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MC(1)			    GNU	Midnight Commander			 MC(1)

NAME
       mc - Visual shell for Unix-like systems.

SYNOPSIS
       mc [-abcCdfhPstuUVx] [-l	log] [dir1 [dir2]] [-e [file] ...] [-v file]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU   Midnight  Commander  is  a	 directory  browser/file  manager  for
       Unix-like operating systems.

OPTIONS
       -a, --stickchars
	      Disable usage of graphic characters for line drawing.

       -b, --nocolor
	      Force black and white display.

       -c, --color
	      Force color mode,	please check the section Colors	for  more  in-
	      formation.

       -C arg, --colors=arg
	      Specify  a  different color set in the command line.  The	format
	      of arg is	documented in the Colors section.

       --configure-options
	      Display configure	options.

       -d, --nomouse
	      Disable mouse support.

       -D N, --debuglevel=N
	      Save the debug level for SMB VFS.	N is in	0-10 range.

       -e [file], --edit[=file]
	      Start the	internal editor.  If the file is specified, open it on
	      startup.	See also mcedit	(1).

       -f, --datadir
	      Display  the  compiled-in	 search	 paths	for Midnight Commander
	      files.

       -F, --datadir-info
	      Display extended info about compiled-in paths for	Midnight  Com-
	      mander.

       -g, --oldmouse
	      Force  a	"normal	 tracking"  mouse  mode.  Used when running on
	      xterm-capable terminals (tmux/screen).

       -k, --resetsoft
	      Reset softkeys to	their default from the termcap/terminfo	 data-
	      base.  Only  useful on HP	terminals when the function keys don't
	      work.

       -K file,	--keymap=file
	      Specify a	name of	keymap file in the command line.

       -l file,	--ftplog=file
	      Save the ftpfs dialog with the server in file.

       --nokeymap
	      Don't load key bindings from any	file,  use  default  hardcoded
	      keys.

       -P file,	--printwd=file
	      Print  the  last	working	directory to the specified file.  This
	      option is	not meant to be	used  directly.	  Instead,  it's  used
	      from  a special shell script that	automatically changes the cur-
	      rent directory of	the shell to the last directory	Midnight  Com-
	      mander was in. Source the	file /usr/local/libexec/mc/mc.sh (bash
	      and zsh users) or	/usr/local/libexec/mc.csh (tcsh	users) respec-
	      tively to	define mc as an	alias to the appropriate shell script.

       -s, --slow
	      Turn  on	the  slow terminal mode, in this mode the program will
	      not draw expensive line drawing characters and will toggle  ver-
	      bose mode	off.

       -S arg, --skin=arg
	      Specify  a name of skin in the command line. Technology of skins
	      is documented in the Skins section.

       -t, --termcap
	      Used only	if the code was	compiled with S-Lang and terminfo:  it
	      makes  Midnight  Commander use the value of the TERMCAP variable
	      for the terminal information instead of the information  on  the
	      system wide terminal database

       -u, --nosubshell
	      Disable  use  of	the concurrent shell (only makes sense if Mid-
	      night Commander has been built with concurrent shell support).

       -U, --subshell
	      Enable use of the	concurrent shell support (only makes sense  if
	      the  Midnight  Commander was built with the subshell support set
	      as an optional feature).

       -v file,	--view=file
	      Start the	internal viewer	to view	the specified file.  See  also
	      mcview (1).

       -V, --version
	      Display the version of the program.

       -x, --xterm
	      Force  xterm mode.  Used when running on xterm-capable terminals
	      (two screen modes, and able to send mouse	escape sequences).

       -X, --no-x11
	      Do not use X11 to	get the	state of modifiers Alt,	Ctrl, Shift

       If both paths are specified, the	first path name	is  the	 directory  to
       show  in	 the active panel; the second path name	is the directory to be
       shown in	the other panel.

       If one path is specified, the path name is the directory	to show	in the
       active  panel; value of "other_dir" from	panels.ini is the directory to
       be shown	in the passive panel.

       If no paths are specified, current directory is	shown  in  the	active
       panel;  value  of  "other_dir"  from  panels.ini	is the directory to be
       shown in	the passive panel.

Overview
       The screen of Midnight Commander	is divided into	 four  parts.	Almost
       all  of	the  screen space is taken up by two directory panels.	By de-
       fault, the second line from the bottom of the screen is the shell  com-
       mand line, and the bottom line shows the	function key labels.  The top-
       most line is the	menu bar line.	The menu bar line may not be  visible,
       but  appears  if	you click the topmost line with	the mouse or press the
       F9 key.

       Midnight	Commander provides a view of two directories at	the same time.
       One  of the panels is the current panel (a selection bar	is in the cur-
       rent panel). Almost all operations take place  on  the  current	panel.
       Some  file operations like Rename and Copy by default use the directory
       of the unselected panel as a destination	(don't worry, they always  ask
       you  for	confirmation first). For more information, see the sections on
       the Directory Panels, the Left and Right	Menus and the File Menu.

       You can execute system commands from Midnight Commander by simply  typ-
       ing  them.  Everything  you type	will appear on the shell command line,
       and when	you press Enter, Midnight Commander will execute  the  command
       line  you  typed;  read the Shell Command Line and Input	Line Keys sec-
       tions to	learn more about the command line.

Mouse Support
       Midnight	Commander comes	with mouse support. It is  activated  whenever
       you  are	 running  on an	xterm(1) terminal (it even works if you	take a
       telnet, ssh or rlogin connection	to another machine from	the xterm)  or
       if  you	are  running  on a Linux console and have the gpm mouse	server
       running.

       When you	left click on a	file in	the directory panels, that file	is se-
       lected;	if you click with the right button, the	file is	marked (or un-
       marked, depending on the	previous state).

       Double-clicking on a file will try to execute the command if it	is  an
       executable  program;  and if the	extension file has a program specified
       for the file's extension, the specified program is executed.

       Also, it	is possible to execute the commands assigned to	 the  function
       key labels by clicking on them.

       The default auto	repeat rate for	the mouse buttons is 400 milliseconds.
       This may	be changed to other values  by	editing	 the  ~/.config/mc/ini
       file and	changing the mouse_repeat_rate parameter.

       If  you	are running Midnight Commander with the	mouse support, you can
       get the default mouse behavior (cutting and pasting  text)  by  holding
       down the	Shift key.

Keys
       Some  commands  in  Midnight  Commander	involve	the use	of the Control
       (sometimes labeled CTRL or CTL) and the Meta (sometimes labeled ALT  or
       even  Compose) keys. In this manual we will use the following abbrevia-
       tions:

       C-<chr>
	      means hold the Control key while	typing	the  character	<chr>.
	      Thus C-f would be: hold the Control key and type f.

       Alt-<chr>
	      means  hold  the	Meta  or  Alt key down while typing <chr>.  If
	      there is no Meta or Alt key, type	Esc, release it, then type the
	      character	<chr>.

       S-<chr>
	      means hold the Shift key down while typing <chr>.

       All  input  lines in Midnight Commander use an approximation to the GNU
       Emacs editor's key bindings (default).

       You may redefine	key bindings. See redefine hotkey bindings

       for more	info. All other	key bindings (described	in  this  manual)  are
       relative	to default behavior.

       There  are  many	 sections which	tell about the keys. The following are
       the most	important.

       The File	Menu section documents the keyboard shortcuts for the commands
       appearing  in  the  File	menu. This section includes the	function keys.
       Most of these commands perform some action,  usually  on	 the  selected
       file or the tagged files.

       The  Directory Panels section documents the keys	which select a file or
       tag files as a target for a later action	(the  action  is  usually  one
       from the	file menu).

       The  Shell Command Line section list the	keys which are used for	enter-
       ing and editing command lines. Most of these copy file names  and  such
       from  the directory panels to the command line (to avoid	excessive typ-
       ing) or access the command line history.

       Input Line Keys are used	for editing input lines. This means  both  the
       command line and	the input lines	in the query dialogs.

  Redefine hotkey bindings
       Hotkey  bindings	 may  be  read from external file (keymap-file).  Ini-
       tially, Midnight	Commander creates key bindings using keymap defined in
       the  source  code.  Then,  two  files /usr/local/share/mc/mc.keymap and
       /usr/local/etc/mc/mc.keymap are loaded always, sequentially  reassigned
       key  bindings defined earlier.  User-defined keymap-file	is searched on
       the following algorithm (to the first one found):

	      1) command line option -K	<keymap> or --keymap=<keymap>
	      2) Environment variable MC_KEYMAP
	      3) Parameter keymap in section  [Midnight-Commander]  of	config
	      file.
	      4) File ~/.config/mc/mc.keymap

       Command	line option, environment variable and parameter	in config file
       may contain the absolute	path to	the keymap-file	 (with	the  extension
       .keymap	or  without  it).  Search of keymap-file will occur in (to the
       first one found):

	      1) ~/.config/mc
	      2) /usr/local/etc/mc/
	      3) /usr/local/share/mc/

  Miscellaneous	Keys
       Here are	some keys which	don't fall into	any of the other categories:

       Enter  if there is some text in the command line	(the one at the	bottom
	      of  the  panels),	 then that command is executed.	If there is no
	      text in the command line then if the selection bar is over a di-
	      rectory  the  Midnight Commander does a chdir(2) to the selected
	      directory	and reloads the	information on the panel; if  the  se-
	      lection  is  an executable file then it is executed. Finally, if
	      the extension of the selected file name matches one of  the  ex-
	      tensions	in  the	extensions file	then the corresponding command
	      is executed.

       C-l    repaint all the information in Midnight Commander.

       C-x c  run the Chmod command on a file or on the	tagged files.

       C-x o  run the Chown command on the  current  file  or  on  the	tagged
	      files.

       C-x l  run the hard link	command.

       C-x s  run the absolute symbolic	link command.

       C-x v  run  the	relative symbolic link command.	See the	File Menu sec-
	      tion for more information	about symbolic links.

       C-x i  set the other panel display mode to information.

       C-x q  set the other panel display mode to quick	view.

       C-x !  execute the External panelize command.

       C-x h  run the add directory to hotlist command.

       Alt-!  executes the Filtered view command, described in the  view  com-
	      mand.

       Alt-?  executes the Find	file command.

       Alt-c  pops up the quick	cd dialog.

       C-o    when the program is being	run in the Linux or FreeBSD console or
	      under an xterm, it will show you the output of the previous com-
	      mand.  When ran on the Linux console, Midnight Commander uses an
	      external program (cons.saver) to handle saving and restoring  of
	      information on the screen.

       When  the subshell support is compiled in, you can type C-o at any time
       and you will be taken back to Midnight Commander's main screen, to  re-
       turn  to	 your  application  just type C-o.  If you have	an application
       suspended by using this trick, you won't	be able	to execute other  pro-
       grams  from Midnight Commander until you	terminate the suspended	appli-
       cation.

  Directory Panels
       This section lists the keys which operate on the	directory  panels.  If
       you want	to know	how to change the appearance of	the panels take	a look
       at the section on Left and Right	Menus.

       Tab, C-i
	      change the current panel.	The old	other panel  becomes  the  new
	      current  panel  and  the old current panel becomes the new other
	      panel. The selection bar moves from the old current panel	to the
	      new current panel.

       Insert, C-t
	      to  tag files you	may use	the Insert key (the kich1 terminfo se-
	      quence).	To untag files,	just retag a tagged file.

       Alt-e  to change	charset	of panel you may use Alt-e (M-e).  Recoding is
	      made  from selected codepage into	system codepage. To cancel the
	      recoding,	select "No translation"	in the dialog of encodings.

       Alt-g, Alt-r, Alt-j
	      used to select the top file in a panel, the middle file and  the
	      bottom one, respectively.

       Alt-t  toggle  the  current  display  listing  to show the next display
	      listing format.  With this it is possible	to quickly  switch  to
	      brief  listing,  long  listing, user defined listing format, and
	      back to the default.

       C-\ (control-backslash)
	      show the directory hotlist and change to the selected directory.

       +  (plus)
	      this is used to select (tag) a group of files. Midnight  Comman-
	      der  will	prompt for a selection options.	When Files only	check-
	      box is on, only files will be selected.  If Files	only  is  off,
	      as  files	 as directories	will be	selected.  When	Shell Patterns
	      checkbox is on, the regular expression is	much like the filename
	      globbing	in  the	 shell (* standing for zero or more characters
	      and ? standing for one character). If  Shell  Patterns  is  off,
	      then  the	 tagging  of files is done with	normal regular expres-
	      sions (see ed (1)). When Case sensitive checkbox is on, the  se-
	      lection will be case sensitive characters.  If Case sensitive is
	      off, the case will be ignored.

       \ (backslash)
	      use the "\" key to unselect a group of files. This is the	 oppo-
	      site of the Plus key.

       up-key, C-p
	      move the selection bar to	the previous entry in the panel.

       down-key, C-n
	      move the selection bar to	the next entry in the panel.

       home, a1, Alt-<
	      move the selection bar to	the first entry	in the panel.

       end, c1,	Alt->
	      move the selection bar to	the last entry in the panel.

       next-page, C-v
	      move the selection bar one page down.

       prev-page, Alt-v
	      move the selection bar one page up.

       Alt-o  If  the currently	selected file is a directory, load that	direc-
	      tory on the other	panel and moves	 the  selection	 to  the  next
	      file.  If	 the  currently	selected file is not a directory, load
	      the parent directory on the other	panel and moves	the  selection
	      to the next file.

       Alt-i  make the current directory of the	current	panel also the current
	      directory	of the other panel.  Put the other panel to the	 list-
	      ing  mode	 if  needed.   If  the current panel is	panelized, the
	      other panel doesn't become panelized.

       C-PageUp, C-PageDown
	      only when	supported by the terminal: change to ".." and  to  the
	      currently	selected directory respectively.

       Alt-y  moves  to	 the  previous directory in the	history, equivalent to
	      clicking the _ with the mouse.

       Alt-u  moves to the next	directory in the history, equivalent to	click-
	      ing the _	with the mouse.

       Alt-S-h,	Alt-H
	      displays the directory history, equivalent to depressing the 'v'
	      with the mouse.

  Quick	search
       The Quick search	mode allows you	to perform fast	file  search  in  file
       panel.	Press C-s or Alt-s to start a filename search in the directory
       listing.

       When the	search is active, the user input will be added to  the	search
       string  instead	of the command line. If	the Show mini-status option is
       enabled the search string is shown on the mini-status line.  When  typ-
       ing,  the  selection  bar  will move to the next	file starting with the
       typed letters. The Backspace or DEL keys	can be used to correct	typing
       mistakes. If C-s	is pressed again, the next match is searched for.

       If  quick  search  is started with double pressing of C-s, the previous
       quick search pattern will be used for current search.

       Besides the filename characters,	you can	also use  wildcard  characters
       '*' and '?'.

  Shell	Command	Line
       This section lists keys which are useful	to avoid excessive typing when
       entering	shell commands.

       Alt-Enter
	      copy the currently selected file name to the command line.

