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mc(1)									 mc(1)

       mc - Visual shell for Unix-like systems.

       mc [-abcCdfhPstuUVx?] [-l log] [dir1 [dir2]] [-v	file]

       The  Midnight  Commander	 is a directory	browser/file manager for Unix-
       like operating systems.

       -a     Disables the usage of graphic characters for line	drawing.

       -b     Forces black and white display.

       -c     Force color mode,	please	check  the  section  Colors  for  more

       -C arg Used  to specify a different color set in	the command line.  The
	      format of	arg is documented in the Colors	section.

       -d     Disables mouse support.

       -f     Displays the compiled-in search  paths  for  Midnight  Commander

       -k     Reset  softkeys to their default from the	termcap/terminfo data-
	      base. Only useful	on HP terminals	when the function  keys	 don't

       -l file
	      Save the ftpfs dialog with the server in file.

       -P     At program end, the Midnight Commander will print	the last work-
	      ing directory; this, along with the shell	function  below,  will
	      allow  you  to browse through your directories and automatically
	      move to the last directory you were in (thanks to	Torben	Fjerd-
	      ingstad  and  Sergey for contributing this function and the code
	      which implements this option).

	      bash and zsh users:

	      mc ()
		      /usr/local/bin/mc	-P "$@"	> "$MC"
		      cd "`cat $MC`"
		      rm "$MC"
		      unset MC;

	      tcsh users:
	      alias mc 'setenv MC `/usr/local/bin/mc -P	*`; cd $MC; unsetenv MC'

       I know the bash function	could be shorter for zsh and bash but the
	      backquotes on bash won't accept your suspension the program with

       -s     Turns  on	 the slow terminal mode, in this mode the program will
	      not draw expensive line drawing characters and will toggle  ver-
	      bose mode	off.

       -t     Used  only  if the code was compiled with	Slang and terminfo: it
	      makes the	Midnight Commander use the value of the	TERMCAP	 vari-
	      able  for	the terminal information instead of the	information on
	      the system wide terminal database

       -u     Disables the use of a concurrent shell (only makes sense if  the
	      Midnight	Commander  has	been  built with concurrent shell sup-

       -U     Enables the use of the  concurrent  shell	 support  (only	 makes
	      sense if the Midnight Commander was built	with the subshell sup-
	      port set as an optional feature).

       -v file
	      Enters the internal viewer to view the file specified.

       -V     Displays the version of the program.

       -x     Forces xterm mode.  Used when running on xterm-capable terminals
	      (two screen modes, and able to send mouse	escape sequences).

       If  specified,  the  first  path	 name  is the directory	to show	in the
       selected	panel; the second path name is the directory to	 be  shown  in
       the other panel.

       The screen of the Midnight Commander is divided into four parts.	Almost
       all of the screen space is  taken  up  by  two  directory  panels.   By
       default,	 the second bottommost line of the screen is the shell command
       line, and the bottom line shows the function key	 labels.  The  topmost
       line  is	 the menu bar line.  The menu bar line may not be visible, but
       appears if you click the	topmost	line with the mouse or	press  the  F9

       The  Midnight  Commander	provides a view	of two directories at the same
       time. One of the	panels is the current panel (a selection bar is	in the
       current	panel).	Almost all operations take place on the	current	panel.
       Some file operations like Rename	and Copy by default use	the  directory
       of  the unselected panel	as a destination (don't	worry, they always ask
       you for confirmation first). For	more information, see the sections  on
       the Directory Panels, the Left and Right	Menus and the File Menu.

       You  can	 execute system	commands from the Midnight Commander by	simply
       typing them. Everything you type	will appear on the shell command line,
       and  when  you press Enter the Midnight Commander will execute the com-
       mand line you typed; read the Shell Command Line	and  Input  Line  Keys
       sections	to learn more about the	command	line.

Mouse Support
       The Midnight Commander comes with mouse support.	 It is activated when-
       ever you	are running on an xterm(1) terminal (it	even works if you take
       a  telnet or rlogin connection to another machine from the xterm) or if
       you are running on a Linux console and have the gpm mouse  server  run-

       When  you  left	click  on a file in the	directory panels, that file is
       selected; if you	click with the right button, the file  is  marked  (or
       unmarked, depending on the previous state).

       Double-clicking	on  a file will	try to execute the command if it is an
       executable program; and if the extension	file has a  program  specified
       for the file's extension, the specified program is executed.

       Also,  it  is possible to execute the commands assigned to the function
       key labels by clicking on them.

       If a mouse button is clicked on the top frame  line  of	the  directory
       panel, it is scrolled one pageful backward. Correspondingly, a click on
       the bottom frame	line will cause	a scroll of one	pageful	forward.  This
       frame line method works also in the Help	Viewer and the Directory Tree.

       The default auto	repeat rate for	the mouse buttons is 400 milliseconds.
       This  may  be changed to	other values by	editing	the ~/.mc/ini file and
       changing	the mouse_repeat_rate parameter.

       If you are running the Commander	with the mouse support,	you can	bypass
       the  Commander  and get the default mouse behavior (cutting and pasting
       text) by	holding	down the Shift key.

       Some commands in	the Midnight Commander involve the use of the  Control
       (sometimes  labeled CTRL	or CTL)	and the	Meta (sometimes	labeled	ALT or
       even Compose) keys. In this manual we will use the following  abbrevia-

       C-<chr>	means  hold  the Control key while typing the character	<chr>.
       Thus C-f	would be: hold the Control key and type	f.

       M-<chr> means hold the Meta or Alt key  down  while  typing  <chr>.  If
       there  is no Meta or Alt	key, type ESC, release it, then	type the char-
       acter <chr>.

       All input lines in the Midnight Commander use an	approximation  to  the
       GNU Emacs editor's key bindings.

       There  are  many	 sections which	tell about the keys. The following are
       the most	important.

       The File	Menu section documents the keyboard shortcuts for the commands
       appearing  in  the  File	menu. This section includes the	function keys.
       Most of these commands perform some action,  usually  on	 the  selected
       file or the tagged files.

       The  Directory Panels section documents the keys	which select a file or
       tag files as a target for a later action	(the  action  is  usually  one
       from the	file menu).

       The  Shell Command Line section list the	keys which are used for	enter-
       ing and editing command lines. Most of these copy file names  and  such
       from  the directory panels to the command line (to avoid	excessive typ-
       ing) or access the command line history.

       Input Line Keys are used	for editing input lines. This means  both  the
       command line and	the input lines	in the query dialogs.

  Miscellaneous	Keys
       Here are	some keys which	don't fall into	any of the other categories:

       Enter.	If there is some text in the command line (the one at the bot-
       tom of the panels), then	that command is	executed. If there is no  text
       in  the	command	line then if the selection bar is over a directory the
       Midnight	Commander does	a  chdir(2)  to	 the  selected	directory  and
       reloads the information on the panel; if	the selection is an executable
       file then it is executed. Finally, if the  extension  of	 the  selected
       file name matches one of	the extensions in the extensions file then the
       corresponding command is	executed.

       C-l.  Repaint all the information in the	Midnight Commander.

       C-x c.  Run the Chmod command on	a file or on the tagged	files.

       C-x o.  Run the Chown command on	the current  file  or  on  the	tagged

       C-x l.  Run the link command.

       C-x s.  Run the symbolic	link command.

       C-x i.  Set the other panel display mode	to information.

       C-x q.  Set the other panel display mode	to quick view.

       C-x !.  Execute the External panelize command.

       C-x h Run the add directory to hotlist command.

       M-!, Executes the Filtered view command,	described in the view command.

       M-?, Executes the Find file command.

       M-c, Pops up the	quick cd dialog.

       C-o, When the program is	being run in the Linux or SCO console or under
       an  xterm,  it  will show you the output	of the previous	command.  When
       ran on the Linux	console, the Midnight Commander	uses an	external  pro-
       gram  (cons.saver) to handle saving and restoring of information	on the

       When the	subshell support is compiled in, you can type C-o at any  time
       and  you	 will  be taken	back to	the Midnight Commander main screen, to
       return to your application just type C-o.  If you have  an  application
       suspended  by using this	trick, you won't be able to execute other pro-
       grams from the Midnight Commander until	you  terminate	the  suspended

  Directory Panels
       This  section  lists the	keys which operate on the directory panels. If
       you want	to know	how to change the appearance of	the panels take	a look
       at the section on Left and Right	Menus.

       Tab,  C-i.   Change  the	current	panel. The old other panel becomes the
       new current panel and the old  current  panel  becomes  the  new	 other
       panel.  The  selection  bar moves from the old current panel to the new
       current panel.

       Insert, C-t.  To	tag files you may use the Insert key (the  kich1  ter-
       minfo  sequence)	 or the	C-t (Control-t)	sequence. To untag files, just
       retag a tagged file.

