the	end of an input	line is	also
     useful to prevent the interpretation of a trailing	period,	exclamation or
     question mark as the end of a sentence, for example when an abbreviation
     happens to	occur at the end of a text or macro input line.

   Font	handling
     In	mdoc documents,	usage of semantic markup is recommended	in order to
     have proper fonts automatically selected; only when no fitting semantic
     markup is available, consider falling back	to Physical markup macros.
     Whenever any mdoc macro switches the roff(7) font mode, it	will automati-
     cally restore the previous	font when exiting its scope.  Manually switch-
     ing the font using	the roff(7) `\f' font escape sequences is never	re-
     quired.

COMPATIBILITY
     This section provides an incomplete list of compatibility issues between
     mandoc and	GNU troff ("groff").

     The following problematic behaviour is found in groff:

     -	 Dd with non-standard arguments	behaves	very strangely.	 When there
	 are three arguments, they are printed verbatim.  Any other number of
	 arguments is replaced by the current date, but	without	any arguments
	 the string "Epoch" is printed.
     -	 Lk only accepts a single link-name argument; the remainder is misfor-
	 matted.
     -	 Pa does not format its	arguments when used in the FILES section under
	 certain list types.
     -	 Ta can	only be	called by other	macros,	but not	at the beginning of a
	 line.
     -	 %C is not implemented (up to and including groff-1.22.2).
     -	 `\f' (font face) and `\F' (font family	face) Text Decoration escapes
	 behave	irregularly when specified within line-macro scopes.
     -	 Negative scaling units	return to prior	lines.	Instead, mandoc	trun-
	 cates them to zero.

     The following features are	unimplemented in mandoc:

     -	 Bd -file file is unsupported for security reasons.
     -	 Bd -filled does not adjust the	right margin, but is an	alias for Bd
	 -ragged.
     -	 Bd -literal does not use a literal font, but is an alias for Bd
	 -unfilled.
     -	 Bd -offset center and -offset right don't work.  Groff	does not im-
	 plement centered and flush-right rendering either, but	produces large
	 indentations.

SEE ALSO
     man(1), mandoc(1),	eqn(7),	man(7),	mandoc_char(7),	roff(7), tbl(7)

     The web page extended documentation for the mdoc language:
     http://mandoc.bsd.lv/mdoc/	provides a few tutorial-style pages for	begin-
     ners, an extensive	style guide for	advanced authors, and an alphabetic
     index helping to choose the best macros for various kinds of content.

HISTORY
     The mdoc language first appeared as a troff macro package in 4.4BSD.  It
     was later significantly updated by	Werner Lemberg and Ruslan Ermilov in
     groff-1.17.  The standalone implementation	that is	part of	the mandoc(1)
     utility written by	Kristaps Dzonsons appeared in OpenBSD 4.6.

AUTHORS
     The mdoc reference	was written by Kristaps	Dzonsons <kristaps@bsd.lv>.

BSD				 July 15, 2019				   BSD

NAME | DESCRIPTION | MANUAL STRUCTURE | MACRO OVERVIEW | MACRO REFERENCE | MACRO SYNTAX | COMPATIBILITY | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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