       C-Enter
	      same a Alt-Enter.	 May not work on remote	systems	and some  ter-
	      minals.

       C-S-Enter
	      copy  the	 full  path name of the	currently selected file	to the
	      command line.  May not work on remote systems  and  some	termi-
	      nals.

       Alt-Tab
	      does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname com-
	      pletion for you.

       C-x t, C-x C-t
	      copy the tagged files (or	if there are no	tagged files, the  se-
	      lected  file) of the current panel (C-x t) or of the other panel
	      (C-x C-t)	to the command line.

       C-x p, C-x C-p
	      the first	key sequence copies the	current	path name to the  com-
	      mand line, and the second	one copies the unselected panel's path
	      name to the command line.

       C-q    the quote	command	can be used to insert characters that are oth-
	      erwise interpreted by Midnight Commander (like the '+' symbol)

       Alt-p, Alt-n
	      use  these  keys	to  browse  through the	command	history. Alt-p
	      takes you	to the last entry, Alt-n takes you to the next one.

       Alt-h  displays the history for the current input line.

  General Movement Keys
       The help	viewer,	the file viewer	and the	directory tree use common code
       to  handle moving. Therefore they accept	exactly	the same keys. Each of
       them also accepts some keys of its own.

       Other parts of Midnight Commander use some of the same  movement	 keys,
       so this section may be of use for those parts too.

       Up, C-p
	      moves one	line backward.

       Down, C-n
	      moves one	line forward.

       Prev Page, Page Up, Alt-v
	      moves one	page up.

       Next Page, Page Down, C-v
	      moves one	page down.

       Home, A1
	      moves to the beginning.

       End, C1
	      move to the end.

       The  help viewer	and the	file viewer accept the following keys in addi-
       tion the	to ones	mentioned above:

       b, C-b, C-h, Backspace, Delete
	      moves one	page up.

       Space bar
	      moves one	page down.

       u, d   moves one	half of	a page up or down.

       g, G   moves to the beginning or	to the end.

  Input	Line Keys
       The input lines (they are used for the command line and for  the	 query
       dialogs in the program) accept these keys:

       C-a    puts the cursor at the beginning of line.

       C-e    puts the cursor at the end of the	line.

       C-b, move-left
	      move the cursor one position left.

       C-f, move-right
	      move the cursor one position right.

       Alt-f  moves one	word forward.

       Alt-b  moves one	word backward.

       C-h, Backspace
	      delete the previous character.

       C-d, Delete
	      delete the character in the point	(over the cursor).

       C-@    sets the mark for	cutting.

       C-w    copies the text between the cursor and the mark to a kill	buffer
	      and removes the text from	the input line.

       Alt-w  copies the text between the cursor and the mark to a  kill  buf-
	      fer.

       C-y    yanks back the contents of the kill buffer.

       C-k    kills the	text from the cursor to	the end	of the line.

       Alt-p, Alt-n
	      Use  these  keys	to  browse  through the	command	history. Alt-p
	      takes you	to the last entry, Alt-n takes you to the next one.

       Alt-C-h,	Alt-Backspace
	      delete one word backward.

       Alt-Tab
	      does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname com-
	      pletion for you.

Menu Bar
       The  menu  bar  pops up when you	press F9 or click the mouse on the top
       row of the screen. The menu bar has five	menus: "Left",	"File",	 "Com-
       mand", "Options"	and "Right".

       The Left	and Right Menus	allow you to modify the	appearance of the left
       and right directory panels.

       The File	Menu lists the actions you can perform on  the	currently  se-
       lected file or the tagged files.

       The  Command  Menu lists	the actions which are more general and bear no
       relation	to the currently selected file or the tagged files.

       The Options Menu	lists the actions which	allow you  to  customize  Mid-
       night Commander.

  Left and Right (Above	and Below) Menus
       The  outlook  of	 the directory panels can be changed from the Left and
       Right menus (they are named Above and Below when	the  horizontal	 panel
       split is	chosen from the	Layout options dialog).

    Listing Format...
       The  listing mode view is used to display a listing of files, there are
       four different listing formats available: Full, Brief, Long  and	 User.
       The  full  directory view shows the file	name, the size of the file and
       the modification	time.

       The brief view shows only the file name and it has from 1 up to 9  col-
       umns  (therefore	 showing more files unlike other views). The long view
       is similar to the output	of ls -l command.  The	long  view  takes  the
       whole screen width.

       If  you	choose the "User" display format, then you have	to specify the
       display format.

       The user	display	format must start with a panel size  specifier.	  This
       may  be	"half"	or  "full", and	they specify a half screen panel and a
       full screen panel respectively.

       After the panel size, you may specify how many listings to fit  in  the
       panel,  side-by-side  (in  other	 words:	 how  many times to repeat the
       fields horizontally). This defaults to 1. You may change	this by	adding
       a number	from 1 to 9 to the format string.

       After  this you add the name of the fields with an optional size	speci-
       fier.  This are the available fields you	may display:

       name   displays the file	name.

       size   displays the file	size.

       bsize  is an alternative	form of	the size format. It displays the  size
	      of  the  files  and  for	directories  it	 just shows SUB-DIR or
	      UP--DIR.

       type   displays a one character wide type  field.   This	 character  is
	      similar to what is displayed by ls with the -F flag - * for exe-
	      cutable files, / for directories,	@ for links, = for sockets,  -
	      for  character  devices, + for block devices, | for pipes, ~ for
	      symbolic links to	directories and	!  for stale  symlinks	(links
	      that point nowhere).

       mark   an asterisk if the file is tagged, a space if it's not.

       mtime  file's last modification time.

       atime  file's last access time.

       ctime  file's status change time.

       perm   a	string representing the	current	permission bits	of the file.

       mode   an octal value with the current permission bits of the file.

       nlink  the number of links to the file.

       ngid   the GID (numeric).

       nuid   the UID (numeric).

       owner  the owner	of the file.

       group  the group	of the file.

       inode  the inode	of the file.

       Also you	can use	following keywords to define the panel layout:

       space  a	space in the display format.

       |      add a vertical line to the display format.

       To  force  one field to a fixed size (a size specifier),	you just add :
       followed	by the number of characters you	want the field	to  have.   If
       the  number  is	followed  by the symbol	+, then	the size specifies the
       minimal field size - if the program finds out that there	is more	 space
       on the screen, it will then expand that field.

       For example, the	Full display corresponds to this format:

       half type name |	size | mtime

       And the Long display corresponds	to this	format:

       full  perm  space  nlink	space owner space group	space size space mtime
       space name

       This is a nice user display format:

       half name | size:7 | type mode:3

       Panels may also be set to the following modes:

       Info   The info view display information	related	to the	currently  se-
	      lected  file  and	if possible information	about the current file
	      system.

       Tree   The tree view is quite similar to	the  directory	tree  feature.
	      See the section about it for more	information.

       Quick View
	      In  this	mode,  the  panel will switch to a reduced viewer that
	      displays the contents of the currently selected file, if you se-
	      lect  the	 panel	(with the tab key or the mouse), you will have
	      access to	the usual viewer commands.

    Sort Order...
       The eight sort orders are by name, by extension,	by modification	 time,
       by access time, and by inode information	modification time, by size, by
       inode and unsorted.  In the Sort	order dialog box you  can  choose  the
       sort  order and you may also specify if you want	to sort	in reverse or-
       der by checking the reverse box.

       By default directories are sorted before	files but this can be  changed
       from the	Panel options menu (option Mix all files).

    Filter...
       The  filter  command allows you to specify a shell pattern (for example
       *.tar.gz) which the files must match to be  shown.  Regardless  of  the
       filter pattern, the directories and the links to	directories are	always
       shown in	the directory panel.

    Reread
       The reread command reload the list of files in  the  directory.	It  is
       useful if other processes have created or removed files.

  File Menu
       Midnight	 Commander  uses  the  F1 - F10	keys as	keyboard shortcuts for
       commands	appearing in the file menu.   The  escape  sequences  for  the
       function	 keys are terminfo capabilities	kf1 trough kf10.  On terminals
       without function	key support, you can achieve the same functionality by
       pressing	 the  Esc key and then a number	in the range 1 through 9 and 0
       (corresponding to F1 to F9 and F10 respectively).

       The File	menu has the following commands	(keyboard shortcuts in	paren-
       theses):

       Help (F1)

       Invokes the built-in hypertext help viewer. Inside the help viewer, you
       can use the Tab key to select the next link and the Enter key to	follow
       that  link.  The	 keys Space and	Backspace are used to move forward and
       backward	in a help page.	Press F1 again to get the  full	 list  of  ac-
       cepted keys.

       Menu (F2)

       Invoke  the  user  menu.	 The user menu provides	an easy	way to provide
       users with a menu and add extra features	to Midnight Commander.

       View (F3, F13)

       View the	currently selected file. By default this invokes the  Internal
       File Viewer but if the option "Use internal view" is off, it invokes an
       external	file viewer specified by the VIEWER environment	variable.   If
       VIEWER is undefined, the	PAGER environment variable is tried.  If PAGER
       is also undefined, the "view" command is	invoked.  If you use  F13  in-
       stead,  the viewer will be invoked without doing	any formatting or pre-
       processing to the file.

       See parameters for external viewer for explain how you may  specify  an
       extended	command	line options for external viewers.

       Filtered	View (Alt-!)

       This  command prompts for a command and its arguments (the argument de-
       faults to the currently selected	file name), the	output from such  com-
       mand is shown in	the internal file viewer.

       Edit (F4, F14)

       Press  F4  to  edit  the	 highlighted file.  Press F14 (usually F14) to
       start the editor	with a new, empty file.	 Currently they	invoke the  vi
       editor,	or the editor specified	in the EDITOR environment variable, or
       the Internal File Editor	if the use_internal_edit option	is on.

       See parameters for external editor for explain how you may  specify  an
       extended	command	line options for external editors.

       Copy (F5, F15)

       Press  F5 to pop	up an input dialog to copy the currently selected file
       (or the tagged files, if	there is at least one file tagged) to the  di-
       rectory/filename	 you  specify in the input dialog. The destination de-
       faults to the directory in the non-selected panel. Space	 for  destina-
       tion  file  may be preallocated relative	to preallocate_space configure
       option.	During this process, you can press C-c or Esc to abort the op-
       eration.	 For details about source mask (which will be usually either *
       or ^\(.*\)$ depending on	setting	of Use shell  patterns)	 and  possible
       wildcards in the	destination see	Mask copy/rename.

       F15  (usually F15) is similar, but defaults to the directory in the se-
       lected panel. It	always operates	on the selected	 file,	regardless  of
       any tagged files.

       On  some	 systems,  it  is possible to do the copy in the background by
       clicking	on the background button (or  pressing	Alt-b  in  the	dialog
       box).  The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Link (C-x l)

       Create a	hard link to the current file.

       Absolute	symlink	(C-x s)

       Create a	absolute symbolic link to the current file.

       Relative	symLink	(C-x v)

       Create a	relative symbolic link to the current file.

       To  those  of  you  who don't know what links are: creating a link to a
       file is a bit like copying the file, but	both the source	 filename  and
       the destination filename	represent the same file	image. For example, if
       you edit	one of these files, all	changes	you make will appear  in  both
       files. Some people call links aliases or	shortcuts.

       A hard link appears as a	real file. After making	it, there is no	way of
       telling which one is the	original and which is the link.	If you	delete
       either  one of them the other one is still intact. It is	very difficult
       to notice that the files	represent the same image. Use hard links  when
       you don't even want to know.

       A symbolic link is a reference to the name of the original file.	If the
       original	file is	deleted	the symbolic link is useless. It is quite easy
       to  notice  that	the files represent the	same image. Midnight Commander
       shows an	"@"-sign in front of the file name if it is a symbolic link to
       somewhere (except to directory, where it	shows a	tilde (~)).  The orig-
       inal file which the link	points to is shown on mini-status line if  the
       Show mini-status	option is enabled. Use symbolic	links when you want to
       avoid the confusion that	can be caused by hard links.

       When you	press "C-x s" Midnight Commander will  automatically  fill  in
       the  complete path+filename of the original file	and suggest a name for
       the link.  You can change either	one.

       Sometimes you may want to change	the absolute path of the original into
       a relative path.	An absolute path starts	from the root directory:

       /home/frodo/mc/mc -_ /home/frodo/new/mc

       A  relative  link  describes the	original file's	location starting from
       the location of the link	itself:

       /home/frodo/mc/mc -_ ../new/mc

       You can force Midnight Commander	to suggest a relative path by pressing
       "C-x v" instead of "C-x s".

       Rename/Move (F6,	F16)

       Press  F6 to pop	up an input dialog to copy the currently selected file
       (or the tagged files, if	there is at least one file tagged) to the  di-
       rectory/filename	 you specify in	the input dialog.  The destination de-
       faults to the directory in the non-selected  panel.  For	 more  details
       look  at	 Copy (F5) operation above, most of the	things are quite simi-
       lar.

       F16 (usually F16) is similar, but defaults to the directory in the  se-
       lected  panel.  It  always operates on the selected file, regardless of
       any tagged files.

       On some systems,	it is possible to do the copy  in  the	background  by
       clicking	 on  the  background  button  (or pressing Alt-b in the	dialog
       box).  The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Mkdir (F7)

       Pop up an input dialog and creates the directory	specified.

       Delete (F8)

       Delete the currently selected file or the tagged	files in the currently
       selected	 panel.	 During	the process, you can press C-c or Esc to abort
       the operation.

       Quick cd	(Alt-c)	Use the	quick cd command if you	have full command line
       and want	to cd somewhere.

       Select group (+)

       This  is	used to	select (tag) a group of	files. Midnight	Commander will
       prompt for a selection options. When Files only checkbox	 is  on,  only
       files  will be selected.	 If Files only is off, as files	as directories
       will be selected.  When Shell Patterns checkbox is on, the regular  ex-
       pression	 is  much  like	the filename globbing in the shell (* standing
       for zero	or more	characters and ?   standing  for  one  character).  If
       Shell  Patterns	is  off, then the tagging of files is done with	normal
       regular expressions (see	ed (1)). When Case sensitive checkbox  is  on,
       the  selection will be case sensitive characters.  If Case sensitive is
       off, the	case will be ignored.

       Unselect	group (\)

       Used to unselect	a group	of files. This is the opposite of  the	Select
       group command.

       Quit (F10, S-F10)

       Terminate  Midnight  Commander. S-F10 is	used when you want to quit and
       you are using the shell wrapper.	 S-F10 will not	take you to  the  last
       directory  you visited with Midnight Commander, instead it will stay at
       the directory where you started Midnight	Commander.

    Quick cd
       This command is useful if you have a full command line and want	to  cd
       somewhere  without having to yank and paste the command line. This com-
       mand pops up a small dialog, where you enter everything you would enter
       after  cd  on  the command line and then	you press enter. This features
       all the things that are already in the internal cd command.

  Command Menu
       The Directory tree command shows	a tree figure of the directories.