       M-g, M-h	(or M-r), M-j.	Used to	select the top file in	a  panel,  the
       middle file and the bottom one, respectively.

       C-s,  M-s.   Start a filename search in the directory listing. When the
       search is active	the keypresses will be	added  to  the	search	string
       instead	of the command line. If	the Show mini-status option is enabled
       the search string is shown on the mini-status line.  When  typing,  the
       selection  bar  will move to the	next file starting with	the typed let-
       ters. The backspace or DEL keys can be used to correct typing mistakes.
       If C-s is pressed again,	the next match is searched for.

       M-t Toggle the current display listing to show the next display listing
       mode.  With this	it is possible to quickly switch from long listing  to
       regular listing and the user defined listing mode.

       C-\  (control-backslash).  Show the directory hotlist and change	to the
       selected	directory.

       +  (plus).  This	is used	to select (tag)	a group	of files. The Midnight
       Commander  will	prompt	for a regular expression describing the	group.
       When Shell Patterns are enabled,	the regular expression	is  much  like
       the regular expressions in the shell (* standing	for zero or more char-
       acters and ?  standing for one character). If Shell  Patterns  is  off,
       then  the tagging of files is done with normal regular expressions (see
       ed (1)).

       If the expression starts	or ends	with a slash (/), then it will	select
       directories instead of files.

       \  (backslash).	 Use the "\" key to unselect a group of	files. This is
       the opposite of the Plus	key.

       up-key, C-p.  Move the selection	bar  to	 the  previous	entry  in  the

       down-key,  C-n.	Move the selection bar to the next entry in the	panel.

       home, a1, M-<.  Move the	selection bar to the first entry in the	panel.

       end, c1,	M->.  Move the selection bar to	the last entry in the panel.

       next-page, C-v.	Move the selection bar one page	down.

       prev-page, M-v.	Move the selection bar one page	up.

       M-o,  If	 the  other panel is a listing panel and you are standing on a
       directory in the	current	panel, then the	other panel contents  are  set
       to  the contents	of the currently selected directory (like Emacs' dired
       C-o key)	otherwise the other panel contents are set to the  parent  dir
       of the current dir.

       C-PageUp,  C-PageDown  Only when	ran on the Linux console: does a chdir
       to ".." and to the currently selected directory respectively.

  Shell	Command	Line
       This section lists keys which are useful	to avoid excessive typing when
       entering	shell commands.

       M-Enter.	 Copy the currently selected file name to the command line.

       C-Enter.	 Same a	M-Enter, this one only works on	the Linux console.

       M-Tab.	Does  the  filename,  command, variable, username and hostname
       completion for you.

       C-x t, C-x C-t.	Copy the tagged	files  (or  if	there  are  no	tagged
       files,  the selected file) of the current panel (C-x t) or of the other
       panel (C-x C-t) to the command line.

       C-x p, C-x C-p.	The first key sequence copies the current path name to
       the command line, and the second	one copies the unselected panel's path
       name to the command line.

       C-q.  The quote command can be used to insert characters	that are  oth-
       erwise interpreted by the Midnight Commander (like the '+' symbol)

       M-p,  M-n.   Use	 these keys to browse through the command history. M-p
       takes you to the	last entry, M-n	takes you to the next one.

       M-h.  Displays the history for the current input	line.

  General Movement Keys
       The help	viewer,	the file viewer	and the	directory tree use common code
       to  handle moving. Therefore they accept	exactly	the same keys. Each of
       them also accepts some keys of its own.

       Other parts of the Midnight Commander use some  of  the	same  movement
       keys, so	this section may be of use for those parts too.

       Up, C-p.	 Moves one line	backward.

       Down, C-n.  Moves one line forward.

       Prev Page, Page Up, M-v.	 Moves one pageful backward.

       Next Page, Page Down, C-v.  Moves one pageful forward.

       Home, A1.  Moves	to the beginning.

       End, C1.	 Move to the end.

       The  help viewer	and the	file viewer accept the following keys in addi-
       tion the	to ones	mentioned above:

       b, C-b, C-h, Backspace, Delete.	Moves one pageful backward.

       Space bar.  Moves one pageful forward.

       u, d.  Moves one	half of	a page backward	or forward.

       g, G.  Moves to the beginning or	to the end.

  Input	Line Keys
       The input lines (they are used for the command line and for  the	 query
       dialogs in the program) accept these keys:

       C-a puts	the cursor at the beginning of line.

       C-e puts	the cursor at the end of the line.

       C-b, move-left move the cursor one position left.

       C-f, move-right move the	cursor one position right.

       M-f moves one word forward.

       M-b moves one word backward.

       C-h, backspace delete the previous character.

       C-d, Delete delete the character	in the point (over the cursor).

       C-@ sets	the mark for cutting.

       C-w  copies  the	 text between the cursor and the mark to a kill	buffer
       and removes the text from the input line.

       M-w copies the text between the cursor and the mark to a	kill buffer.

       C-y yanks back the contents of the kill buffer.

       C-k kills the text from the cursor to the end of	the line.

       M-p, M-n	Use these keys to browse  through  the	command	 history.  M-p
       takes you to the	last entry, M-n	takes you to the next one.

       M-C-h, M-Backspace delete one word backward.

       M-Tab  does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname com-
       pletion for you.

Menu Bar
       The menu	bar pops up when you press F9 or click the mouse  on  the  top
       row  of	the screen. The	menu bar has five menus: "Left", "File", "Com-
       mand", "Options"	and "Right".

       The Left	and Right Menus	allow you to modify the	appearance of the left
       and right directory panels.

       The  File  Menu	lists  the  actions  you  can perform on the currently
       selected	file or	the tagged files.

       The Command Menu	lists the actions which	are more general and  bear  no
       relation	to the currently selected file or the tagged files.

  Left and Right Menus
       The  outlook  of	 the directory panels can be changed from the Left and
       Right menus.

    Listing Mode...
       The listing mode	view is	used to	display	a listing of files, there  are
       four  different	listing	 modes available: Full,	Brief, Long, and User.
       The full	directory view shows the file name, the	size of	the  file  and
       the modification	time.

       The  brief view shows only the file name	and it has two columns (there-
       fore showing twice as many files	as other views). The long view is sim-
       ilar  to	 the  output  of  ls -l	command. The long view takes the whole
       screen width.

       If you choose the "User"	display	format,	then you have to  specify  the
       display format.

       The  user  display format must start with a panel size specifier.  This
       may be "half" or	"full",	and they specify a half	 screen	 panel	and  a
       full screen panel respectively.

       After  the  panel  size,	 you  may  specify the two columns mode	on the
       panel, this is done by adding the number	"2" to the user	format string.

       After  this you add the name of the fields with an optional size	speci-
       fier.  This are the available fields you	may display:

       name, displays the file name.

       size, displays the file size.

       bsize, is an alternative	form of	the <bf/size/ format. It displays  the
       size of the files and for directories it	just shows SUB-DIR or UP--DIR.

       type, displays a	one character field type.  This	character is a	super-
       set  of what is displayed by ls with the	-F flag.  An asterisk for exe-
       cutable files, a	slash for directories, an at-sign for links, an	 equal
       sign for	sockets, a hyphen for character	devices, a plus	sign for block
       devices,	a pipe for fifos, a tilde for symbolic	links  to  directories
       and  an	exclamation  mark  for	stalled	 symlinks  (links  that	 point

       mtime, file's last modification time.

       atime, file's last access time.

       ctime, file's creation time.

       perm, a string representing the current permission bits of the file.

       mode, an	octal value with the current permission	bits of	the file.

       nlink, the number of links to the file.	ngid, the GID (numeric).

       nuid, the UID (numeric).

       owner, the owner	of the file.

       group, the group	of the file.

       inode, the inode	of the file.

       Also you	may use	these field names for arranging	the display:

       space, a	space in the display format.

       mark, An	asterisk if the	file is	tagged,	a space	if it's	not.

       |, This character is used to add	a vertical line	to the display format.

       To  force  one field to a fixed size (a size specifier),	you just add a
       ':' and then the	number of characters you want the field	 to  have,  if
       the  number  is followed	by the symbol '+', then	the size specifies the
       minimum field size, if the program finds	out that there is  more	 space
       on the screen, it will then expand this field.

       For example, the	Full display corresponds to this format:

       half type,name,|,size,|,mtime

       And the Long display corresponds	to this	format:

       full	    perm,space,nlink,space,owner,space,group,space,size,space,

       This is a nice user display format:

       half name,|,size:7,|,type,mode:3

       Panels may also be set to the following modes:

       Info   The info view  display  information  related  to	the  currently
	      selected file and	if possible information	about the current file

       Tree   The tree view is quite similar to	the  directory	tree  feature.
	      See the section about it for more	information.