       The "Find file" command allows you to search for	a specific file.

       The "Swap panels" command swaps the contents of the two directory  pan-
       els.

       The  "Switch  panels on/off" command shows the output of	the last shell
       command.	 This works only on xterm and on Linux and FreeBSD console.

       The "Compare directories" command compares the  directory  panels  with
       each  other.  You can then use the Copy (F5) command to make the	panels
       identical. There	are three compare methods. The quick  method  compares
       only  file  size	 and  file  date.  The	thorough  method  makes	a full
       byte-by-byte compare. The thorough method is not	available if  the  ma-
       chine  does not support the mmap(2) system call.	 The size-only compare
       method just compares the	file sizes and does not	check the contents  or
       the date	times, it just checks the file size.

       The  "External panelize"	allows you to execute an external program, and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       The "Command history" command shows a list of typed commands.  The  se-
       lected  command	is copied to the command line. The command history can
       also be accessed	by typing Alt-p	or Alt-n.

       The "Directory hotlist" command makes changing of the current directory
       to often	used directories faster.

       The  "Screen  list" command shows a dialog window with the list of cur-
       rently running internal editors,	viewers	and other MC modules that sup-
       port this mode.

       The "Edit extension file" command allows	you to specify programs	to ex-
       ecuted when you try to execute, view, edit and  do  a  bunch  of	 other
       thing on	files with certain extensions (filename	endings).

       The  "Edit  Menu	 File"	command	 may be	used for editing the user menu
       (which appears by pressing F2).

    Directory Tree
       The Directory Tree command shows	a tree figure of the directories.  You
       can  select  a  directory  from	the figure and Midnight	Commander will
       change to that directory.

       There are two ways to invoke the	tree. The real directory tree  command
       is  available  from Commands menu. The other way	is to select tree view
       from the	Left or	Right menu.

       To get rid of long delays, Midnight Commander creates the  tree	figure
       by  scanning  only a small subset of all	the directories. If the	direc-
       tory which you want to see is missing, move to its parent directory and
       press C-r (or F2).

       You can use the following keys:

       General movement	keys
	      are accepted.

       Enter. In  the  directory tree, exits the directory tree	and changes to
	      this directory in	the current panel. In the tree	view,  changes
	      to this directory	in the other panel and stays in	tree view mode
	      in the current panel.

       C-r, F2 (Rescan).
	      Rescan this directory. Use this when the tree figure is  out  of
	      date:  it	is missing subdirectories or shows some	subdirectories
	      which don't exist	any more.

       F3 (Forget).
	      Delete this directory from the tree figure. Use this  to	remove
	      clutter  from  the figure. If you	want the directory back	to the
	      tree figure press	F2 in its parent directory.

       F4 (Static/Dynamic).
	      Toggle between the dynamic navigation  mode  (default)  and  the
	      static navigation	mode.

       In  the	static navigation mode you can use the Up and Down keys	to se-
       lect a directory. All known directories are shown.

       In the dynamic navigation mode you can use the Up and Down keys to  se-
       lect a sibling directory, the Left key to move to the parent directory,
       and the Right key to move to a child directory. Only the	 parent,  sib-
       ling  and children directories are shown, others	are left out. The tree
       figure changes dynamically as you traverse.

       F5 (Copy).
	      Copy the directory.

       F6 (RenMov).
	      Move the directory.

       F7 (Mkdir).
	      Make a new directory below this directory.

       F8 (Delete).
	      Delete this directory from the file system.

       C-s, Alt-s.
	      Search the next directory	matching the search string.  If	 there
	      is no such directory these keys will move	one line down.

       C-h, Backspace.
	      Delete the last character	of the search string.

       Any other character.
	      Add  the character to the	search string and move to the next di-
	      rectory which starts with	these characters. In the tree view you
	      must  first activate the search mode by pressing C-s. The	search
	      string is	shown in the mini status line.

       The following actions are available only	in the	directory  tree.  They
       aren't supported	in the tree view.

       F1 (Help).
	      Invoke the help viewer and show this section.

       Esc, F10.
	      Exit the directory tree. Do not change the directory.

       The mouse is supported. A double-click behaves like Enter. See also the
       section on mouse	support.

    Find File
       The Find	File feature first asks	for the	start directory	for the	search
       and  the	 filename  to be searched for. By pressing the Tree button you
       can select the start directory from the directory tree figure.

       The "File name" input field contains a filename pattern to be  searched
       for.  It	 is  interpreted as a shell pattern or as a regular expression
       depending on the	state of the "Using shell patterns" checkbox. An empty
       value is	valid and matches any file name.

       The  "Content"  input  field contains a string to search	for within the
       files. Leave this field empty to	disable	searching file contents.

       Option "Whole words" allows select only those files containing  matches
       that form whole words. Like grep	-w.

       You  can	start the search by pressing the OK button.  During the	search
       you can stop from the Stop button and continue from the Start button.

       You can browse the filelist with	the up and down	arrow keys. The	 Chdir
       button will change to the directory of the currently selected file. The
       Again button will ask for the parameters	for a  new  search.  The  Quit
       button  quits  the search operation. The	Panelize button	will place the
       found files to the current directory panel so that  you	can  do	 addi-
       tional  operations on them (view, copy, move, delete and	so on).	To re-
       turn to the normal file listing,	change directory to "..".

       The 'Enable ignore directories' checkbox	and input field	below it allow
       one  to	set  up	the list of directories	that should be skip during the
       search files (for example, you may want to avoid	searches on  a	CD-ROM
       or  on a	NFS directory that is mounted across a slow link). List	compo-
       nents must be separated with a colon, here is an	example:

       /cdrom:/nfs/wuarchive:/afs

       Relative	paths are supported also. The following	example	shows  how  to
       skip special directories	of version control systems:
       /cdrom:/nfs/wuarchive:/afs:.svn:.git:CVS

       Attention:  input  field	 can contain a dot (.),	this means the current
       absolute	path.

       You may consider	using the External panelize command  for  some	opera-
       tions. Find file	command	is for simple queries only, while using	Exter-
       nal panelize you	can do as mysterious searches as you would like.

    External panelize
       The External panelize allows you	to execute an  external	 program,  and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       For  example,  if  you  want to manipulate in one of the	panels all the
       symbolic	links in the current directory,	you can	use external paneliza-
       tion to run the following command:

       find . -type l -print

       Upon  command  completion,  the directory contents of the panel will no
       longer be the directory listing of the current directory, but  all  the
       files that are symbolic links.

       If you want to panelize all of the files	that have been downloaded from
       your FTP	server,	you can	use this awk command to	extract	the file  name
       from the	transfer log files:

       awk '$9 ~! /incoming/ { print $9	}' < /var/log/xferlog

       You  may	 want to save often used panelize commands under a descriptive
       name, so	that you can recall them quickly. You do this  by  typing  the
       command on the input line and pressing Add new button. Then you enter a
       name under which	you want the command to	be saved. Next time, you  just
       choose that command from	the list and do	not have to type it again.

    Hotlist
       The  Directory  hotlist	command	shows the labels of the	directories in
       the directory hotlist. Midnight Commander will change to	the  directory
       corresponding  to the selected label.  From the hotlist dialog, you can
       remove already created label/directory pairs and	add new	ones.  To  add
       new  directories	 quickly,  you can use the Add to hotlist command (C-x
       h), which adds the current directory into the directory hotlist,	asking
       just for	the label for the directory.

       This  makes cd to often used directories	faster.	You may	consider using
       the CDPATH variable as described	in internal cd command description.

    Edit Extension File
       This will invoke	your editor on the file	~/.config/mc/mc.ext.  The for-
       mat of this file	following:

       All lines starting with # or empty lines	are thrown away.

       Lines starting in the first column should have following	format:

       keyword/expr, i.e. everything after the slash until new line is expr.

       keyword can be:

       shell  -	expr is	an extension (no wildcards).  File matches it its name
	      ends with	expr.  Example:	shell/.tar matches *.tar.

       regex  -	expr is	a  regular  expression.	  File	matches	 if  its  name
	      matches the regular expression.

       directory
	      -	 expr is a regular expression.	File matches if	it is a	direc-
	      tory and its name	matches	the regular expression.

       type   -	expr is	a regular expression.  File matches if the  output  of
	      file %f without the initial "filename:" part matches regular ex-
	      pression expr.

       default
	      -	matches	any file.  expr	is ignored.

       include
	      -	denotes	a common section.  expr	is the name of the section.

       Other lines should start	with a space or	tab and	should be of the  for-
       mat:  keyword=command  (with  no	spaces around =), where	keyword	should
       be: Open	(invoked on Enter or double click), View (F3),	Edit  (F4)  or
       Include	(to  add  rules	 from  the  common  section).	command	is any
       one-line	shell command, with the	simple macro substitution.

       Rules are matched from top to bottom, thus the order is important.   If
       the  appropriate	 action	 is  missing, search continues as if this rule
       didn't match (i.e. if a file matches the	first  and  second  entry  and
       View  action  is	missing	in the first one, then on pressing F3 the View
       action from the second entry will be used).  default should  match  all
       the actions.

    Background Jobs
       This  lets  you	control	the state of any background Midnight Commander
       process (only copy and move files operations can	be done	in  the	 back-
       ground).	 You can stop, restart and kill	a background job from here.

    Edit Menu File
       The user	menu is	a menu of useful actions that can be customized	by the
       user. When you access the user menu, the	file .mc.menu from the current
       directory is used if it exists, but only	if it is owned by user or root
       and is not world-writable.  If no such file found, ~/.config/mc/menu is
       tried  in  the  same way, and otherwise mc uses the default system-wide
       menu /usr/local/share/mc/mc.menu.

       The format of the menu file is very simple. Lines that start with  any-
       thing but space or tab are considered entries for the menu (in order to
       be able to use it like a	hot key, the first character should be a  let-
       ter).  All  the lines that start	with a space or	a tab are the commands
       that will be executed when the entry is selected.

       When an option is selected all the command  lines  of  the  option  are
       copied  to  a  temporary	 file  in  the	temporary  directory  (usually
       /usr/tmp) and then that file is executed. This allows the user  to  put
       normal  shell  constructs  in the menus.	Also simple macro substitution
       takes place before executing the	menu code. For more  information,  see
       macro substitution.

       Here is a sample	mc.menu	file:

       A    Dump the currently selected	file
	    od -c %f

       B    Edit a bug report and send it to root
	    I=`mktemp ${MC_TMPDIR:-/tmp}/mail.XXXXXX` || exit 1
	    vi $I
	    mail -s "Midnight Commander	bug" root < $I
	    rm -f $I

       M    Read mail
	    emacs -f rmail

       N    Read Usenet	news
	    emacs -f gnus

       H    Call the info hypertext browser
	    info

       J    Copy current directory to other panel recursively
	    tar	cf - . | (cd %D	&& tar xvpf -)

       K    Make a release of the current subdirectory
	    echo -n "Name of distribution file:	"
	    read tar
	    ln -s %d `dirname %d`/$tar
	    cd ..
	    tar	cvhf ${tar}.tar	$tar

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       X       Extract the contents of a compressed tar	file
	    tar	xzvf %f

       Default Conditions

       Each  menu  entry  may  be  preceded by a condition. The	condition must
       start from the first column with	a '=' character. If the	 condition  is
       true, the menu entry will be the	default	entry.

       Condition syntax:   = <sub-cond>
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	| <sub-cond> ...
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	& <sub-cond> ...

       Sub-condition is	one of following:

	 y <pattern>	   syntax of current file matching pattern?
		      (for edit	menu only)
	 f <pattern>	   current file	matching pattern?
	 F <pattern>	   other file matching pattern?
	 d <pattern>	   current directory matching pattern?
	 D <pattern>	   other directory matching pattern?
	 t <type>	   current file	of type?
	 T <type>	   other file of type?
	 x <filename>	   is it executable filename?
	 ! <sub-cond>	   negate the result of	sub-condition

       Pattern is a normal shell pattern or a regular expression, according to
       the shell patterns option. You can override the	global	value  of  the
       shell  patterns	option by writing "shell_patterns=x" on	the first line
       of the menu file	(where "x" is either 0 or 1).

       Type is one or more of the following characters:

	 n  not	a directory
	 r  regular file
	 d  directory
	 l  link
	 c  character device
	 b  block device
	 f  FIFO (pipe)
	 s  socket
	 x  executable file
	 t  tagged

       For example 'rlf' means either regular file, link or fifo. The 't' type
       is  a  little special because it	acts on	the panel instead of the file.
       The condition '=t t' is true if there are tagged	files in  the  current
       panel and false if not.

       If  the condition starts	with '=?' instead of '=' a debug trace will be
       shown whenever the value	of the condition is calculated.

       The conditions are calculated from left to right. This means
	    = f	*.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       is calculated as
	    ( (f *.tar.gz) | (f	*.tgz) ) & (t n)

       Here is a sample	of the use of conditions:

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       L    List the contents of a compressed tar-archive
	    gzip -cd %f	| tar xvf -

       Addition	Conditions

       If the condition	begins with '+'	(or '+?') instead of '=' (or '=?')  it
       is  an addition condition. If the condition is true the menu entry will
       be included in the menu.	If the condition is false the menu entry  will
       not be included in the menu.

       You  can	 combine default and addition conditions by starting condition
       with '+=' or '=+' (or '+=?' or '=+?' if you want	debug trace).  If  you
       want  to	 use  two different conditions,	one for	adding and another for
       defaulting, you can precede a menu entry	with two condition lines,  one
       starting	with '+' and another starting with '='.

       Comments	 are started with '#'. The additional comment lines must start
       with '#', space or tab.

  Options Menu
       Midnight	Commander has some options that	may be toggled on and  off  in
       several	dialogs	 which	are accessible from this menu. Options are en-
       abled if	they have an asterisk or "x" in	front of them.

       The Configuration command pops up a dialog from which  you  can	change
       most of settings	of Midnight Commander.

       The  Layout  command pops up a dialog from which	you specify a bunch of
       options how mc looks like on the	screen.

       The Panel options command pops up a dialog from which you  specify  op-
       tions of	file manager panels.

       The  Confirmation command pops up a dialog from which you specify which
       actions you want	to confirm.

       The Appearance command pops up a	dialog	from  which  you  specify  the
       skin.

       The  Display  bits  command  pops up a dialog from which	you may	select
       which characters	is your	terminal able to display.

       The Learn keys command pops up a	dialog from which you test  some  keys
       which are not working on	some terminals and you may fix them.

       The Virtual FS command pops up a	dialog from which you specify some VFS
       related options.

       The Save	setup command saves the	current	settings of  the  Left,	 Right
       and Options menus. A small number of other settings is saved, too.

    Configuration
       The options in this dialog are divided into several groups: "File oper-
       ation options", "Esc key	mode", "Pause after run" and "Other options".

       File operation options

       Verbose operation.  This	toggles	whether	 the  file  Copy,  Rename  and
       Delete  operations are verbose (i.e., display a dialog box for each op-
       eration). If you	have a slow terminal, you may wish to disable the ver-
       bose  operation.	 It  is	 automatically turned off if the speed of your
       terminal	is less	than 9600 bps.

       Compute totals.	If this	option is enabled, Midnight Commander computes
       total  byte  sizes  and total number of files prior to any Copy,	Rename
       and Delete operations. This will	 provide  you  with  a	more  accurate
       progress	 bar  at the expense of	some speed. This option	has no effect,
       if Verbose operation is disabled.

       Classic progressbar.  If	this option is	enabled,  the  progressbar  of
       Copy/Move/Delete	operations is always grown form	left to	right. If dis-
       abled, the growing direction of progressbar  follows  to	 direction  of
       Copy/Move/Delete	 operation:  from  left	 panel	to  right one and vice
       versa. Enabled by default.

       Mkdir autoname.	When you press F7 to create a new directory, the input
       line  in	 popup dialog will be filled by	name of	current	file or	direc-
       tory in active panel.  Disabled by default.

       Preallocate space.  Preallocate space for whole target file, if	possi-
       ble, before copy	operation.  Disabled by	default.

       Esc key mode.

       By  default,  Midnight  Commander  treats  the Esc key as a key prefix.
       Therefore, you should press Esc code twice to exit a dialog. But	 there
       is a possibility	to use a single	press of Esc key for that action.

       Single press.  By default this option is	disabled. If you'll enable it,
       the Esc key will	act as a prefix	key for	 set  up  time	interval  (see
       Timeout	option below), and if no extra keys have arrived, then the Esc
       key is interpreted as a cancel key (Esc Esc).

       Timeout.	 This options is used to setup the time	interval (in microsec-
       onds)  for  single  press  of Esc key. By default, this interval	is one
       second (1000000 microseconds). Also the timeout can  be	set  via  KEY-
       BOARD_KEY_TIMEOUT_US environment	variable (also in microseconds), which
       has higher priority than	Timeout	option value.

       Pause after run

       After executing your commands, Midnight Commander can  pause,  so  that
       you  can	 examine  the output of	the command.  There are	three possible
       settings	for this variable:

       Never.  Means that you do not want to see the output of	your  command.
       If  you are using the Linux or FreeBSD console or an xterm, you will be
       able to see the output of the command by	typing C-o.

       On dumb terminals.  You will get	the pause message  on  terminals  that
       are not capable of showing the output of	the last command executed (any
       terminal	that is	not an xterm or	the Linux console).

       Always.	The program will pause after executing all of your commands.

       Other options

       Use internal editor.  If	this option is enabled,	the built-in file edi-
       tor is used to edit files. If the option	is disabled, the editor	speci-
       fied in the EDITOR environment variable is used.	 If no editor is spec-
       ified, vi is used.  See the section on the internal file	editor.

       Use  internal  viewer.	If  this  option is enabled, the built-in file
       viewer is used to view files. If	the  option  is	 disabled,  the	 pager
       specified  in  the  PAGER environment variable is used.	If no pager is
       specified, the view command is used.  See the section on	 the  internal
       file viewer.

       Ask  new	 file name.  If	this option is enabled,	file name is asked be-
       fore open new file in editor.

       Auto menus.  If this option is enabled, the user	menu will  be  invoked
       at startup.  Useful for building	menus for non-unixers.

       Drop down menus.	 When this option is enabled, the pull down menus will
       be activated as soon as you press the F9	key. Otherwise,	you will  only
       get  the	menu title, and	you will have to activate the menu either with
       the arrow keys or with the hotkeys. It is recommended if	you are	 using
       hotkeys.

       Shell  Patterns.	  By  default the Select, Unselect and Filter commands
       will use	shell-like regular expressions.	The following conversions  are
       performed  to  achieve  this: the '*' is	replaced by '.*' (zero or more
       characters); the	'?'  is	replaced by '.'	(exactly  one  character)  and
       '.' by the literal dot. If the option is	disabled, then the regular ex-
       pressions are the ones described	in ed(1).

       Complete: show all.  By default,	Midnight Commander pops	up all	possi-
       ble  completions	 if  the  completion  is ambiguous only	when you press
       Alt-Tab for the second time.  For the first time, it just completes  as
       much  as	 possible and beeps in the case	of ambiguity.  Enable this op-
       tion if you want	to see all possible completions	 even  after  pressing
       Alt-Tab the first time.

       Rotating	dash.  If this option is enabled, the Midnight Commander shows
       a rotating dash in the upper right corner as a work in progress indica-
       tor.

       Cd  follows  links.   This option, if set, causes Midnight Commander to
       follow the logical chain	of directories when changing current directory
       either  in the panels, or using the cd command. This is the default be-
       havior of bash. When unset, Midnight Commander follows the real	direc-
       tory  structure,	 so  cd	 .. if you've entered that directory through a
       link will move you to the current directory's real parent  and  not  to
       the directory where the link was	present.

       Safe  delete.   If this option is enabled, deleting files and directory
       hotlist entries unintentionally becomes more  difficult.	  The  default
       selection  in the confirmation dialogs for deletion changes from	Yes to
       No.  This option	is disabled by default.

       Safe overwrite.	If this	option is enabled, overwriting files  uninten-
       tionally	 becomes  more	difficult.  The	default	selection in the over-
       write confirmation dialog changes from Yes to No.  This option is  dis-
       abled by	default.

       Auto  save  setup.   If	this option is enabled,	when you exit Midnight
       Commander, the configurable options of Midnight Commander are saved  in
       the ~/.config/mc/ini file.

    Layout
       The  layout dialog gives	you a possibility to change the	general	layout
       of screen. The options in this dialog are divided into several  groups:
       "Panel split", "Console output" and "Other options".

       Panel split

       The  rest  of the screen	area is	used for the two directory panels. You
       can specify whether the area is split to	the panels in Vertical or Hor-
       izontal	direction. Panel layout	can be changed using Alt-, (Alt-comma)
       shortcut.

       Equal split.  By	default, panels	have equal sizes.  Using  this	option
       you can specify an unequal split.

       Console output

       On  the	Linux  or  FreeBSD  console you	can specify how	many lines are
       shown in	the output window. This	option is available if	Midnight  Com-
       mander runs on native console only.

       Other options

       Menu  bar  visible.  If enabled,	main menu of Midnight Commander	is al-
       ways visible on the top row of screen above panels. Enabled by default.

       Command prompt.	If enabled, command line is available. Enabled by  de-
       fault.

       Keybar  visible.	 If enabled, 10	labels associated with F1-F10 keys are
       located at the bottom row of screen. Enabled by default.

       Hintbar visible.	 If enabled, the one-line hints	are visible below pan-
       els. Enabled by default.

       XTerm  window title.  When run in a terminal emulator for X11, Midnight
       Commander sets the terminal window title	to the current working	direc-
       tory  and updates it when necessary.  If	your terminal emulator is bro-
       ken and you see some incorrect output on	startup	and directory  change,
       turn off	this option.  Enabled by default.

       Show  free  space.   If	enabled, free space and	total space of current
       file system is shown at the bottom frame	of panel. Enabled by default.

    Panel options
       Main panel options

       Show mini-status.  If enabled, one line of status information about the
       currently  selected  item is shown at the bottom	of the panels. Enabled
       by default.

       Use SI size units.  If this option is enabled, Midnight Commander  will
       use  SI	prefixes (base 10) when	displaying any byte sizes. If disabled
       (default), Midnight Commander will use IEC prefixes (base 2).

       Mix all files.  If this option is enabled, all  files  and  directories
       are  shown mixed	together.  If the option is disabled (default),	direc-
       tories (and links to directories) are shown at  the  beginning  of  the
       listing,	and other files	below.

       Show backup files.  If enabled, Midnight	Commander will show files end-
       ing with	a tilde.  Otherwise, they won't	be shown (like GNU's ls	option
       -B). Enabled by default.

       Show  hidden files.  If enabled,	Midnight Commander will	show all files
       that start with a dot (like ls -a). Disabled by default.

       Fast directory reload.  If this option is enabled,  Midnight  Commander
       will  use  a trick to determine if the directory	contents have changed.
       The trick is to reload the directory only if the	i-node of  the	direc-
       tory  has  changed;  this means that reloads only happen	when files are
       created or deleted.  If what changes is the i-node for a	 file  in  the
       directory  (file	 size changes, mode or owner changes, etc) the display
       is not updated.	In these cases,	if you have the	option on, you have to
       rescan the directory manually (with C-r). Disabled by default.

       Mark moves down.	 If enabled, the selection bar will move down when you
       mark a file (with Insert	key). Enabled by default.

       Reverse files only.  Allow revert selection of files only.  Enabled  by
       default.	  If  enabled, the reverse selection is	applied	to files only,
       not to directories.  The	selection of directories is untouched. If off,
       the  reverse  selection is applied to files as well to directories: all
       unselected items	become selected, and vice versa.

       Simple swap.  If	both panels contain file listing,  simple  swap	 means
       that panels exchange its	screen positions: left panel become right one,
       and vice	versa. If this option is unchecked, file  listing  panels  ex-
       change  its  content keeping listing format and sort options. Unchecked
       by default.

       Auto save panels	setup.	If this	option is enabled, when	you exit  Mid-
       night  Commander,  the  current	settings  of  panels  are saved	in the
       ~/.config/mc/panels.ini file.  Disabled by default.

       Navigation

       Lynx-like motion.  If this option is enabled, you may  use  the	arrows
       keys  to	automatically chdir if the current selection is	a subdirectory
       and the shell command line is empty. By default,	this setting is	off.

       Page scrolling.	If set (the default), panel will scroll	 by  half  the
       display	when the cursor	reaches	the end	or the beginning of the	panel,
       otherwise it will just scroll a file at a time.

       Center scrolling.  If set, panel	will scroll when  the  cursor  reaches
       the  middle  of the panel column, only hitting the top or bottom	of the
       panel when actually on the first	or last	file.  This  behavior  applies
       when  scrolling	one  file  at  a  time,	and does not apply to the page
       up/down keys.

       Mouse page scrolling.  Controls whenever	scrolling with the mouse wheel
       is done by pages	or line	by line	on the panels.

       File highlight

       You  can	 specify  whether  permissions	and file types should be high-
       lighted with distinctive	Colors.	 If the	permission highlighting	is en-
       abled, the parts	of the perm and	mode display fields which apply	to the
       user running Midnight Commander are highlighted with the	color  defined
       by  the	selected  keyword.   If	the file type highlighting is enabled,
       file names  are	colored	 according  to	rules  described  in  /usr/lo-
       cal/etc/mc/filehighlight.ini  file.  See	 Filenames  Highlight for more
       info.

       Quick search

       You can specify how the Quick search mode should	 work:	case  insensi-
       tively,	case  sensitively  or be matched to the	panel sort order: case
       sensitive or not.

    Confirmation
       In this dialog you configure the	confirmation options  for  file	 dele-
       tion, overwriting files,	execution by pressing enter, quitting the pro-
       gram, directory hotlist entries deletion	and history cleanup.

    Appearance
       In this dialog you can select the skin to be used and enable shadow for
       dialogs and drop	down menus.

       See  the	 Skins section for technical details about the skin definition
       files.

       Shadows.	 If this option	is enabled, all	dialogs	and  drop  down	 menus
       will have a shadow.

    Display bits
       This  is	 used  to  configure  the  range  of visible characters	on the
       screen.	This setting may be 7-bits if  your  terminal/curses  supports
       only  seven  output bits, ISO-8859-1 displays all the characters	in the
       ISO-8859-1 map and full 8 bits is for those terminals that can  display
       full 8 bit characters.

    Learn keys
       This dialog allows you to test and redefine functional keys, cursor ar-
       rows and	some other keys	to make	them work properly on  your  terminal.
       They  often don't, since	many terminal databases	are incomplete or bro-
       ken.

       You can move around with	the Tab	key and	with the vi moving  keys  ('h'
       left, 'j' down, 'k' up and 'l' right).  Once you	press any cursor move-
       ment key	and it is recognized, you can use that key as well.

       You can test keys just by pressing each of them.	 When you press	a  key
       and  it	is  recognized	properly, OK should appear next	to the name of
       that key.  Once a key is	marked OK it starts working as	usually,  e.g.
       F1  pressed  the	 first time will just check that the F1	key works, but
       after that it will show help.  The same applies to the arrow keys.  The
       Tab key should be working always.

       If  some	 keys  do not work properly then you won't see OK appear after
       pressing	one of these.  Then you	may want to redefine  it.   Do	it  by
       pressing	 the  button with the name of that key (either by the mouse or
       by Enter	or Space after selecting the button with Tab or	arrows).  Then
       a message box will appear asking	you to press that key.	Do it and wait
       until the message box disappears.  If you want to abort,	just press Es-
       cape once and wait.

       When  you finish	with all the keys, you can Save	them.  The definitions
       for the keys you	have  redefined	 will  be  written  into  the  [termi-
       nal:TERM] section of your ~/.config/mc/ini file (where TERM is the name
       of your current terminal).  The definitions of the keys that  were  al-
       ready working properly are not saved.

    Virtual FS
       This  option  gives  you	 control over the settings of the Virtual File
       System.

       Midnight	Commander keeps	in memory the information related to  some  of
       the  virtual  file  systems  to speed up	the access to the files	in the
       file system (for	example, directory listings fetched from FTP servers).

       Also, in	order to access	the contents of	compressed files (for example,
       compressed tar files), Midnight Commander needs to create temporary un-
       compressed files	on your	disk.

       Since both the information in memory and	the temporary  files  on  disk
       take  up	 resources,  you may want to tune the parameters of the	cached
       information to decrease your resource usage or to maximize the speed of
       access to frequently used file systems.

       Because	of the format of the tar archives, the Tar filesystem needs to
       read the	whole file just	to load	the  file  entries.   Since  most  tar
       files  are  usually kept	compressed (plain tar files are	species	in ex-
       tinction), the tar file system has to uncompress	the file on  the  disk
       in a temporary location and then	access the uncompressed	file as	a reg-
       ular tar	file.

       Now, since we all love to browse	files and tar files all	over the disk,
       it's  common that you will leave	a tar file and then re-enter it	later.
       Since decompression is slow, Midnight Commander will cache the informa-
       tion  in	 memory	for a limited time.  When the timeout expires, all the
       resources associated with the file system are  released.	  The  default
       timeout is set to one minute.

       The  FTP	File System (ftpfs) allows you to browse directories on	remote
       FTP servers.  It	has several options.

       ftp anonymous password is the password used when	you login  as  "anony-
       mous".	Some sites require a valid e-mail address.  On the other hand,
       you probably don't want to give your real e-mail	address	 to  untrusted
       sites, especially if you	are not	using spam filtering.

       ftpfs  keeps  the  directory  listing it	fetches	from a FTP server in a
       cache.  The cache expire	time is	configurable with the ftpfs  directory
       cache  timeout option.  A low value for this option may slow down every
       operation on the	ftpfs because every operation would require sending  a
       request to the FTP server.