       Quick View
	      In  this	mode,  the  panel will switch to a reduced viewer that
	      displays the contents of the currently  selected	file,  if  you
	      select  the panel	(with the tab key or the mouse), you will have
	      access to	the usual viewer commands.

    Sort Order...
       The eight sort orders are by name, by extension,	by modification	 time,
       by access time, and by inode information	modification time, by size, by
       inode and unsorted.  In the Sort	order dialog box you  can  choose  the
       sort  order  and	 you  may  also	specify	if you want to sort in reverse
       order by	checking the reverse box.

       By default directories are sorted before	files but this can be  changed
       from the	Options	menu (option Mix all files ).

       The  filter  command allows you to specify a shell pattern (for example
       *.tar.gz	) which	the files must match to	be shown.  Regardless  of  the
       filter pattern, the directories and the links to	directories are	always
       shown in	the directory panel.

       The reread command reload the list of files in  the  directory.	It  is
       useful  if  other processes have	created	or removed files.  If you have
       panelized file names in a panel this will reload	the directory contents
       and remove the panelized	information (See the section External panelize
       for more	information).

  File Menu
       The Midnight Commander uses the F1 - F10	keys as	keyboard shortcuts for
       commands	appearing in the file menu. The	escape sequences for the Fkeys
       are terminfo capabilities kf1 trough kf10.  On terminals	without	 func-
       tion  key  support,  you	can achieve the	same functionality by pressing
       the ESC key and then a number in	the range 1 through 9  and  0  (corre-
       sponding	to F1 to F9 and	F10 respectively).

       The  File menu has the following	commands (keyboard shortcuts in	paren-

       Help (F1)

       Invokes the built-in hypertext help viewer. Inside the help viewer, you
       can use the Tab key to select the next link and the Enter key to	follow
       that link. The keys Space and Backspace are used	to  move  forward  and
       backward	 in  a	help  page.  Press  F1	again  to get the full list of
       accepted	keys.

       Menu (F2)

       Invoke the user menu.  The user menu provides an	easy  way  to  provide
       users with a menu and add extra features	to the Midnight	Commander.

       View (F3, Shift-F3)

       View  the currently selected file. By default this invokes the Internal
       File Viewer but if the option "Use internal view" is off, it invokes an
       external	 file  viewer  specified by the	PAGER environment variable. If
       PAGER is	undefined, the "view" command is invoked.  If you use Shift-F3
       instead,	the viewer will	be invoked without doing any formatting	or pre
       processing to the file.

       Filtered	View (M-!)

       this command prompts for	a command and  it's  arguments	(the  argument
       defaults	 to  the  currently  selected file name), the output from such
       command is shown	in the internal	file viewer.

       Edit (F4)

       Currently it invokes the	vi editor, or the editor specified in the EDI-
       TOR environment variable, or the	Internal File Editor if	the use_inter-
       nal_edit	option is on.

       Copy (F5)

       Pop up an input dialog with destination that defaults to	the  directory
       in  the	non-selected  panel and	copies the currently selected file (or
       the tagged files, if there is at	least one file tagged) to  the	direc-
       tory  specified	by  the	user in	the input dialog. During this process,
       you can press C-c or ESC	to abort  the  operation.  For	details	 about
       source  mask  (which  will be usually either * or ^\(.*\)$ depending on
       setting of Use shell patterns) and possible wildcards in	 the  destina-
       tion see	Mask copy/rename.

       On  some	 systems,  it  is possible to do the copy in the background by
       clicking	on the background button (or pressing M-b in the dialog	 box).
       The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Link (C-x l)

       Create a	hard link to the current file.

       SymLink (C-x s)

       Create  a  symbolic link	to the current file. To	those of you who don't
       know what links are: creating a link to a file is a  bit	 like  copying
       the  file,  but	both  the source filename and the destination filename
       represent the same file image. For example, if you edit	one  of	 these
       files, all changes you make will	appear in both files. Some people call
       links aliases or	shortcuts.

       A hard link appears as a	real file. After making	it, there is no	way of
       telling	which one is the original and which is the link. If you	delete
       either one of them the other one	is still intact. It is very  difficult
       to  notice that the files represent the same image. Use hard links when
       you don't even want to know.

       A symbolic link is a reference to the name of the original file.	If the
       original	file is	deleted	the symbolic link is useless. It is quite easy
       to notice that the files	represent the same image. The Midnight Comman-
       der  shows  an  "@"-sign	 in front of the file name if it is a symbolic
       link to somewhere (except to directory, where it	shows  a  tilde	 (~)).
       The original file which the link	points to is shown on mini-status line
       if the Show mini-status option is enabled. Use symbolic links when  you
       want to avoid the confusion that	can be caused by hard links.

       Rename/Move (F6)

       Pop  up	an  input  dialog  that	 defaults to the directory in the non-
       selected	panel and moves	the currently selected	file  (or  the	tagged
       files  if there is at least one tagged file) to the directory specified
       by the user in the input	dialog.	During the process, you	can press  C-c
       or  ESC to abort	the operation. For more	details	look at	Copy operation
       above, most of the things are quite similar.

       On some systems,	it is possible to do the copy  in  the	background  by
       clicking	 on the	background button (or pressing M-b in the dialog box).
       The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Mkdir (F7)

       Pop up an input dialog and creates the directory	specified.

       Delete (F8)

       Delete the currently selected file or the tagged	files in the currently
       selected	 panel.	 During	the process, you can press C-c or ESC to abort
       the operation.

       Quick cd	(M-c) Use the quick cd command if you have full	 command  line
       and want	to cd somewhere.

       Select group (+)

       This  is	 used to select	(tag) a	group of files.	The Midnight Commander
       will prompt for a regular expression describing the group.  When	 Shell
       Patterns	 are enabled, the regular expression is	much like the filename
       globbing	in the shell (*	standing for zero or  more  characters	and  ?
       standing	for one	character). If Shell Patterns is off, then the tagging
       of files	is done	with normal regular expressions	(see ed	(1)).

       To mark directories instead of files, the expression must start or  end
       with a '/'.

       Unselect	group (\)

       Used  for  unselecting  a  group	 of files. This	is the opposite	of the
       Select group command.

       Quit (F10, Shift-F10)

       Terminate the Midnight Commander.  Shift-F10 is used when you  want  to
       quit  and you are using the shell wrapper.  Shift-F10 will not take you
       to the last directory you visited with the Midnight Commander,  instead
       it will stay at the directory where you started the Midnight Commander.

    Quick cd
       This command is useful if you have a full command line and want	to  cd
       somewhere  without having to yank and paste the command line. This com-
       mand pops up a small dialog, where you enter everything you would enter
       after  cd  on  the command line and then	you press enter. This features
       all the things that are already in the internal cd command.

  Command Menu
       The Directory tree command shows	a tree figure of the directories.

       The Find	file command allows you	to search for  a  specific  file.  The
       "Swap panels" command swaps the contents	of the two directory panels.

       The "Panels on/off" command shows the output of the last	shell command.
       This works only on xterm	and on Linux and SCO console.

       The Compare directories (C-x d) command compares	the  directory	panels
       with  each  other.  You	can then use the Copy (F5) command to make the
       panels identical. There are three compare  methods.  The	 quick	method
       compares	only file size and file	date. The thorough method makes	a full
       byte-by-byte compare. The thorough  method  is  not  available  if  the
       machine	does  not support the mmap(2) system call.  The	size-only com-
       pare method just	compares the file sizes	and does not  check  the  con-
       tents or	the date times,	it just	checks the file	size.

       The  Command  history  command  shows  a	 list  of  typed commands. The
       selected	command	is copied to the command line. The command history can
       also be accessed	by typing M-p or M-n.

       The  Directory  hotlist	(C-\)  command	makes  changing	of the current
       directory to often used directories faster.

       The External panelize allows you	to execute an  external	 program,  and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       Extension  file edit command allows you to specify programs to executed
       when you	try to execute,	view, edit and do a bunch of  other  thing  on
       files  with  certain  extensions	(filename endings). The	Menu file edit
       command may be used for editing the user	menu (which appears by	press-
       ing F2).

    Directory Tree
       The  Directory Tree command shows a tree	figure of the directories. You
       can select a directory from the figure and the Midnight Commander  will
       change to that directory.

       There  are two ways to invoke the tree. The real	directory tree command
       is available from Commands menu.	The other way is to select  tree  view
       from the	Left or	Right menu.

       To  get rid of long delays the Midnight Commander creates the tree fig-
       ure by scanning only a small subset of  all  the	 directories.  If  the
       directory  which	 you want to see is missing, move to its parent	direc-
       tory and	press C-r (or F2).

       You can use the following keys:

       General movement	keys are accepted.

       Enter.  In the directory	tree, exits the	directory tree and changes  to
       this  directory in the current panel. In	the tree view, changes to this
       directory in the	other panel and	stays in tree view mode	in the current

       C-r, F2 (Rescan).  Rescan this directory. Use this when the tree	figure
       is out of date: it is missing subdirectories or shows some  subdirecto-
       ries which don't	exist any more.

       F3  (Forget).   Delete this directory from the tree figure. Use this to
       remove clutter from the figure. If you want the directory back  to  the
       tree figure press F2 in its parent directory.

       F4  (Static/Dynamic).   Toggle  between	the  dynamic  navigation  mode
       (default) and the static	navigation mode.

       In the static navigation	mode you can use  the  Up  and	Down  keys  to
       select a	directory. All known directories are shown.

       In  the	dynamic	 navigation  mode  you can use the Up and Down keys to
       select a	sibling	directory, the Left key	to move	to the	parent	direc-
       tory,  and the Right key	to move	to a child directory. Only the parent,
       sibling and children directories	are shown, others are  left  out.  The
       tree figure changes dynamically as you traverse.

       F5 (Copy).  Copy	the directory.

       F6 (RenMov).  Move the directory.

       F7 (Mkdir).  Make a new directory below this directory.

       F8 (Delete).  Delete this directory from	the file system.

       C-s,  M-s.   Search  the	 next directory	matching the search string. If
       there is	no such	directory these	keys will move one line	down.

       C-h, Backspace.	Delete the last	character of the search	string.

       Any other character.  Add the character to the search string  and  move
       to  the	next directory which starts with these characters. In the tree
       view you	must first activate the	 search	 mode  by  pressing  C-s.  The
       search string is	shown in the mini status line.

       The  following  actions	are available only in the directory tree. They
       aren't supported	in the tree view.

       F1 (Help).  Invoke the help viewer and show this	section.

       Esc, F10.  Exit the directory tree. Do not change the directory.

       The mouse is supported. A double-click behaves like Enter. See also the
       section on mouse	support.

    Find File
       The Find	File feature first asks	for the	start directory	for the	search
       and the filename	to be searched for. By pressing	the  Tree  button  you
       can select the start directory from the directory tree figure.

       The  contents  field  accepts  regular expressions similar to egrep(1).
       That means you have to escape characters	 with  a  special  meaning  to
       egrep  with  "\",  e.g.	if  you	search for "strcmp (" you will have to
       input "strcmp \(" (without the double quotes).

       You can start the search	by pressing the	Ok button.  During the	search
       you can stop from the Stop button and continue from the Start button.

       You  can	browse the filelist with the up	and down arrow keys. The Chdir
       button will change to the directory of the currently selected file. The
       Again  button  will  ask	 for the parameters for	a new search. The Quit
       button quits the	search operation. The Panelize button will  place  the
       found  files  to	 the  current directory	panel so that you can do addi-
       tional operations on them (view,	copy, move, delete and so  on).	 After
       panelizing you can press	C-r to return to the normal file listing.

       It is possible to have a	list of	directories that the Find File command
       should skip during the search (for  example,  you  may  want  to	 avoid
       searches	on a CDROM or on a NFS directory that is mounted across	a slow

       Directories  to	be   skipped   should	be   set   on	the   variable
       find_ignore_dirs	in the Misc section of your ~/.mc/ini file.

       Directory components should be separated	with a colon, here is an exam-


       You may consider	using the External panelize command  for  some	opera-
       tions. Find file	command	is for simple queries only, while using	Exter-
       nal panelize you	can do as mysterious searches as you would like.

    External panelize
       The External panelize allows you	to execute an  external	 program,  and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       For  example,  if  you  want to manipulate in one of the	panels all the
       symbolic	links in the current directory,	you can	use external paneliza-
       tion to run the following command:

       find . -type l -print
       Upon  command  completion,  the directory contents of the panel will no
       longer be the directory listing of the current directory, but  all  the
       files that are symbolic links.

       If you want to panelize all of the files	that have been downloaded from
       your ftp	server,	you can	use this awk command to	extract	the file  name
       from the	transfer log files:

       awk '$9 ~! /incoming/ { print $9	}' < /usr/adm/xferlog

       You  may	 want to save often used panelize commands under a descriptive
       name, so	that you can recall them quickly. You do this  by  typing  the
       command on the input line and pressing Add new button. Then you enter a
       name under which	you want the command to	be saved. Next time, you  just
       choose that command from	the list and do	not have to type it again.

       The  Directory  hotlist	command	shows the labels of the	directories in
       the directory hotlist. The Midnight Commander will change to the	direc-
       tory  corresponding to the selected label. From the hotlist dialog, you
       can remove already created label/directory pairs	and add	new  one.  For
       adding you may want to use a standalone Add to hotlist command (C-x h),
       which adds the current directory	into the directory hotlist,  as	 well.
       The user	is prompted for	a label	for the	directory.

       This  makes cd to often used directories	faster.	You may	consider using
       the CDPATH variable as described	in internal cd command description.

    Extension File Edit
       This will invoke	your editor on the file	~/.mc/ext. The format of  this
       file is as follows (the format has changed with version 3.0):

       All lines starting with # or empty lines	are thrown away.

       Lines starting in the first column should have following	format:

       keyword/descNL, i.e. everything after keyword/ until new	line is	desc

       keyword can be:


	      (desc is then any	extension (no wildcards), i.e. matches all the
	      files *desc . Example: .tar matches *.tar)


	      (desc is a regular expression)


	      (file matches this if `file %f` matches regular expression  desc
	      (the filename: part from `file %f` is removed))


	      (matches any file	no matter what desc is)

       Other  lines should start with a	space or tab and should	be of the for-

       keyword=commandNL (with no spaces around	=), where keyword should be:

       Open (if	the user presses Enter or doubleclicks it),  View  (F3),  Edit
       (F4), Drop (user	drops some files on it)	or any other user defined name
       (those will be listed in	the extension dependent	 pop-up	 menu).	  Icon
       name is reserved	for future use by mc.

       command	is any one-line	shell command, with the	simple macro substitu-

       Target are evaluated from top to	bottom (order is thus important).   If
       some  actions  are  missing,  search continues as if this target	didn't
       match (i.e. if a	file matches the  first	 and  second  entry  and  View
       action is missing in the	first one, then	on pressing F3 the View	action
       from the	second entry will  be  used.  default  should  catch  all  the

    Background jobs
       This  lets  you	control	the state of any background Midnight Commander
       process (only copy and move files operations can	be done	in  the	 back-
       ground).	 You can stop, restart and kill	a background job from here.

    Menu File Edit
       The user	menu is	a menu of useful actions that can be customized	by the
       user. When you access the user menu, the	file from the current
       directory is used if it exists, but only	if it is owned by user or root
       and is not world-writable.  If no such file found, ~/.mc/menu is	 tried
       in  the	same  way,  and	otherwise mc uses the default system-wide menu

       The format of the menu file is very simple. Lines that start with  any-
       thing but space or tab are considered entries for the menu (in order to
       be able to use it like a	hot key, the first character should be a  let-
       ter).  All  the lines that start	with a space or	a tab are the commands
       that will be executed when the entry is selected.

       When an option is selected all the command  lines  of  the  option  are
       copied  to  a  temporary	 file  in  the	temporary  directory  (usually
       /usr/tmp) and then that file is executed. This allows the user  to  put
       normal  shell  constructs  in the menus.	Also simple macro substitution
       takes place before executing the	menu code. For more  information,  see
       macro substitution.

       Here is a sample	file:

       A    Dump the currently selected	file
	    od -c %f

       B    Edit a bug report and send it to root
	    vi /tmp/mail.$$
	    mail -s "Midnight Commander	bug" root < /tmp/mail.$$

       M    Read mail
	    emacs -f rmail

       N    Read Usenet	news
	    emacs -f gnus

       H    Call the info hypertext browser

       J    Copy current directory to other panel recursively
	    tar	cf - . | (cd %D	&& tar xvpf -)

       K    Make a release of the current subdirectory
	    echo -n "Name of distribution file:	"
	    read tar
	    ln -s %d `dirname %d`/$tar
	    cd ..
	    tar	cvhf ${tar}.tar	$tar

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       X       Extract the contents of a compressed tar	file
	    tar	xzvf %f

       Default Conditions

       Each  menu  entry  may  be  preceded by a condition. The	condition must
       start from the first column with	a '=' character. If the	 condition  is
       true, the menu entry will be the	default	entry.

       Condition syntax:   = <sub-cond>
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	| <sub-cond> ...
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	& <sub-cond> ...