       You  can	define an FTP proxy host for doing FTP.	 Note that most	modern
       firewalls are fully transparent at least	for passive FTP	 (see  below),
       so FTP proxies are considered obsolete.

       If Always use ftp proxy is not set, you can use the exclamation sign to
       enable proxy for	certain	hosts.	See FTP	File System for	examples.

       If this option is set, the program will	do  two	 things:  consult  the
       /usr/local/lib/mc/mc.no_proxy file for lines containing host names that
       are local (if the host name starts with a dot, it is assumed  to	 be  a
       domain)	and  to	 assume	that any hostnames without dots	in their names
       are directly accessible.	 All other hosts will be accessed through  the
       specified FTP proxy.

       You  can	 enable	using ~/.netrc file, which keeps login names and pass-
       words for ftp servers.  See netrc (5) for the description of the	.netrc
       format.

       Use  passive  mode  enables using FTP passive mode, when	the connection
       for data	transfer is initiated by the client, not by the	server.	  This
       option is recommended and enabled by default.  If this option is	turned
       off, the	data connection	is initiated by	the server.  This may not work
       with some firewalls.

    Save Setup
       At startup, Midnight Commander tries to load initialization information
       from the	~/.config/mc/ini file.	If this	file doesn't exist,  the  sys-
       tem-wide	 file  /usr/local/etc/mc/mc.ini	 is used. If this file doesn't
       exist, the system-wide file /usr/local/share/mc/mc.ini is used. If this
       file doesn't exist, MC uses the default settings.

       The  Save Setup command creates the ~/.config/mc/ini file by saving the
       current settings	of the Left, Right and Options menus.

       If you activate the auto	save setup option, MC  will  always  save  the
       current settings	when exiting.

       There  also  exist  settings  which can't be changed from the menus. To
       change these settings you have to edit the setup	 file  with  your  fa-
       vorite  editor.	See  the section on Special Settings for more informa-
       tion.

Executing operating system commands
       You may execute commands	by typing them directly	 in  Midnight  Comman-
       der's  input line, or by	selecting the program you want to execute with
       the selection bar in one	of the panels and hitting Enter.

       If you press Enter over a file that is not executable, Midnight Comman-
       der checks the extension	of the selected	file against the extensions in
       the Extensions File.  If	a match	is found then the code associated with
       that  extension	is executed. A very simple macro expansion takes place
       before executing	the command.

  The cd internal command
       The cd command is interpreted by	Midnight Commander, it is  not	passed
       to  the command shell for execution.  Thus it may not handle all	of the
       nice macro expansion and	substitution that your shell does, although it
       does some of them:

       Tilde  substitution.  The (~) will be substituted with your home	direc-
       tory, if	you append a username after the	tilde, then it will be substi-
       tuted with the login directory of the specified user.

       For  example,  ~guest  is  the home directory for the user guest, while
       ~/guest is the directory	guest in your home directory.

       Previous	directory.  You	can jump to the	directory you were  previously
       by using	the special directory name '-' like this: cd -

       CDPATH  directories.   If  the directory	specified to the cd command is
       not in the current directory, then Midnight Commander uses the value in
       the  environment	 variable CDPATH to search for the directory in	any of
       the named directories.

       For example you could set your CDPATH variable to  ~/src:/usr/src,  al-
       lowing  you  to	change your directory to any of	the directories	inside
       the ~/src and /usr/src directories, from	any place in the  file	system
       by  using  its  relative	 name  (for example cd linux could take	you to
       /usr/src/linux).

  Macro	Substitution
       When accessing a	user menu, or executing	an  extension  dependent  com-
       mand,  or running a command from	the command line input,	a simple macro
       substitution takes place.

       The macros are:

       %i     The indent of blank space, equal	the  cursor  column  position.
	      For edit menu only.

       %y     The syntax type of current file. For edit	menu only.

       %k     The block	file name.

       %e     The error	file name.

       %m     The current menu name.

       %f and %p
	      In  file	manager	 user  menu: the current file name in selected
	      panel.  In mcedit	user menu: the name of opened file.

       %x     The extension of current file name.

       %b     The current file name without extension.

       %d     The current directory name.

       %F     The current file in the unselected panel.

       %D     The directory name of the	unselected panel.

       %t     The currently tagged files.

       %T     The tagged files in the unselected panel.

       %u and %U
	      Similar to the %t	and %T macros, but in addition the  files  are
	      untagged.	  You can use this macro only once per menu file entry
	      or extension file	entry, because next  time  there  will	be  no
	      tagged files.

       %s and %S
	      The selected files: The tagged files if there are	any. Otherwise
	      the current file.

       %cd    This is a	special	macro that is used to change the  current  di-
	      rectory to the directory specified in front of it.  This is used
	      primarily	as an interface	to the Virtual File System.

       %view  This macro is used to invoke the internal	 viewer.   This	 macro
	      can be used alone, or with arguments.  If	you pass any arguments
	      to this macro, they should be enclosed in	brackets.

	      The arguments are: ascii to force	the viewer  into  ascii	 mode;
	      hex  to force the	viewer into hex	mode; nroff to tell the	viewer
	      that it should interpret the bold	 and  underline	 sequences  of
	      nroff;  unformatted  to  tell  the viewer	to not interpret nroff
	      commands for making the text bold	or underlined.

       %%     The % character

       %{some text}
	      Prompt for the substitution. An input box	is shown and the  text
	      inside  the braces is used as a prompt. The macro	is substituted
	      by the text typed	by the user. The user can press	Esc or F10  to
	      cancel. This macro doesn't work on the command line yet.

       %var{ENV:default}
	      If  environment  variable	 ENV  is unset,	the default is substi-
	      tuted.  Otherwise, the value of ENV is substituted.

  The subshell support
       The subshell support is a compile time  option,	that  works  with  the
       shells: bash, ash (BusyBox and Debian), tcsh, zsh and fish.

       When  the  subshell  support is active, Midnight	Commander will spawn a
       concurrent copy of your shell (the one defined in  the  SHELL  variable
       and if it is not	defined, then the one in the /etc/passwd file) and run
       it in a pseudo terminal,	instead	of invoking a new shell	each time  you
       execute a command, the command will be passed to	the subshell as	if you
       had typed it.  This also	allows you to  change  the  environment	 vari-
       ables,  use shell functions and define aliases that are valid until you
       quit Midnight Commander.

       bash users may specify  startup	commands  in  ~/.local/share/mc/bashrc
       (fallback ~/.bashrc) and	special	keyboard maps in ~/.local/share/mc/in-
       putrc (fallback ~/.inputrc).

       ash/dash	users (BusyBox or Debian)  may	specify	 startup  commands  in
       ~/.local/share/mc/ashrc (fallback ~/.profile).

       zsh  users  may	specify	 startup  commands in ~/.local/share/mc/.zshrc
       (fallback ~/.zshrc).

       tcsh,  fish  users  cannot  specify  mc-specific	 startup  commands  at
       present.	They have to rely on shell-specific startup files.

       The following paragraphs	are relevant only when the subshell support is
       active:

       You can suspend applications at any time	with the sequence C-o and jump
       back  to	 Midnight Commander, if	you interrupt an application, you will
       not be able to run other	external commands until	you quit the  applica-
       tion you	interrupted.

       The  basic  prompt  displayed  by  Midnight  Commander  is  of the form
       "user@host:current_path$	". When	using a	capable	shell, like Bash,  the
       prompt displayed	by Midnight Commander will be the same prompt that you
       are currently using in your shell.

       (There's	a known	problem	when using fish: the prompt is displayed  only
       in full screen mode (Ctrl-o), not when the panels are visible.)

       The  OPTIONS  section  has more information on how you can control sub-
       shell usage (-U/-u).  Furthermore, to set a specific subshell different
       from your current SHELL variable	or login shell defined in /etc/passwd,
       you may call MC like this: SHELL=/bin/myshell mc

Chmod
       The Chmod window	is used	to change the attribute	bits  in  a  group  of
       files  and  directories.	 It can	be invoked with	the C-x	c key combina-
       tion.

       The Chmod window	has two	parts -	Permissions and	File.

       In the File section are displayed the name of the file or directory and
       its permissions in octal	form, as well as its owner and group.

       In the Permissions section there	is a set of check buttons which	corre-
       spond to	the file attribute bits.  As you change	 the  attribute	 bits,
       you can see the octal value change in the File section.

       To  move	 between the widgets (buttons and check	buttons) use the arrow
       keys or the Tab key.  To	change the state of the	check  buttons	or  to
       select a	button use Space.  You can also	use the	hotkeys	on the buttons
       to quickly activate them.  Hotkeys are shown as highlighted letters  on
       the buttons.

       To set the attribute bits, use the Enter	key.

       When  working  with  a group of files or	directories, you just click on
       the bits	you want to set	or clear.  Once	you have selected the bits you
       want  to	 change,  you  select one of the action	buttons	(Set marked or
       Clear marked).

       Finally,	to set the attributes exactly to those specified, you can  use
       the [Set	all] button, which will	act on all the tagged files.

       [Marked all] set	only marked attributes to all selected files

       [Set marked] set	marked bits in attributes of all selected files

       [Clean marked] clear marked bits	in attributes of all selected files

       [Set] set the attributes	of one file

       [Cancel]	cancel the Chmod command

Chown
       The  Chown command is used to change the	owner/group of a file. The hot
       key for this command is C-x o.

Advanced Chown
       The Advanced Chown command is the Chmod and Chown command combined into
       one  window. You	can change the permissions and owner/group of files at
       once.

Chattr
       The Chattr window is used to change the attributes of a group of	 files
       and  directories	on a Linux file	system.	It can be invoked with the C-x
       e key combination.

       Not all attributes are supported	or utilized by all filesystems.	  List
       of  available  attribute	flags is represented as	a set of check buttons
       which correspond	to the attribute flags (see chattr(1) for details). As
       you  change  the	attribute flags, you can see the symbolic value	change
       below file name.

       To move between the widgets (buttons and	check buttons) use  the	 arrow
       keys or the Tab key. To change the state	of the check buttons or	to se-
       lect a button use Space.

       To set the attributes, use the Enter key.

       When working with a group of files or directories, you  just  click  on
       the  flags  you	want to	set or clear. Once you have selected the flags
       you want	to change, you select one of the action	buttons	(Set marked or
       Clear marked).

       Finally,	 to set	the attributes exactly to those	specified, you can use
       the [Set	all] button, which will	act on all the tagged files.

       [Marked all] set	only marked attributes to all selected files.

       [Set marked] set	marked flags in	attributes of all selected files.

       [Clean marked] clear marked flags in attributes of all selected files.

       [Set] set the attributes	of one file.

       [Cancel]	cancel the Chattr command.

File Operations
       When you	copy, move or delete files, Midnight Commander shows the  file
       operations  dialog.   It	 shows the files currently being processed and
       uses up to three	progress bars.	The file bar indicates the  percentage
       of  the	current	 file  that  has been processed	so far.	 The count bar
       shows how many of the tagged files have been handled.   The  bytes  bar
       indicates the percentage	of the total size of the tagged	files that has
       been handled.  If the verbose option is off, the	file  and  bytes  bars
       are not shown.

       There  are  two	buttons	at the bottom of the dialog. Pressing the Skip
       button will skip	the rest of the	current	file. Pressing the Abort  but-
       ton will	abort the whole	operation, the rest of the files are skipped.

       There  are  three  other	dialogs	which you can run into during the file
       operations.

       The error dialog	informs	about error conditions and has three  choices.
       Normally	 you  select  either  the  Skip	button to skip the file	or the
       Abort button to abort the operation altogether.	You  can  also	select
       the Retry button	if you fixed the problem from another terminal.

       The  replace dialog is shown when you attempt to	copy or	move a file on
       the top of an existing file.  The dialog	shows the dates	and  sizes  of
       the  both  files.   Press  the Yes button to overwrite the file,	the No
       button to skip the file,	the All	button to overwrite all	the files, the
       None  button  to	 never overwrite and the Update	button to overwrite if
       the source file is newer	than the target	file.  You can abort the whole
       operation by pressing the Abort button.

       The recursive delete dialog is shown when you try to delete a directory
       which is	not empty.  Press the Yes button to delete the	directory  re-
       cursively,  the	No  button  to	skip  the directory, the All button to
       delete all the  directories  and	 the  None  button  to	skip  all  the
       non-empty  directories.	 You can abort the whole operation by pressing
       the Abort button.  If you selected the Yes or All button	 you  will  be
       asked  for  a confirmation.  Type "yes" only if you are really sure you
       want to do the recursive	delete.

       If you have tagged files	and perform an	operation  on  them  only  the
       files on	which the operation succeeded are untagged. Failed and skipped
       files are left tagged.

Mask Copy/Rename
       The copy/move operations	let you	translate the names  of	 files	in  an
       easy  way.   To	do it, you have	to specify the correct source mask and
       usually in the trailing part of the destination specify some wildcards.
       All  the	files matching the source mask are copied/renamed according to
       the target mask.	 If there are tagged  files,  only  the	 tagged	 files
       matching	the source mask	are renamed.

       There are other options which you can set:

       Follow links

       determines whether make the symlinks and	hardlinks in the source	direc-
       tory (recursively in subdirectories) new	links in the target  directory
       or whether would	you like to copy their content.

       Dive into subdirs

       determines  the	behavior  when	the  source  directory	is about to be
       copied, but the target directory	already	exists.	 The default action is
       to copy the contents of the source directory into the target directory.
       Enabling	this option causes copying the source  directory  itself  into
       the target directory.

       For  example,  you  want	 to copy directory /foo	containing file	bar to
       /bla/foo, which is an already existing directory.  Normally (when  Dive
       into  subdirs  is  not  set), mc	would copy file	/foo/bar into the file
       /bla/foo/bar.  By enabling this option the /bla/foo/foo directory  will
       be created, and /foo/bar	will be	copied into /bla/foo/foo/bar.

       Preserve	attributes

       determines  whether to preserve the permissions,	timestamps and (if you
       are root) the ownership of the original files.  If this option  is  not
       set, the	current	value of the umask will	be respected.

       Use shell patterns

       When  this  option  is  on you can use the '*' and '?' wildcards	in the
       source mask. They work like they	do in the shell. In  the  target  mask
       only  the '*' and '\<digit>' wildcards are allowed. The first '*' wild-
       card in the target mask corresponds to the first	wildcard group in  the
       source  mask, the second	'*' corresponds	to the second group and	so on.
       The '\1'	wildcard corresponds to	the first wildcard group in the	source
       mask,  the  '\2'	wildcard corresponds to	the second group and so	on all
       the way up to '\9'.  The	'\0' wildcard is the  whole  filename  of  the
       source file.

       Two examples:

       If  the	source mask is "*.tar.gz", the destination is "/bla/*.tgz" and
       the file	to be copied is	"foo.tar.gz", the copy will  be	 "foo.tgz"  in
       "/bla".