       Sub-condition is	one of following:

	 f <pattern>	   current file	matching pattern?
	 F <pattern>	   other file matching pattern?
	 d <pattern>	   current directory matching pattern?
	 D <pattern>	   other directory matching pattern?
	 t <type>	   current file	of type?
	 T <type>	   other file of type?
	 ! <sub-cond>	   negate the result of	sub-condition

       Pattern is a normal shell pattern or a regular expression, according to
       the shell patterns option. You can override the	global	value  of  the
       shell  patterns	option by writing "shell_patterns=x" on	the first line
       of the menu file	(where "x" is either 0 or 1).

       Type is one or more of the following characters:

	 n  not	directory
	 r  regular file
	 d  directory
	 l  link
	 c  char special
	 b  block special
	 f  fifo
	 s  socket
	 x  executable
	 t  tagged

       For example 'rlf' means either regular file, link or fifo. The 't' type
       is  a  little special because it	acts on	the panel instead of the file.
       The condition '=t t' is true if there are tagged	files in  the  current
       panel and false if not.

       If  the condition starts	with '=?' instead of '=' a debug trace will be
       shown whenever the value	of the condition is calculated.

       The conditions are calculated from left to right. This means
	    = f	*.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       is calculated as
	    ( (f *.tar.gz) | (f	*.tgz) ) & (t n)

       Here is a sample	of the use of conditions:

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       L    List the contents of a compressed tar-archive
	    gzip -cd %f	| tar xvf -

       Addition	Conditions

       If the condition	begins with '+'	(or '+?') instead of '=' (or '=?')  it
       is  an addition condition. If the condition is true the menu entry will
       be included in the menu.	If the condition is false the menu entry  will
       not be included in the menu.

       You  can	 combine default and addition conditions by starting condition
       with '+=' or '=+' (or '+=?' or '=+?' if you want	debug trace).  If  you
       want  to	 use  two different conditions,	one for	adding and another for
       defaulting, you can precede a menu entry	with two condition lines,  one
       starting	with '+' and another starting with '='.

       Comments	 are started with '#'. The additional comment lines must start
       with '#', space or tab.

  Options Menu
       The Configuration command pops up a dialog from which  you  can	change
       most of settings	of the Midnight	Commander.

       The  Display  bits  command  pops up a dialog from which	you may	select
       which characters	is your	terminal able to display.

       The Confirmation	command	pops up	a dialog from which you	specify	 which
       actions you want	to confirm.

       The  Learn  keys	command	pops up	a dialog from which you	test some keys
       which are not working on	some terminals and you may fix them.

       The Virtual FS command pops up a	dialog from which you specify some VFS
       related options.

       The  Layout  command pops up a dialog from which	you specify a bunch of
       options how mc looks like on the	screen.

       The Save	setup command saves the	current	settings of  the  Left,	 Right
       and Options menus. A small number of other settings is saved, too.

       The  program  has  some options that may	be toggled on and off from the
       Configuration dialog. Options are enabled if they have an  asterisk  or
       "x"  in	front  of  them.  These	options	are divided into three groups:
       Screen Colors, Panel Options and	Other Options.

       Screen Colors

       You can select whether your display supports  color  or	not.  Normally
       this  information  is in	the terminfo database. If you want to know how
       to change individual colors see the section on Colors.

       Panel Options

       Show Backup Files.  By default  the  Midnight  Commander	 doesn't  show
       files ending in '~' (like GNU's ls option -B).

       Show  Hidden  Files.   By  default the Midnight Commander will show all
       files that start	with a dot (like ls -a).

       Mark moves down.	 By default when you mark a file (with either  C-t  or
       the Insert key) the selection bar will move down.

       Show  Mini-Status.   If enabled,	show one line of status	information at
       the bottom of the panels	about the currently selected item.

       Mix all files.  When this option	is enabled, all	files and  directories
       are  shown mixed	together. If the option	is off,	directories (and links
       to directories) are shown at the	beginning of the  listing,  and	 other
       files afterwards.

       Fast  directory reload.	This option is off by default. If you activate
       the fast	reload,	the Midnight Commander will use	a trick	 to  determine
       if  the	directory  contents  have  changed. The	trick is to reload the
       directory only if the i-node of the directory has changed;  this	 means
       that  reloads  only  happen  when files are created or deleted. If what
       changes is the i-node for a file	in the directory (file	size  changes,
       mode or owner changes, etc) the display is not updated. In these	cases,
       if you have the option on, you have to rescan  the  directory  manually
       (with C-r).

       Other Options

       Verbose	operation.   This  toggles  whether  the file Copy, Rename and
       Delete operations are verbose (i.e., display  a	dialog	box  for  each
       operation).  If	you  have a slow terminal, you may wish	to disable the
       verbose operation. It is	automatically turned off if the	speed of  your
       terminal	is less	than 9600 bps.

       Pause after run.	 After executing your commands,	the Midnight Commander
       can pause, so that you can examine the output of	 the  command.	 There
       are three possible settings for this variable:

	      Never  Means that	you do not want	to see the output of your com-
	      mand.  If	you are	using the Linux	or SCO console	or  an	xterm,
	      you will be able to see the output of the	command	by typing C-o.

	      On dumb terminals	You will get the pause	message	 on  terminals
	      that  are	 not capable of	showing	the output of the last command
	      executed (any terminal that is not an xterm or  the  Linux  con-

	      Always  The  program will	pause after executing all of your com-

       Shell Patterns.	By default the Select, Unselect	 and  Filter  commands
       will  use shell-like regular expressions. The following conversions are
       performed to achieve this: the '*' is replaced by '.*'  (zero  or  more
       characters);  the  '?'	is replaced by '.' (exactly one	character) and
       '.' by the literal dot. If the option is	 disabled,  then  the  regular
       expressions are the ones	described in ed(1).

       Auto Save Setup.	 If this option	is enabled, when you exit the Midnight
       Commander the configurable options of the Midnight Commander are	 saved
       in the ~/.mc/ini	file.

       Auto  menus.   If this option is	enabled, the user menu will be invoked
       at startup.  Useful for building	menus for non-unixers.

       Use internal editor.  If	this option is enabled,	the built-in file edi-
       tor is used to edit files. If the option	is disabled, the editor	speci-
       fied in the EDITOR environment variable is used.	 If no editor is spec-
       ified, vi is used.  See the section on the internal file	editor.

       Use  internal  viewer.	If  this  option is enabled, the built-in file
       viewer is used to view files. If	the  option  is	 disabled,  the	 pager
       specified  in  the  PAGER environment variable is used.	If no pager is
       specified, the view command is used.  See the section on	 the  internal
       file viewer.

       Confirm	Delete.	  This option is toggled on by default,	and will cause
       the Midnight Commander to ask for confirmation when deleting  a	single

       Cd  follows  links.  This option, if set, causes	the Midnight Commander
       to follow the logical chain of directories when changing	current	direc-
       tory either in the panels, or using the cd command. This	is the default
       behavior	of bash. When unset, the Midnight Commander follows  the  real
       directory  structure, so	cd .. if you've	entered	that directory through
       a link will move	you to the current directory's real parent and not  to
       the directory where the link was	present.

    Display bits
       This  is	 used  to  configure  the  range  of visible characters	on the
       screen.	This setting may be 7-bits if  your  terminal/curses  supports
       only  seven  output bits, ISO-8859-1 displays all the characters	in the
       ISO-8859-1 map and full 8 bits is for those terminals that can  display
       full 8 bit characters.

       In  this	menu you configure the confirmation options for	file deletion,
       overwriting, execution by pressing enter	and quitting the program.

    Learn keys
       This dialog lets	you test if your keys F1-F20,  Home,  End,  etc.  work
       properly	 on your terminal. They	often don't, since many	terminal data-
       bases are broken.

       You can move around with	the Tab	key, with  the	vi  moving  keys  ('h'
       left, 'j' down, 'k' up and 'l' right) and after you press any arrow key
       once (this will mark it OK), then you can use that key as well.

       You test	them just by pressing each of them. As soon as you press a key
       and  the	 key works properly, OK	should appear next to the name of that
       key. Once a key is marked OK it starts to work as usually, e.g. F1  for
       the  first time will just check that F1 works OK, but from that time on
       it will show help.  The same applies to the arrow keys. Tab key	should
       be working always.

       If  some	keys do	not work properly, then	you won't see OK after the key
       name after you have pressed that	key. You may then want to fix it.  You
       do  it by pressing the button of	that key (either by mouse or using Tab
       and Enter).  Then a red message will appear and you will	 be  asked  to
       type  that  key.	  If  you  want	to abort this, press just Esc and wait
       until the message disappears. Otherwise type the	key  you're  asked  to
       type and	also wait until	the dialog disappears.

       When you	finish with all	the keys, you may want either to Save your key
       fixes into your ~/.mc/ini file into the [terminal:TERM] section	(where
       TERM  is	 the name of your current terminal) or to discard them.	If all
       your keys were working properly and you had not to fix  any  key,  then
       (of course) no saving will occur.

    Virtual FS
       This  option  gives  you	 control over the settings of the Virtual File
       System information cache.

       The Midnight Commander keeps in memory the information related to  some
       of  the virtual file systems to speed up	the access to the files	in the
       file system.  Since the information that	must be	kept may be large (for
       example,	 compressed  tar  files	may be kept in RAM for faster access),
       you may want to tune  the  parameters  of  the  cached  information  to
       decrease	 your  memory usage or to maximize the speed of	access to fre-
       quently used file systems.

       The Tar file system is quite clever about how it	handles	tar files:  it
       just  loads the directory entries and when it needs to use the informa-
       tion contained in the tar file, it goes and grab	it.

       In the wild, tar	files are usually kept compressed (plain tar files are
       species	in  extinction), and because of	the nature of those files (the
       directory entries for the tar files is not there	waiting	for us	to  be
       loaded),	the tar	file system has	two choices: load the complete,	uncom-
       pressed tar file	into memory or uncompress the file in the  disk	 in  a
       temporary  location  and	then access the	uncompressed file as a regular
       tar file.

       In this dialog box you tell the Midnight	Commander which	sizes for com-
       pressed	tar files you will tolerate to load into your precious memory.
       The default setting is set to one megabyte, this	means that  compressed
       tar  files whose	size is	at most	one megabyte will be loaded into core,
       otherwise a temporary uncompressed tar file will	be created  to	access
       the contents (all of this is transparent	to the user).

       The  program will let you add a suffix to specify the units of the num-
       ber you typed in, use 'k' for kilobyte and 'm' for megabyte.  Our  rou-
       tine does not accept floating point numbers, so you can't use ".5 m" to
       specify 512 kilobytes, you will have to use "512	k" instead.

       Now, since we all love to browse	files and tar files all	over the disk,
       it's  common  that you will leave a tar file and	the re-enter it	later.
       Since uncompression is slow, the	 Midnight  Commander  will  cache  the
       information  in	memory for a limited amount of time, after you hit the
       timeout,	all of the memory resources associated with  the  file	system
       will be freed.  The default timeout is set to one minute.

       The  layout dialog gives	you a possibility to change the	general	layout
       of screen. You can specify whether the menubar, the command prompt, the
       hintbar	and  the function keybar are visible. On the Linux or SCO con-
       sole you	can specify how	many lines are shown in	the output window.

       The rest	of the screen area is used for the two directory  panels.  You
       can specify whether the area is split to	the panels in vertical or hor-
       izontal direction. The split can	be equal or you	can specify an unequal

    Save Setup
       At  startup  the	 Midnight  Commander  will  try	to load	initialization
       information from	the ~/.mc/ini file. If this  file  doesn't  exist,  it
       will  load  the	information  from  the system-wide configuration file,
       located in /usr/local/lib/mc/mc.ini. If the  system-wide	 configuration
       file doesn't exist, MC uses the default settings.

       The Save	Setup command creates the ~/.mc/ini file by saving the current
       settings	of the Left, Right and Options menus.

       If you activate the auto	save setup option, MC  will  always  save  the
       current settings	when exiting.

       There  also  exist  settings  which can't be changed from the menus. To
       change these settings you  have	to  edit  the  setup  file  with  your
       favorite	 editor. See the section on Special Settings for more informa-

Executing operating system commands
       You may execute commands	by typing them directly	in the	Midnight  Com-
       mander's	 input	line,  or by selecting the program you want to execute
       with the	selection bar in one of	the panels and hitting Enter.

       If you press Enter over a file that is  not  executable,	 the  Midnight
       Commander  checks the extension of the selected file against the	exten-
       sions in	the Extensions File.  If a match is found then the code	 asso-
       ciated  with  that extension is executed. A very	simple macro expansion
       takes place before executing the	command.

  The cd internal command
       The cd command is interpreted by	the  Midnight  Commander,  it  is  not
       passed  to the command shell for	execution.  Thus it may	not handle all
       of the nice macro expansion and	substitution  that  your  shell	 does,
       although	it does	some of	them:

       Tilde  substitution  The	 (~) will be substituted with your home	direc-
       tory, if	you append a username after the	tilde, then it will be substi-
       tuted with the login directory of the the specified user.

       For  example,  ~guest  is  the home directory for the user guest, while
       ~/guest is the directory	guest in your home directory.

       Previous	directory You can jump to the directory	you were previously by
       using the special directory name	'-' like this: cd -

       CDPATH  directories If the directory specified to the cd	command	is not
       in the current directory, then The Midnight Commander uses the value in
       the  environment	 variable CDPATH to search for the directory in	any of
       the named directories.

       For example you could  set  your	 CDPATH	 variable  to  ~/src:/usr/src,
       allowing	 you to	change your directory to any of	the directories	inside
       the ~/src and /usr/src directories, from	any place in the  file	system
       by  using  it's	relative  name (for example cd linux could take	you to

  Macro	Substitution
       When accessing a	user menu, or executing	an  extension  dependent  com-
       mand,  or running a command from	the command line input,	a simple macro
       substitution takes place.

       The macros are:


	      The current file name.


	      The current directory name.


	      The current file in the unselected panel.


	      The directory name of the	unselected panel.


	      The currently tagged files.


	      The tagged files in the unselected panel.

       %u and %U

	      Similar to the %t	and %T macros, but in addition the  files  are
	      untagged.	 You  can use this macro only once per menu file entry
	      or extension file	entry, because next  time  there  will	be  no
	      tagged files.

       %s and %S

	      The selected files: The tagged files if there are	any. Otherwise
	      the current file.


	      Dropped files. In	all places except in the Drop  action  of  the
	      mc.ext  file, this will become a null string, in the Drop	action
	      it will be replaced with a space separated list  of  files  that
	      were dropped on the file.


	      This  is	a  special  macro  that	 is used to change the current
	      directory	to the directory specified in front of	it.   This  is
	      used primarily as	an interface to	the Virtual File System.


	      This  macro  is  used to invoke the internal viewer.  This macro
	      can be used alone, or with arguments.  If	you pass any arguments
	      to this macro, they should be enclosed in	brackets.

	      The  arguments  are:  ascii to force the viewer into ascii mode;
	      hex to force the viewer into hex mode; nroff to tell the	viewer
	      that  it	should	interpret  the bold and	underline sequences of
	      nroff; unformated	to tell	the viewer to not interpret nroff com-
	      mands for	making the text	bold or	underlined.


	      The % character

       %{some text}

	      Prompt  for the substitution. An input box is shown and the text
	      inside the braces	is used	as a prompt. The macro is  substituted
	      by  the text typed by the	user. The user can press ESC or	F10 to
	      cancel. This macro doesn't work on the command line yet.

  The subshell support
       The subshell support is a compile time  option,	that  works  with  the
       shells: bash, tcsh and zsh.

       When the	subshell code is activated the Midnight	Commander will spawn a
       concurrent copy of your shell (the one defined in  the  SHELL  variable
       and if it is not	defined, then the one in the /etc/passwd file) and run
       it in a pseudo terminal,	instead	of invoking a new shell	each time  you
       execute a command, the command will be passed to	the subshell as	if you
       had typed it.  This also	allows you to  change  the  environment	 vari-
       ables,  use shell functions and define aliases that are valid until you
       quit the	Midnight Commander.

       If you are using	bash you can specify startup commands for the subshell
       in  your	~/.mc/bashrc file and special keyboard maps in the ~/.mc/inpu-
       trc file.  tcsh users may specify startup commands in the  ~/.mc/tcshrc

       When  the  subshell  code  is used, you can suspend applications	at any
       time with the sequence C-o and jump back	to the Midnight	Commander,  if
       you  interrupt an application, you will not be able to run other	exter-
       nal commands until you quit the application you interrupted.

       An extra	added feature of using the subshell is that  the  prompt  dis-
       played  by  the Midnight	Commander is the same prompt that you are cur-
       rently using in your shell.

       The OPTIONS section has more information	on how	you  can  control  the
       subshell	code.

  Controlling Midnight Commander
       The Midnight Commander defines an environment variable MC_CONTROL_FILE.
       The commands executed by	MC may give instructions to MC by  writing  to
       the  file  specified  by	 this variable.	 This is only available	if you
       compiled	your copy  of  the  Midnight  Commander	 with  the  WANT_PARSE

       The following instructions are supported.

       clear_tags	   Clear all tags.
       tag <filename>	   Tag specified file.
       untag <filename>	   Untag specified file.
       select <filename>   Move	pointer	to file.
       change_panel	   Switch between panels.
       cd <path>      Change directory.