       Suppose	you want to swap basename and extension	so that	"file.c" would
       become "c.file" and so on.  The source mask for this is "*.*"  and  the
       destination is "\2.\1".

       Use shell patterns off

       When  the  shell	 patterns  option  is  off the MC doesn't do automatic
       grouping	anymore. You must use '\(...\)'	expressions in the source mask
       to  specify  meaning for	the wildcards in the target mask. This is more
       flexible	but also requires more typing. Otherwise target	masks are sim-
       ilar to the situation when the shell patterns option is on.

       Two examples:

       If   the	  source  mask	is  "^\(.*\)\.tar\.gz$",  the  destination  is
       "/bla/*.tgz" and	the file to be copied is "foo.tar.gz", the  copy  will
       be "/bla/foo.tgz".

       Let's  suppose you want to swap basename	and extension so that "file.c"
       will  become  "c.file"  and  so	on.  The  source  mask	for  this   is
       "^\(.*\)\.\(.*\)$" and the destination is "\2.\1".

       Case Conversions

       You can also change the case of the filenames.  If you use '\u' or '\l'
       in the target mask, the next character will be converted	 to  uppercase
       or lowercase correspondingly.

       If you use '\U' or '\L' in the target mask, the next characters will be
       converted to uppercase or lowercase correspondingly up to the next '\E'
       or next '\U', '\L' or the end of	the file name.

       The '\u'	and '\l' are stronger than '\U'	and '\L'.

       For  example,  if  the  source  mask is '*' ( Use shell patterns	on) or
       '^\(.*\)$' ( Use	shell patterns off) and	the target mask	is '\L\u*' the
       file  names  will be converted to have initial upper case and otherwise
       lower case.

       You can also use	'\' as a quote character. For example, '\\' is a back-
       slash and '\*' is an asterisk.

       Stable symlinks

       commands	Midnight Commander, that it should change symlinks in the tar-
       get, so that they'll point to the same location as it did before.  With
       absolute	 symbolic  links this does nothing, but	if you have a relative
       one, it will recompute its value, adding	necessary ../ and other	direc-
       tory  parts  and	 making	 the  value  as	short as possible (most	modern
       filesystems keep	short symlinks inside inodes and thus don't waste much
       disk space).

Select/Unselect	Files
       The  dialog  of group of	files and directories selection	or uselection.
       The input line allow enter the regular  expression  of  filenames  that
       will be selected/unselected.

       When  Files only	checkbox is on,	only files will	be selected.  If Files
       only is off, as files as	directories will be selected.  When Shell Pat-
       terns  checkbox is on, the regular expression is	much like the filename
       globbing	in the shell (*	standing for zero or  more  characters	and  ?
       standing	for one	character). If Shell Patterns is off, then the tagging
       of files	is done	with normal regular expressions	 (see  ed  (1)).  When
       Case  sensitive	checkbox  is  on, the selection	will be	case sensitive
       characters.  If Case sensitive is off, the case will be ignored.

Internal Diff Viewer
       The mcdiff is a visual diff tool. You can compare two  files  and  edit
       them  in-place (diffs are updated dynamically). You can browse and view
       a working copy from popular version control systems  (GIT,  Subversion,
       etc).

       Following  shortcuts  are available in internal diff viewer of Midnight
       Commander.

       F1     Invoke the built-in hypertext help viewer.

       F2     Save modified files.

       F4     Edit file	of the left panel in the internal editor.

       F14    Edit file	of the right panel in the internal editor.

       F5     Merge the	current	hunk. Only the current hunk will be merged.

       F7     Start search.

       F17    Continue search.

       F10, Esc, q
	      Exit from	diff viewer.

       Alt-s, s
	      Toggle show of hunk status.

       Alt-n, l
	      Toggle show of line numbers.

       f      Maximize left panel.

       =      Make panels equal	in width.

       >      Reduce the size of the right panel.

       <      Reduce the size of the left panel.

       c      Toggle show of trailing carriage return (CR) symbol as ^M.

       2, 3, 4,	8
	      Set tabulation size

       C-u    Swap contents of diff panels.

       C-r    Refresh the screen.

       C-o    Switch to	the subshell and show the command screen.

       Enter, Space, n
	      Find next	diff hunk.

       Backspace, p
	      Find previous diff hunk.

       g      Go to line.

       Down   Scroll one line forward.

       Up     Scroll one line backward.

       PageUp Move one page up.

       PageDown
	      Mves one page down.

       Home, A1
	      Moves to the line	beginning.

       End    Moves to the line	end.

       C-Home Move to the file beginning.

       C-End, C1
	      Move to the file end.

Internal File Viewer
       The internal file viewer	provides two display modes: ASCII and hex.  To
       toggle between modes, use the F4	key.

       The  viewer  will try to	use the	best method provided by	your system or
       the file	type to	display	the information.   Some	 character  sequences,
       which  appear  most  often  in preformatted manual pages, are displayed
       bold and	underlined, thus making	a pretty display of your files.

       When in hex mode, the search function accepts text in quotes  and  con-
       stant  numbers.	 Text  in quotes is matched exactly after removing the
       quotes.	Each number matches one	byte.  You can mix  quoted  text  with
       constants like this:

       "String"	34 0xBB	012 "more text"

       Numbers	are  always  interpreted in hex. In the	example	above, "34" is
       interpreted as 0x34. The	prefix "0x" isn't really needed: we could type
       "BB" instead of "0xBB". And "012" is interpreted	as 0x12, not as	an oc-
       tal number.

       Here is a listing of the	actions	associated with	each key that the Mid-
       night Commander handles in the internal file viewer.

       F1     Invoke the built-in hypertext help viewer.

       F2     Toggle the wrap mode.

       F4     Toggle the hex mode.

       F5     Goto.  You  can  specify	a line number, offset or percentage of
	      file size	of position that you want to view.

       F7, /, ?
	      Start search. These keys call the	dialog window that allows  you
	      to set up	the search options. If key is ?	the "Backwards"	option
	      is on.

       C-s    Continue forward search.

       C-r    Continue reverse search.

       F17, n Continue search in the chosen direction.

       N      Temporary	change the  search  direction:	backwards  if  forward
	      search is	chosen,	and vice versa.

       F8     Toggle Raw/Parsed	mode: This will	show the file as found on disk
	      or if a processing filter	has been specified in the mc.ext file,
	      then  the	 output	 from  the  filter. Current mode is always the
	      other than written on the	button label, since on the  button  is
	      the mode which you enter by that key.

       F9     Toggle  the  format/unformat  mode:  when	 format	mode is	on the
	      viewer will interpret some string	sequences to show bold and un-
	      derline  with  different	colors.	 Also,	on button label	is the
	      other mode than current.

       F10, Esc.
	      Exit the internal	file viewer.

       PageDown, space,	C-v.
	      Scroll one page forward.

       PageUp, Alt-v, C-b, Backspace.
	      Scroll one page backward.

       Down   Scroll one line forward.

       Up     Scroll one line backward.

       C-l    Refresh the screen.

       C-o    Switch to	the subshell and show the command screen.

       [n] m  Set the mark n.

       [n] r  Jump to the mark n.

       C-f    Jump to the next file.

       C-b    Jump to the previous file.

       Alt-r  Toggle the ruler.

       Alt-e  to change	charset	of displayed text may use Alt-e	(M-e).	Recod-
	      ing is made from selected	codepage into system codepage. To can-
	      cel the recoding you may select "<No  translation>"  in  charset
	      selection	dialog.

       It's  possible  to instruct the file viewer how to display a file, look
       at the Edit Extension File section

Internal File Editor
       The internal file editor	is a full-featured full	screen editor.	It can
       edit  files  up	to 64 megabytes.  It is	possible to edit binary	files.
       The internal file editor	is invoked using F4 if	the  use_internal_edit
       option is set in	the initialization file.

       The  features it	presently supports are:	block copy, move, delete, cut,
       paste; key for key undo;	pull-down menus; file  insertion;  macro  com-
       mands; regular expression search	and replace; S-arrow text highlighting
       (if supported by	the terminal); insert-overwrite	toggle;	word wrap; au-
       toindent; tunable tab size; syntax highlighting for various file	types;
       and an option to	pipe text blocks through shell	commands  like	indent
       and ispell.

       Sections:

	      Options of editor	in ini-file

       The  editor  is	very easy to use and requires no tutoring. To see what
       keys do what, just consult the appropriate pull-down menu.  Other  keys
       are:  Shift  movement  keys  do text highlighting.  C-Ins copies	to the
       file mcedit.clip	and S-Ins pastes  from	mcedit.clip.   S-Del  cuts  to
       mcedit.clip,  and  C-Del	 deletes  highlighted text. Mouse highlighting
       also works, and you can override	the mouse as usual by holding down the
       shift  key  while dragging the mouse to let normal terminal mouse high-
       lighting	work.

       To define a macro, press	C-R and	then type out the key strokes you want
       to  be executed.	Press C-R again	when finished. You can then assign the
       macro to	any key	you like by pressing that key. The macro  is  executed
       when  you  press	 C-A and then the assigned key.	The macro is also exe-
       cuted if	you press Meta,	Ctrl, or Esc and the  assigned	key,  provided
       that  the  key  is  not	used for any other function. Once defined, the
       macro commands go into the file	~/.local/share/mc/mcedit/mcedit.macros
       You can delete a	macro by deleting the appropriate line in this file.

       To  change  charset of displayed	text may use Alt-e (M-e).  Recoding is
       made from selected codepage into	system codepage. To cancel the	recod-
       ing you may select "<No translation>" in	charset	selection dialog.

       F19 will	format the currently highlighted block (plain text or C	or C++
       code  or	 another).  This  is   controlled   by	 the   file   /usr/lo-
       cal/share/mc/edit.indent.rc     which	 is	copied	  to	~/.lo-
       cal/share/mc/mcedit/edit.indent.rc in your  home	 directory  the	 first
       time you	use it.

       The  editor also	displays non-us	characters (160+). When	editing	binary
       files, you should set display bits to 7 bits in	the  options  menu  to
       keep the	spacing	clean.

Options	of editor in ini-file
       Some editor options of ini-file are described in	this section.  Options
       are placed in [Midnight-Commander] section

       editor_wordcompletion_collect_entire_file
	      Search autocomplete candidates in	entire of file	or  just  from
	      begin of file to cursor position (0)

Screen selector
       Midnight	Commander supports running many	internal modules (such as edi-
       tor, viewer and diff viewer) simultaneously and switching between  them
       without closing open files. Using several file managers at a time, how-
       ever, is	not currently supported.

       Let's call each of these	modules	a screen.  There  are  three  ways  to
       switch between screens, using one of these global shortcuts:

       Alt-}  switch to	the next screen;

       Alt-{  switch to	the previous screen;

       Alt-`  open a dialog window with	the list of currently open screens (or
	      use the "Screen list" menu item).

Completion
       Let Midnight Commander type for you.

       Attempt to perform completion on	the text before	current	position.   MC
       attempts	 completion  treating the text as variable (if the text	begins
       with $),	username (if the text begins with ~), hostname	(if  the  text
       begins  with @) or command (if you are on the command line in the posi-
       tion where you might type a command, possible completions then  include
       shell  reserved words and shell built-in	commands as well) in turn.  If
       none of these matches, filename completion is attempted.

       Filename, username, variable and	hostname completion works on all input
       lines,  command completion is command line specific.  If	the completion
       is ambiguous (there are more different possibilities), MC beeps and the
       following  action  depends on the setting of the	Complete: show all op-
       tion in the Configuration dialog.  If it	is enabled, a list of all pos-
       sibilities pops up next to the current position and you can select with
       the arrow keys and Enter	the correct entry.   You  can  also  type  the
       first  letters in which the possibilities differ	to move	to a subset of
       all possibilities and complete as  much	as  possible.	If  you	 press
       Alt-Tab	again, only the	subset will be shown in	the listbox, otherwise
       the first item which matches all	the previous characters	will be	 high-
       lighted.	  As soon as there is no ambiguity, dialog disappears, but you
       can hide	it by canceling	keys Esc, F10 and left and right  arrow	 keys.
       If Complete: show all is	disabled, the dialog pops up only if you press
       Alt-Tab for the second time, for	the first time MC just beeps.

       Apply escaping of ?, *, and & symbols (as \?, \*, and \&) in  filenames
       to disallow use them as metasymbols in regular expressions when substi-
       tution is performed in the input	line.

Virtual	File System
       Midnight	Commander is provided with a code layer	 to  access  the  file
       system;	this  code  layer  is known as the virtual file	system switch.
       The virtual file	system switch allows Midnight Commander	to  manipulate
       files not located on the	Unix file system.

       Currently,  Midnight  Commander is packaged with	some Virtual File Sys-
       tems (VFS): the local file system, used for accessing the regular  Unix
       file system; the	ftpfs, used to manipulate files	on remote systems with
       the FTP protocol; the tarfs, used to manipulate tar and compressed  tar
       files;  the undelfs, used to recover deleted files on ext2 file systems
       (the default file system	for Linux  systems),  fish  (for  manipulating
       files  over  shell  connections	such as	rsh and	ssh).  If the code was
       compiled	with sftpfs (for manipulating files  over  SFTP	 connections).
       If  the	code was compiled with smbfs support, you can manipulate files
       on remote systems with the SMB (CIFS) protocol.

       A generic extfs (EXTernal virtual File System) is provided in order  to
       easily expand VFS capabilities using scripts and	external software.

       The  VFS	switch code will interpret all of the path names used and will
       forward them to the correct file	system,	the formats used for each  one
       of the file systems is described	later in their own section.

  FTP File System
       The  FTP	 File  System (ftpfs) allows you to manipulate files on	remote
       machines.  To actually use it, you can use the FTP  link	 item  in  the
       menu  or	directly change	your current directory using the cd command to
       a path name that	looks like this:

       ftp://[!][user[:pass]@]machine[:port][remote-dir]

       The user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.   If  you  specify
       the  user  element, Midnight Commander will login to the	remote machine
       as that user, otherwise it will use anonymous login or the  login  name
       from the	~/.netrc file.	The optional pass element is the password used
       for the connection.  Using the password in the VFS  directory  name  is
       not  recommended, because it can	appear on the screen in	clear text and
       can be saved to the directory history.

       To enable using FTP proxy, prepend !   (an  exclamation	sign)  to  the
       hostname.

       Examples:

	   ftp://ftp.nuclecu.unam.mx/linux/local
	   ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/packages
	   ftp://!behind.firewall.edu/pub
	   ftp://guest@remote-host.com:40/pub
	   ftp://miguel:xxx@server/pub

       Please check the	Virtual	File System dialog box for ftpfs options.

  Tar File System
       The  tar	 file  system  provides	 you with read-only access to your tar
       files and compressed tar	files by using the chdir command.   To	change
       your  directory to a tar	file, you change your current directory	to the
       tar file	by using the following syntax:

       /filename.tar/utar://[dir-inside-tar]

       The mc.ext file already provides	a shortcut for tar files,  this	 means
       that  usually  you  just	 point to a tar	file and press return to enter
       into the	tar file, see the Edit Extension File section for  details  on
       how this	is done.

       Examples:

	   mc-3.0.tar.gz/utar://mc-3.0/vfs
	   /ftp/GCC/gcc-2.7.0.tar/utar://

       The latter specifies the	full path of the tar archive.

  FIle transfer	over SHell filesystem
       The  fish file system is	a network based	file system that allows	you to
       manipulate the files in a remote	machine	as if they were	local. To  use
       this,  the  other  side	has  to	either run fish	server,	or has to have
       bash-compatible shell.

       To connect to a remote machine, you just	need to	chdir into  a  special
       directory which name is in the following	format:

       sh://[user@]machine[:options]/[remote-dir]

       The user, options and remote-dir	elements are optional.	If you specify
       the user	element, Midnight Commander will try to	login  on  the	remote
       machine as that user, otherwise it will use your	login name.

       The available options are:
	 'C' - use compression;
	 'r' - use rsh instead of ssh;
	 port -	specify	the port used by remote	server.
       If the remote-dir element is present, your current directory on the re-
       mote machine will be set	to this	one.

       Examples:

	   sh://onlyrsh.mx:r/linux/local
	   sh://joe@want.compression.edu:C/private
	   sh://joe@noncompressed.ssh.edu/private
	   sh://joe@somehost.ssh.edu:2222/private

  SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) filesystem
       The SFTP	file system is a network based file system that	allows you  to
       manipulate the files in a remote	machine	as if they were	local.

       To  connect  to a remote	machine, you just need to chdir	into a special
       directory which name is in the following	format:

       sftp://[user@]machine:[port]/[remote-dir]

       The user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.   If  you  specify
       the  user  element,  Midnight Commander will try	to login on the	remote
       machine as that user, otherwise it will use your	login  name.   port  -
       specify	the  port  used	 by remote server (22 by default).  If the re-
       mote-dir	element	is present, your current directory on the  remote  ma-
       chine will be set to this one.

       Examples:

	   sftp://onlyrsh.mx/linux/local
	   sftp://joe:password@want.compression.edu/private
	   sftp://joe@noncompressed.ssh.edu/private
	   sftp://joe@somehost.ssh.edu:2222/private

       When  establishing  the	connection, server key fingerprint is verified
       using the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. If the host/key pair is not found or
       the host	is found, but the key doesn't match, an	appropriate message is
       shown.  There are three buttons in the message dialog:

       [Yes] add new host/key pair to the  ~/.ssh/known_hosts  file  and  con-
       tinue.

       [Ignore]	 do  not add new host/key pair to the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file,
       but continue nevertheless (at you own risk).

       [No] abort connection.

  Undelete File	System
       On Linux	systems, if you	asked configure	to use the ext2fs undelete fa-
       cilities,  you  will have the undelete file system available.  Recovery
       of deleted files	is only	available on ext2 file systems.	 The  undelete
       file  system is just an interface to the	ext2fs library to retrieve all
       of the deleted files names on an	ext2fs and provides and	to extract the
       selected	files into a regular partition.

       To  use	this file system, you have to chdir into the special file name
       formed by the "undel://"	prefix and the file name where the actual file
       system resides.

       For  example,  to  recover deleted files	on the second partition	of the
       first SCSI disk on Linux, you would use the following path name:

	   undel://sda2

       It may take a while for the undelfs to load  the	 required  information
       before you start	browsing files there.

  SMB File System
       The  smbfs  allows  you to manipulate files on remote machines with SMB
       (or CIFS) protocol.  These  include  Windows  for  Workgroups,  Windows
       9x/ME/XP,  Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Samba.  To actually use it, you
       may try to use the panel	command	"SMB link..."	(accessible  from  the
       menubar)	 or you	may directly change your current directory to it using
       the cd command to a path	name that looks	like this:

       smb://[user@]machine[/service][/remote-dir]

       The user, service and remote-dir	elements are optional.	The user,  do-
       main and	password can be	specified in an	input dialog.

       Examples:

	   smb://machine/Share
	   smb://other_machine
	   smb://guest@machine/Public/Irlex

  EXTernal File	System
       extfs allows you	to integrate numerous features and file	types into GNU
       Midnight	Commander in an	easy way, by writing scripts.

       Extfs filesystems can be	divided	into two categories:

       1. Stand-alone filesystems, which are not associated with any  existing
       file.   They  represent	certain	 system-wide data as a directory tree.
       You can invoke them by typing cd	fsname:// where	 fsname	 is  an	 extfs
       short  name  (see  below).   Examples of	such filesystems include audio
       (list audio tracks on the CD) or	apt (list of all  Debian  packages  in
       the system).

       For example, to list CD-Audio tracks on your CD-ROM drive, type

	 cd audio://

       2.  'Archive' filesystems (like rpm, patchfs and	more), which represent
       contents	of a file as a directory tree.	It can consist of 'real' files
       compressed in an	archive	(urar, rpm) or virtual files, like messages in
       a mailbox (mailfs) or parts of  a  patch	 (patchfs).   To  access  such
       filesystems  fsname://  should  be  appended to the archive name.  Note
       that the	archive	itself can be on another vfs.

       For example, to list contents of	a zip archive documents.zip type

	 cd documents.zip/uzip://

       In many aspects,	you could treat	extfs like any other  directory.   For
       instance,  you can add it to the	hotlist	or change to it	from directory
       history.	 An important limitation is that you cannot invoke shell  com-
       mands inside extfs, just	like any other non-local VFS.

       Common extfs scripts included with Midnight Commander are:

       a      access 'A:' DOS/Windows diskette (cd a://).

       apt    front end	to Debian's APT	package	management system (cd apt://).

       audio  audio  CD	 ripping  and  playing	(cd  audio:// or cd device/au-
	      dio://).

       bpp    package	of   Bad   Penguin    GNU/Linux	   distribution	   (cd
	      file.bpp/bpp://).

       deb    package of Debian	GNU/Linux distribution (cd file.deb/deb://).

       dpkg   Debian GNU/Linux installed packages (cd deb://).

       hp48   view and copy files to/from a HP48 calculator (cd	hp48://).

       lslR   browsing	of  lslR  listings  as	found  on  many	FTPs (cd file-
	      name/lslR://).

       mailfs mbox-style mailbox files support (cd mailbox/mailfs://).

       patchfs
	      extfs  to	 handle	 unified   and	 context   diffs   (cd	 file-
	      name/patchfs://).

       rpm    RPM package (cd filename/rpm://).

       rpms   RPM database management (cd rpms://).

       ulha, urar, uzip, uzoo, uar, uha
	      archivers	 (cd archive/xxxx:// where xxxx	is one of: ulha, urar,
	      uzip, uzoo, uar, uha).

       You could bind file type/extension to specified extfs as	 described  in
       the  Edit  Extension File section.  Here	is an example entry for	Debian
       packages:

	 regex/.deb$
		 Open=%cd %p/deb://

Colors
       Midnight	Commander will try to detect if	your terminal  supports	 color
       using  the terminal database and	your terminal name.  Sometimes it gets
       confused, so you	may force color	mode or	disable	color mode  using  the
       -c and -b flag respectively.

       If  the	program	 is compiled with the S-Lang screen manager instead of
       ncurses,	it will	also check the variable	COLORTERM, if it  is  set,  it
       has the same effect as the -c flag.

       You  may	 specify  terminals that always	force color mode by adding the
       color_terminals variable	to the Colors section  of  the	initialization
       file.   This  will  prevent Midnight Commander from trying to detect if
       your terminal supports color.  Example:

       [Colors]
       color_terminals=linux,xterm
       color_terminals=terminal-name1,terminal-name2...

       The program can be compiled with	both ncurses and S-Lang, ncurses  does
       not  provide  a way to force color mode:	ncurses	uses just the informa-
       tion in the terminal database.

       Midnight	Commander provides a way to change the default	colors.	  Cur-
       rently  the  colors  are	 configured  using  the	 environment  variable
       MC_COLOR_TABLE or the Colors section in the initialization file.

       In the Colors section,  the  default  color  map	 is  loaded  from  the
       base_color variable.  You can specify an	alternate color	map for	a ter-
       minal by	using the terminal name	as the key in this section.  Example:

       [Colors]
       base_color=
       xterm=menu=magenta:marked=,magenta:markselect=,red

       The format for the color	definition is:

	 <keyword>=<fgcolor>,<bgcolor>,<attributes>:<keyword>=...

       The colors are optional,	and the	keywords are: normal,  selected,  dis-
       abled,  marked,	markselect,  errors, input, inputmark, inputunchanged,
       commandlinemark,	reverse, gauge,	header,	inputhistory,  commandhistory.
       Button  bar  colors are:	bbarhotkey, bbarbutton.	Status bar color: sta-
       tusbar. Menu colors are:	menunormal, menusel, menuhot, menuhotsel, men-
       uinactive.  Dialog  colors are: dnormal,	dfocus,	dhotnormal, dhotfocus,
       dtitle. Error dialog colors are:	errdfocus,  errdhotnormal,  errdhotfo-
       cus,  errdtitle.	  Help	colors	are: helpnormal, helpitalic, helpbold,
       helplink, helpslink, helptitle.	Viewer colors are:  viewnormal,	 view-
       bold, viewunderline, viewselected. Editor colors	are: editnormal, edit-
       bold, editmarked, editwhitespace, editlinestate.	Popup menu colors are:
       pmenunormal, pmenusel, pmenutitle.

       header  determines  the	color  of panel	header,	the line that contains
       column titles and sort mode indicator.

       input determines	the color of input lines used in query dialogs.

       gauge determines	the color of the  filled  part	of  the	 progress  bar
       (gauge),	 which	is  used  to show the user the progress	of file	opera-
       tions, such as copying.

       disabled	determines the color of	the widget that	cannot be selected.

       The dialog boxes	use the	following colors: dnormal is used for the nor-
       mal  text,  dfocus  is the color	used for the currently selected	compo-
       nent, dhotnormal	is the color used to differentiate the hotkey color in
       normal  components,  whereas  the dhotfocus color is used for the high-
       lighted color in	the currently selected component.

       Menus use the same scheme but uses the  menunormal,  menusel,  menuhot,
       menuhotsel and menuinactive tags	instead.

       Help  uses  the	following  colors: helpnormal is used for normal text,
       helpitalic is used for text which is emphasized in italic in the	manual
       page, helpbold is used for text which is	emphasized in bold in the man-
       ual page, helplink is used for not selected hyperlinks and helpslink is
       used for	selected hyperlink.

       Popup  menu uses	following colors: pmenunormal is used for non-selected
       menu items and as a main	color of popup menu window, pmenusel  is  used
       for selected menu item, pmenutitle is used for popup menu title.

       The  possible  colors  are: black, gray,	red, brightred,	green, bright-
       green, brown, yellow, blue, brightblue, magenta,	 brightmagenta,	 cyan,
       brightcyan,  lightgray  and  white.  And	there is a special keyword for
       transparent background. It is 'default'.	The 'default' can only be used
       for  background	color.	Another	special	keyword	"base" means mc's main
       colors.	When 256 colors	are available, they can	be specified either as
       color16	to color255, or	as rgb000 to rgb555 and	gray0 to gray23. Exam-
       ple:

       [Colors]
       base_color=normal=white,default:marked=magenta,default

       Attributes can be any of	bold, italic, underline,  reverse  and	blink,
       appended	by a plus sign if more than one	are desired.  The special word
       "none"  means  no  attributes,  without	attempting  to	fall  back  to
       base_color.  Example:

       menuhotsel=yellow;black;bold+underline

Skins
       You  can	 change	the appearance of Midnight Commander.  To do this, you
       must specify a file that	contain	descriptions of	colors	and  lines  to
       draw  boxes.  Redefining	 of the	colors is entirely compatible with the
       assignment of colors, as	described in Section Colors.

       If your skin contains any true-color definitions, you should define the
       'truecolors'  key set to	TRUE value in [skin] section. If true-color is
       not used	but 256-color is, you should define '256colors'	instead.

       A skin-file is searched on the following	algorithm (to  the  first  one
       found):

	      1) command line option -S	<skin> or --skin=<skin>
	      2) Environment variable MC_SKIN
	      3)  Parameter  skin  in  section	[Midnight-Commander] in	config
	      file.
	      4) File /usr/local/etc/mc/skins/default.ini
	      5) File /usr/local/share/mc/skins/default.ini

       Command line option, environment	variable and parameter in config  file
       may contain the absolute	path to	the skin-file (with the	extension .ini
       or without it). Search of skin-file will	occur in  (to  the  first  one
       found):

	      1) ~/.local/share/mc/skins/
	      2) /usr/local/etc/mc/skins/
	      3) /usr/local/share/mc/skins/

       For getting extended info, refer	to:

	      Description of section and parameters
	      Color pair definitions
	      Color and	attribute aliases
	      Draw lines
	      Compatibility

  Description of section and parameters
       Section	[skin]	contain	 metainfo for skin-file. Parameter description
       contain short text about	skin.

       Section [filehighlight] contain descriptions of color pairs  for	 file-
       names  highlighting.  Name of parameters	must be	equal to names of sec-
       tions into filehighlight.ini file.  See Filenames Highlight for getting
       more info.

       Section [core] describes	the elements that are used everywhere.

       _default_
	      Default  color pair. Used	in all other sections if they not con-
	      tain color definitions

       selected
	      cursor

       marked selected data

       markselect
	      cursor on	selected data

       gauge  color of the filled part of the progress bar

       input  color of input lines used	in query dialogs

       inputmark
	      color of input selected text

       inputunchanged
	      color of input text before first modification or cursor movement

       commandlinemark
	      color of selected	text in	command	line

       reverse
	      reverse color

       Section [dialog]	describes the elements that are	placed on dialog  win-
       dows (except error dialogs).

       _default_
	      Default  color  for  this	 section. Used [core]._default_	if not
	      specified

       dfocus Color of active element (in focus)

       dhotnormal
	      Color of hotkeys

       dhotfocus
	      Color of hotkeys in focused element

       Section [error] describes the elements that are placed on error	dialog
       windows

       _default_
	      Default  color  for  this	 section. Used [core]._default_	if not
	      specified

       errdhotnormal
	      Color of hotkeys

       errdhotfocus
	      Color of hotkeys in focused element

       Section [menu] describes	the elements that are  placed  in  menu.  This
       section	describes  system  menu	 (called by F9)	and user-defined menus
       (called by F2 in	panels and by F11 in editor).

       _default_
	      Default color for	this section.  Used  [core]._default_  if  not
	      specified

       entry  Color of menu items

       menuhot
	      Color of menu hotkeys

       menusel
	      Color of active menu item	(in focus)

       menuhotsel
	      Color of menu hotkeys in focused menu item

       menuinactive
	      Color of inactive	menu

       Section [help] describes	the elements that are placed on	help window.