       If  the first letter of the instruction is in lower case	it operates on
       the current panel. If the letter	is in upper case the instruction oper-
       ates  on	the other panel. The additional	letters	must be	in lower case.
       Instructions must be separated by exactly one space,  tab  or  newline.
       The  instructions  don't	 work  in  the Info, Tree and Quick views. The
       first error causes the rest to be ignored.

       The Chmod window	is used	to change the attribute	bits  in  a  group  of
       files  and  directories.	 It can	be invoked with	the C-x	c key combina-

       The Chmod window	has two	parts -	Permissions and	File

       In the File section are displayed the name of the file or directory and
       its permissions in octal	form, as well as its owner and group.

       In the Permissions section there	is a set of check buttons which	corre-
       spond to	the file attribute bits.  As you change	 the  attribute	 bits,
       you can see the octal value change in the File section.

       To  move	 between the widgets (buttons and check	buttons) use the arrow
       keys or the Tab key.  To	change the state of the	check  buttons	or  to
       select a	button use Space.  You can also	use the	hotkeys	on the buttons
       to quickly activate that	selection (they	are the	highlit	letters	on the

       To set the attribute bits, use the Enter	key.

       When  working  with  a group of files or	directories, you just click on
       the bits	you want to set	or clear.  Once	you have selected the bits you
       want  to	 change,  you  select one of the action	buttons	(Set marked or
       Clear marked).

       Finally,	to set the attributes exactly to those specified, you can  use
       the [Set	all] button, which will	act on all the tagged files.

       [Marked all] set	only marked attributes to all selected files

       [Set marked] set	marked bits in attributes of all selected files

       [Clean marked] clear marked bits	in attributes of all selected files

       [Set] set the attributes	of one file

       [Cancel]	cancel the Chmod command

       The  Chown command is used to change the	owner/group of a file. The hot
       key for this command is C-x o.

File Operations
       When you	copy, move or delete files the Midnight	 Commander  shows  the
       file  operations	dialog.	It shows the files currently being operated on
       and there are at	most three progress bars. The file bar tells  how  big
       part  of	 the  current file has been copied so far. The count bar tells
       how many	of tagged files	have been handled so far. The bytes bar	 tells
       how big part of total size of the tagged	files has been handled so far.
       If the verbose option is	off the	file and bytes bars are	not shown.

       There are two buttons at	the bottom of the dialog.  Pressing  the  Skip
       button  will skip the rest of the current file. Pressing	the Abort but-
       ton will	abort the whole	operation, the rest of the files are  skipped.

       There  are  three  other	dialogs	which you can run into during the file

       The error dialog	informs	about error conditions and has three  choices.
       Normally	 you  select  either  the  Skip	button to skip the file	or the
       Abort button to abort the operation altogether. You can also select the
       Retry button if you fixed the problem from another terminal.

       The  replace dialog is shown when you attempt to	copy or	move a file on
       the top of an existing file. The	dialog shows the dates	and  sizes  of
       the both	files. Press the Yes button to overwrite the file, the No but-
       ton to skip the file, the alL button to overwrite all  the  files,  the
       nonE  button  to	 never overwrite and the Update	button to overwrite if
       the source file is newer	than the target	file. You can abort the	 whole
       operation by pressing the Abort button.

       The recursive delete dialog is shown when you try to delete a directory
       which is	not empty. Press the Yes button	to delete the directory	recur-
       sively,	the  No	button to skip the directory, the alL button to	delete
       all the directories and the nonE	 button	 to  skip  all	the  non-empty
       directories.  You  can  abort the whole operation by pressing the Abort
       button. If you selected the Yes or alL button you will be asked	for  a
       confirmation. Type "yes"	only if	you are	really sure you	want to	do the
       recursive delete.

       If you have tagged files	and perform an	operation  on  them  only  the
       files on	which the operation succeeded are untagged. Failed and skipped
       files are left tagged.

Mask Copy/Rename
       The copy/move operations	lets you translate the names of	 files	in  an
       easy  way.  To  do  it, you have	to specify the correct source mask and
       usually in the trailing part of the destination specify some wildcards.
       All  the	files matching the source mask are copied/renamed according to
       the target mask.	If there are  tagged  files,  only  the	 tagged	 files
       matching	the source mask	are renamed.

       There are other option which you	can set:

       Follow  links  tells  whether  make  the	 symlinks and hardlinks	in the
       source directory	(recursively in	subdirectories)	new links in the  tar-
       get directory or	whether	would you like to copy their content.

       Dive  into subdirs tells	what to	do if in the target directory exists a
       directory with the same name as the file/directory  being  copied.  The
       default action is to copy it's content into that	directory, by enabling
       this you	can copy the source directory into that	directory.  Perhaps an
       example will help:

       You  want  to  copy content of a	directory foo to /bla/foo, which is an
       already existing	directory. Normally (when Dive is not set),  mc	 would
       copy  it	 exactly into /bla/foo.	 By enabling this option you will copy
       the content into	/bla/foo/foo, because the directory already exists.

       Preserve	attributes tells whether to preserve the original files'  per-
       missions, timestamps and	if you are root	whether	to preserve the	origi-
       nal files' UID and GID. If this option is not set the current value  of
       the umask will be respected.

       Use shell patterns on

       When the	shell patterns option is on you	can use	the '*'	and '?'	 wild-
       cards in	the source mask. They work like	they do	in the shell.  In  the
       target  mask  only  the	'*'  and '\<digit>' wildcards are allowed. The
       first '*' wildcard in the target	mask corresponds to the	first wildcard
       group  in  the  source  mask,  the second '*' corresponds to the	second
       group and so on.	The '\1' wildcard corresponds to  the  first  wildcard
       group  in  the source mask, the '\2' wildcard corresponds to the	second
       group and so on all the way up to '\9'. The '\0'	wildcard is the	 whole
       filename	of the source file.

       Two examples:

       If  the	source mask is "*.tar.gz", the destination is "/bla/*.tgz" and
       the file	to be copied is	"foo.tar.gz", the copy will  be	 "foo.tgz"  in

       Let's  suppose you want to swap basename	and extension so that "file.c"
       will become "c.file" and	so on. The source mask for this	is  "*.*"  and
       the destination is "\2.\1".

       Use shell patterns off

       When  the  shell	 patterns  option  is  off the MC doesn't do automatic
       grouping	anymore. You must use '\(...\)'	expressions in the source mask
       to  specify  meaning for	the wildcards in the target mask. This is more
       flexible	but also requires more typing. Otherwise target	masks are sim-
       ilar to the situation when the shell patterns option is on.

       Two examples:

       If   the	  source  mask	is  "^\(.*\)\.tar\.gz$",  the  destination  is
       "/bla/*.tgz" and	the file to be copied is "foo.tar.gz", the  copy  will
       be "/bla/foo.tgz".

       Let's  suppose you want to swap basename	and extension so that "file.c"
       will  become  "c.file"  and  so	on.  The  source  mask	for  this   is
       "^\(.*\)\.\(.*\)$" and the destination is "\2.\1".

       Case Conversions

       You  can	 also  change  the  case  of the filenames. If you use '\u' or
       uppercase or lowercase correspondingly.

       If you use '\U' or '\L' in the target mask the next characters will  be
       converted to uppercase or lowercase correspondingly up to the next

       The '\u'	and '\l' are stronger than '\U'	and '\L'.

       For  example,  if  the  source  mask  is	 '*'  (shell  patterns	on) or
       '^\(.*\)$' (shell patterns off) and the target mask is '\L\u*' the file
       names  will be converted	to have	initial	upper case and otherwise lower

       You can also use	'\' as a quote character. For example, '\\' is a back-
       slash and '\*' is an asterisk.

Internal File Viewer
       The internal file viewer	provides two display modes: ASCII and hex.  To
       toggle between modes, use the F4	key.  If you have the GNU gzip program
       installed,  it  will  be	 used to automatically decompress the files on

       The viewer will try to use the best method provided by your  system  or
       the  file  type	to  display the	information.  The internal file	viewer
       will interpret some string sequences to	set  the  bold	and  underline
       attributes, thus	making a pretty	display	of your	files.

       When in hex mode, the search function accepts text in quotes as well as
       hexadecimal constants.

       You can mix quoted text with constants like this:  "String"  0xFE  0xBB
       "more text".  Text between constants and	quoted text is just ignored.

       Some  internal  details	about  the viewer: On systems that provide the
       mmap(2) system call, the	program	maps the file instead of  loading  it;
       if  the	system	does  not  provide the mmap(2) system call or the file
       matches an action that requires a filter, then the viewer will use it's
       growing	buffers,  thus	loading	 only those parts of the file that you
       actually	access (this includes compressed files).