       _default_
	      Default  color  for  this	 section. Used [core]._default_	if not
	      specified

       helpitalic
	      Color pair for element with italic attribute

       helpbold
	      Color pair for element with bold attribute

       helplink
	      Color of links

       helpslink
	      Color of active link (on focus)

       Section [editor]	describes the colors of	elements placed	in editor.

       _default_
	      Default color for	this section.  Used  [core]._default_  if  not
	      specified

       editbold
	      Color pair for element with bold attribute

       editmarked
	      Color of selected	text

       editwhitespace
	      Color of tabs and	trailing spaces	highlighting

       editlinestate
	      Color for	line state area

       Section [viewer]	describes the colors of	elements placed	in viewer.

       viewunderline
	      Color pair for element with underline attribute

  Color	pair definitions
       Any parameter in	skin-file contain definition of	color pair.

       Color  pairs  described as two colors and the optional attributes sepa-
       rated by	';'. First field sets the foreground color, second field  sets
       background  color,  third field sets the	attributes.  Any of the	fields
       may be omitted, in this case value will be  taken  from	default	 color
       pair (global color pair or from default color pair of this section).

       Example:
       [core]
	   # green on black
	   _default_=green;black
	   # green (default) on	blue
	   selected=;blue
	   # yellow on black (default)
	   # underlined	yellow on black	(default)
	   marked=yellow;;underline

       Possible	 colors	 (names) and attributes	are described in Colors.  sec-
       tion.

  Color	and attribute aliases
       This optional section might define aliases for single colors (not color
       pairs)  as well as combination of attributes; in	other words, for semi-
       colon-separated fragments of parameters.	Aliases	 can  refer  to	 other
       aliases as long as they don't form a loop.

       Example:
       [aliases]
	   myfavfg=green
	   myfavbg=black
	   myfavattr=bold+italic
       [core]
	   _default_=myfavfg;myfavbg;myfavattr

  Draw lines
       Lines  sets  in section [Lines] into skin-file. By default single lines
       are used, but you may redefine to usage of any utf-8 symbols  (like  to
       lines, for example).

       WARNING!!!   When  you build Midnight Commander with the	ncurses	screen
       library usage of	drawing	lines is limited!   Possible  only  drawing  a
       single lines.  For all questions	and comments please contact the	devel-
       opers of	ncurses.

       Descriptions of parameters [Lines]:

       lefttop
	      left-top line fragment.

       righttop
	      right-top	line fragment.

       centertop
	      down branch of horizontal	line

       centerbottom
	      up branch	of horizontal line

       leftbottom
	      left-bottom line fragment

       rightbottom
	      right-bottom line	fragment

       leftmiddle
	      right branch of vertical line

       rightmiddle
	      left branch of vertical line

       centermiddle
	      cross of lines

       horiz  horizontal line

       vert   vertical line

       thinhoriz
	      thin horizontal line

       thinvert
	      thin vertical line

  Compatibility
       Appointment of color  by	skin-files fully compatible with the  appoint-
       ment of the colors described in Colors.	section.

       In  this	 case,	reassignment of	colors has priority over the skin file
       and is complementary.

Filenames Highlight
       Section [filehighlight] in current  skin-file  contains	key  names  as
       highlight  groups  and values as	color pairs. Color pairs is documented
       in Skins	section.

       Rules of	filenames highlight are	 placed	 in  /usr/local/share/mc/file-
       highlight.ini  file  (~/.config/mc/filehighlight.ini).  Name of section
       in this file must be equal to parameters	names in [filehighlight]  sec-
       tion (in	current	skin-file).

       Keys in these groups are:

       type   file type. If present, all other options are ignored.

       regexp regular expression. If present, 'extensions' option is ignored.

       extensions
	      list of extensions of files. Separated by	';' sign.

       extensions_case
	      (make  sense only	with 'extensions' parameter) make 'extensions'
	      rule case	sensitive (true) or not	(false).

       `type' key may have values:
       - FILE (all files)
	 - FILE_EXE
       - DIR (all directories)
	 - LINK_DIR
       - LINK (all links except	stale link)
	 - HARDLINK
	 - SYMLINK
       - STALE_LINK
       - DEVICE	(all device files)
	 - DEVICE_BLOCK
	 - DEVICE_CHAR
       - SPECIAL (all special files)
	 - SPECIAL_SOCKET
	 - SPECIAL_FIFO
	 - SPECIAL_DOOR

Special	Settings
       Most of Midnight	Commander settings can be changed from the menus. How-
       ever, there are a small number of settings which	can only be changed by
       editing the setup file.

       These variables may be set in your ~/.config/mc/ini file:

       clear_before_exec
	      By default, Midnight Commander clears the	screen before  execut-
	      ing  a  command.	 If  you would prefer to see the output	of the
	      command at the bottom of the screen, edit	your  ~/.config/mc/ini
	      file and change the value	of the field clear_before_exec to 0.

       confirm_view_dir
	      If  you  press F3	on a directory,	normally MC enters that	direc-
	      tory.  If	this flag is set to 1, then MC will ask	for  confirma-
	      tion before changing the directory if you	have files tagged.

       ftpfs_retry_seconds
	      This value is the	number of seconds Midnight Commander will wait
	      before attempting	to reconnect to	an FTP server that has	denied
	      the login.  If the value is zero,	the login will no be retried.

       max_dirt_limit
	      Specifies	 how many screen updates can be	skipped	at most	in the
	      internal file viewer.  Normally this value is  not  significant,
	      because  the code	automatically adjusts the number of updates to
	      skip according to	the rate of incoming keystrokes.  However,  on
	      very  slow  machines  or terminals with a	fast keyboard auto re-
	      peat, a big value	can make screen	updates	too jumpy.

	      It seems that setting max_dirt_limit to 10 causes	the  best  be-
	      havior, and that is the default value.

       mouse_move_pages_viewer
	      Controls if scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or line by
	      line on the internal file	viewer.

       only_leading_plus_minus
	      Allow special treatment for '+', '-', '*'	in  the	 command  line
	      (select,	unselect,  reverse selection) only if the command line
	      is empty.	 You don't need	to quote those characters in the  mid-
	      dle of the command line.	On the other hand, you cannot use them
	      to change	selection when the command line	is not empty.

       alternate_plus_minus
	      If true, use '+',	'-', '\' and '*' keys normally.	For select/un-
	      select, use 'Alt-+', 'Alt--' and 'Alt-*'.

       show_output_starts_shell
	      This  variable only works	if you are not using the subshell sup-
	      port.  When you use the C-o keystroke to go  back	 to  the  user
	      screen,  if this one is set, you will get	a fresh	shell.	Other-
	      wise, pressing any key will bring	you back to  Midnight  Comman-
	      der.

       timeformat_recent
	      Change  the time format used to display dates less than 6	months
	      from now.	 See strftime or date man page for the format specifi-
	      cation. If this option is	absent,	default	timeformat is used.

       timeformat_old
	      Change  the  time	 format	 used  to  display  dates older	than 6
	      months from now or for dates in the  future.   See  strftime  or
	      date  man	 page  for the format specification. If	this option is
	      absent, default timeformat is used.

       torben_fj_mode
	      If this flag is set, then	 the  home  and	 end  keys  will  work
	      slightly	different  on the panels, instead of moving the	selec-
	      tion to the first	and last files in the panels, they will	act as
	      follows:

	      The  home	 key will: Go up to the	middle line, if	below it; else
	      go to the	top line unless	it is already on the top line, in this
	      case it will go to the first file	in the panel.

	      The  end key has a similar behavior: Go down to the middle line,
	      if over it; else go to the bottom	line unless you	already	are at
	      the  bottom line,	in such	case it	will move the selection	to the
	      last file	name in	the panel.

       use_file_to_guess_type
	      If this variable is on (the default) it will spawn the file com-
	      mand to match the	file types listed on the mc.ext	file.

       xtree_mode
	      If this variable is on (default is off) when you browse the file
	      system on	a Tree panel, it will automatically reload  the	 other
	      panel with the contents of the selected directory.

       fish_directory_timeout
	      This  variable  holds the	lifetime of a directory	cache entry in
	      seconds. The default value is 900	seconds.

       clipboard_store
	      This variable contains path (with	options) to the	external clip-
	      board  utility  like  'xclip' to read text into X	selection from
	      file.  For example:

       clipboard_store=xclip -i

       clipboard_paste
	      This variable contains path (with	options) to the	external clip-
	      board  utility  like  'xclip' to print the selection to standard
	      out.  For	example:

       clipboard_paste=xclip -o

       autodetect_codeset
	      This option allows use the `enca'	command	to autodetect  codeset
	      of  text files in	internal viewer	and editor. List of valid val-
	      ues can be obtain	by the `enca --list languages |	cut -d :  -f1'
	      command. Option must be located in the [Misc] section.

       For example:

       autodetect_codeset=russian

Parameters for external	editor or viewer
       Midnight	 Commander  provides a way for specify an options for external
       editors and viewers. Midnight Commander tries to	search the  "[External
       editor or viewer	parameters]" section in	the system initialization file
       (the mc.lib file	located	in Midnight Commander's	library	directory) and
       then  in	 the ~/.config/mc/ini file. The	option name should be equal to
       the name	(full pathname)	of external editor or viewer. The option value
       can contain following variables:

       %filename
	      The filename to edit/view.

       %lineno
	      The start	line in	the opening file.

       For example:

       [External editor	or viewer parameters]
	   vi=%filename	+%lineno
	   joe=%filename +%lineno
	   more=%filename +%lineno

       Start line is passed to the external editor/viewer only if it is	called
       from the	Find file results window.

       If external editor/viewer is launched via F4/F3	keys,  MC  hopes  that
       program	(at  least  "joe", but probably	others too) has	an own feature
       that by default opens the file where it was last	open. MC doesn't  pre-
       vent  external  editor/viewer  to  save	and restore position in	opened
       files.

Terminal databases
       Midnight	Commander provides a way to fix	your system terminal  database
       without	requiring  root	privileges. Midnight Commander searches	in the
       system initialization file (the mc.lib file located in Midnight Comman-
       der's  library directory) and in	the ~/.config/mc/ini file for the sec-
       tion "terminal:your-terminal-name" and then  for	 the  section  "termi-
       nal:general",  each  line of the	section	contains a key symbol that you
       want to define, followed	by an equal sign and the  definition  for  the
       key.  You can use the special \e	form to	represent the escape character
       and the ^x to represent the control-x character.

       The possible key	symbols	are:

       f0 to f20     Function keys f0-f20
       bs	     backspace
       home	     home key
       end	     end key
       up	     up	arrow key
       down	     down arrow	key
       left	     left arrow	key
       right	     right arrow key
       pgdn	     page down key
       pgup	     page up key
       insert	     the insert	character
       delete	     the delete	character
       complete	     to	do completion

       For example, to define the key insert to	be the Escape +	[ + O +	p, you
       set this	in the ini file:

       insert=\e[Op

       Also now	you can	use extended learn keys.  For example:

	   ctrl-alt-right=\e[[1;6C
	   ctrl-alt-left=\e[[1;6D

       This  means  that  ctrl+alt+left	 sends	a \e[[1;6D escape sequence and
       therefore Midnight Commander interprets "\e[[1;6D" as C-Alt-Left.

       The complete key	symbol represents the escape sequences used to	invoke
       the  completion	process, this is invoked with Alt-tab, but you can de-
       fine other keys to do the same work (on those  keyboard	with  tons  of
       nice and	unused keys everywhere).

FILES
       Full  paths  below  may	vary between installations.  They are also af-
       fected by the MC_DATADIR	environment variable. If it's set,  its	 value
       is used instead of /usr/local/share/mc in the paths below.

       /usr/local/share/mc/help/mc.hlp

	      The help file for	the program.

       /usr/local/share/mc/mc.ext

	      The default system-wide extensions file.

       ~/.config/mc/mc.ext

	      User's  own extension, view configuration	and edit configuration
	      file.  They override the contents	of the system  wide  files  if
	      present.

       /usr/local/etc/mc/mc.ini
       /usr/local/share/mc/mc.ini

	      System-wide setup	files for Midnight Commander, used only	if the
	      user doesn't have	his own	 ~/.config/mc/ini  file.  If  /usr/lo-
	      cal/etc/mc/mc.ini	exists,	/usr/local/share/mc/mc.ini isn't used.

       /usr/local/share/mc/mc.lib

	      Global  settings	for  Midnight Commander. Settings in this file
	      affect all users,	whether	they  have  ~/.config/mc/ini  or  not.
	      Currently, only terminal settings	are loaded from	mc.lib.

       ~/.config/mc/ini

	      User's  own  setup.  If  this  file is present then the setup is
	      loaded from here instead of the system-wide startup file.

       /usr/local/share/mc/hints/mc.hint

	      This file	contains the hints displayed by	the program.

       /usr/local/share/mc/mc.menu

	      This file	contains the default system-wide applications menu.

       ~/.config/mc/menu

	      User's own application menu. If this file	is present it is  used
	      instead of the system-wide applications menu.

       ~/.cache/mc/Tree

	      The  directory  list  for	 the directory tree and	tree view fea-
	      tures.

       ~/.local/share/mc.menu

	      Local user-defined menu. If this file is present,	it is used in-
	      stead of the home	or system-wide applications menu.

       To change default root directory	of MC, you can use MC_PROFILE_ROOT en-
       vironment variable. The value of	MC_PROFILE_ROOT	must  be  an  absolute
       path.   If MC_PROFILE_ROOT is unset or empty, HOME variable is used. If
       HOME is unset or	empty, MC directories are get from GLib	library.

LICENSE
       This program is distributed under the terms of the GNU  General	Public
       License	as published by	the Free Software Foundation. See the built-in
       help for	details	on the License and the lack of warranty.

AVAILABILITY
       The latest version of this program  can	be  found  at  http://ftp.mid-
       night-commander.org/.

SEE ALSO
       ed(1), gpm(1), terminfo(1), view(1), sh(1), bash(1), tcsh(1), zsh(1).

       Midnight	Commander's page on the	World Wide Web:
	    http://www.midnight-commander.org/

AUTHORS
       Authors	and  contributors are listed in	the AUTHORS file in the	source
       distribution.

BUGS
       See the file TODO in the	distribution for information on	 what  remains
       to be done.

       If  you want to report a	problem	with the program, please create	bugre-
       port at http://www.midnight-commander.org/.

       Provide a detailed description of the bug, the version of  the  program
       you are running (mc -V displays this information), the operating	system
       you are running the program on.	If the program crashes,	we  would  ap-
       preciate	a stack	trace.

MC Version 4.8.27		  August 2021				 MC(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | Overview | Mouse Support | Keys | Menu Bar | Executing operating system commands | Chmod | Chown | Advanced Chown | Chattr | File Operations | Mask Copy/Rename | Select/Unselect Files | Internal Diff Viewer | Internal File Viewer | Internal File Editor | Options of editor in ini-file | Screen selector | Completion | Virtual File System | Colors | Skins | Filenames Highlight | Special Settings | Parameters for external editor or viewer | Terminal databases | FILES | LICENSE | AVAILABILITY | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | BUGS

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