       Here is a listing of the	actions	associated with	each key that the Mid-
       night Commander handles in the internal file viewer.

       F1 Invoke the builtin hypertext help viewer.

       F2 Toggle the wrap mode.

       F4 Toggle the hex mode.

       F5  Goto	line.  This will prompt	you for	a line number and will display
       that line.

       F6, /.  Regular expression search.

       ?, Reverse regular expression search.

       F7 Normal search	/ hex mode search.

       C-s.  Start normal search if there was no  previous  search  expression
       else find next match.

       C-r.   Start  reverse search if there was no previous search expression
       else find next match.

       n.  Find	next match.

       F8 Toggle Raw/Parsed mode: This will show the file as found on disk  or
       if  a processing	filter has been	specified in the mc.ext	file, then the
       output from the filter. Current mode is always the other	 than  written
       on the button label, since on the button	is the mode which you enter by
       that key.

       F9 Toggle the format/unformat mode: when	format mode is on  the	viewer
       will  interpret	some  string sequences to show bold and	underline with
       different colors. Also, on button label is the other mode than current.

       F10, Esc.  Exit the internal file viewer.

       next-page, space, C-v.  Scroll one page forward.

       prev-page, M-v, C-b, backspace.	Scroll one page	backward.

       down-key	Scroll one line	forward.

       up-key Scroll one line backward.

       C-l Refresh the screen.

       !  Spawn	a shell	in the currently working directory.

       [n] m Set the mark n.

       [n] r Jump to the mark n.

       C-f Jump	to the next file.

       C-b Jump	to the previous	file.

       M-r Toggle the ruler.

       It's  possible  to instruct the file viewer how to display a file, look
       at the Extension	File Edit section

Internal File Editor
       The internal file editor	provides most of the features of  common  full
       screen  editors.	 It is invoked using F4	provided the use_internal_edit
       option is set in	the initialization file. It  has  an  extensible  file
       size limit of sixteen megabytes and edits binary	files flawlessly.

       The  features it	presently supports are:	Block copy, move, delete, cut,
       paste; key for key undo ; pull-down menus; file insertion; macro	 defi-
       nition; regular expression search and replace (and our own scanf-printf
       search and replace); shift-arrow	MSW-MAC	 text  highlighting  (for  the
       linux  console  only);  insert-overwrite	 toggle; and an	option to pipe
       text blocks through shell commands like indent.

       The editor is very easy to use and requires no tutoring.	 To  see  what
       keys  do	 what, just consult the	appropriate pull-down menu. Other keys
       are: Shift movement keys	do text	highlighting.  Ctrl-Ins	copies to  the
       file  cooledit.clip and Shift-Ins pastes	from cooledit.clip.  Shift-Del
       cuts to cooledit.clip, and Ctrl-Del deletes highlighted text. The  com-
       pletion	key  also  does	a Return with an automatic indent. Mouse high-
       lighting	also works, and	you can	override the mouse as usual by holding
       down  the  shift	 key  while  dragging the mouse	to let normal terminal
       mouse highlighting work.

       To define a macro, press	Ctrl-R
	and then type out the key strokes you want to be executed. Press Ctrl-
	again when finished. You can then assign the macro to any key you like
       by pressing that	key. The macro is executed when	you press  Ctrl-A  and
       then  the  assigned  key. The macro is also executed if you press Meta,
       Ctrl, or	Esc and	the assigned key, provided that	the key	 is  not  used
       for  any	 other	function. Once defined,	the macro commands go into the
       file cedit/cooledit.macros
	in your	home directory.	You can	delete a macro by deleting the	appro-
       priate line in this file.

       F19  will  format C code	when it	is highlighted.	For this to work, make
       an executable file called cedit/edit.indent.rc in your  home  directory
       containing the following:

       /usr/bin/indent -kr -pcs	~/cedit/cooledit.block >& /dev/null
       cat /dev/null > ~/cedit/cooledit.error

       You  can	 use scanf search and replace to search	and replace a C	format
       string. First take a look at the	sscanf and sprintf man	pages  to  see
       what  a	format	string	is and how it works. An	example	is as follows:
       Suppose you want	to replace all occurences of  say,  an	open  bracket,
       three  comma  seperated	numbers,  and  a  close	bracket, with the word
       apples, the third number, the word oranges and then the second  number,
       I would fill in the Replace dialog box as follows:

	Enter search string
	Enter replace string
       apples %d oranges %d
	Enter replacement argument order

       The  last  line specifies that the third	and then the second number are
       to be used in place of the first	and second.

       It is advisable to use this feature with	Prompt on replace on,  because
       a  match	 is thought to be found	whenever the number of arguments found
       matches the number given, which is not always a real match. Scanf  also
       treats  whitespace  as  being elastic.  Note that the scanf format % is
       very useful for scanning	strings, and whitespace.

       The editor also displays	non-us characters (160+). When editing	binary
       files,  you  should  set	 display bits to 7 bits	in the options menu to
       keep the	spacing	clean.

       See also	the file README.edit in	the source tree	for some more info.

       Let the Midnight	Commander type for you.

       Attempt to perform completion on	the text before	current	 position.  MC
       attempts	 completion  treating the text as variable (if the text	begins
       with $ ), username (if the text begins with ~ ),	hostname (if the  text
       begins with @ ) or command (if you are on the command line in the posi-
       tion where you might type a command, possible completions then  include
       shell  reserved	words  and shell builtin commands as well) in turn. If
       none of these produces a	match, filename	completion is attempted.

       Filename, username, variable and	hostname completion works on all input
       lines,  command completion is command line specific.  If	the completion
       is ambiguous (there are more different possibilities), MC beeps and the
       following  action  depends  on the setting of the show_all_if_ambiguous
       variable	in the Initialization file. If it is nonzero, a	 list  of  all
       possibilities  pops  up next to the current position and	you can	select
       with the	arrow keys and Enter the correct entry.	You can	also type  the
       first  letters in which the possibilities differ	to move	to a subset of
       all possibilities and complete as much as possible. If you press	 M-Tab
       again,  only  the  subset  will	be shown in the	listbox, otherwise the
       first item which	matches	all the	 previous  characters  will  be	 high-
       lighted.	 As  soon as there is no ambiguity, dialog disappears, but you
       can hide	it by canceling	keys Esc, F10 and left and right  arrow	 keys.
       If show_all_if_ambiguous	is set to zero,	the dialog pops	up only	if you
       press M-Tab for the second time,	for the	first time MC just beeps.

Virtual	File System
       The Midnight Commander is provided with a code layer to access the file
       system;	this  code  layer  is known as the virtual file	system switch.
       The virtual file	system switch allows the Midnight Commander to manipu-
       late files not located on the Unix file system.

       Currently  the  Midnight	 Commander  is packaged	with five Virtual File
       Systems (VFS): the local	file system, used for  accessing  the  regular
       Unix file system; the ftpfs, used to manipulate files on	remote systems
       with the	FTP protocol; the tarfs, used to manipulate tar	and compressed
       tar files; the undelfs, used to recover deleted files on	ext2 file sys-
       tems (the default file system for Linux systems)	and finally  the  mcfs
       (Midnight Commander file	system), a network based file system.

       The  VFS	switch code will interpret all of the path names used and will
       forward them to the correct file	system,	the formats used for each  one
       of the file systems is described	later in their own section.

  FTP File System
       The  ftpfs  allows you to manipulate files on remote machines, to actu-
       ally use	it, you	may try	to use the panel command FTP link  (accessible
       from  the menubar) or you may directly change your current directory to
       it using	the cd command to a path name that looks like this:


       The, user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.  If  you  specify
       the  user element, then the Midnight Commander will try to logon	on the
       remote machine as that user, otherwise it will  use  your  login	 name.
       The optional pass element, if present is	the password used for the con-
       nection.	 This use is not recomented (nor keeping this in your hotlist,
       unless  you  set	the appropiate permissions there, and then, it may not
       be entirely safe	anyways).


       To connect to sites behind a firewall, you will need to use the	prefix
       ftp://!	(ie, with a bang character after the double slash) to make the
       Midnight	Commander use a	proxy host for doing the  ftp  transfer.   You
       can define the proxy host in the	Virtual	File System dialog box.

       Another	option	is  to set the ftpfs_always_use_proxy parameter	in the
       initialization file.  This will configure the program to	always use the
       proxy  host.   If this variable is set, the program will	do two things:
       consult the /usr/local/lib/mc.no_proxy file for lines  containing  host
       names that are local (if	the host name starts with a dot, it is assumed
       to be a domain) and to assume that any hostnames	without	dots in	 their
       names are directly accessible.

       If  you	are  using  the	ftpfs code with	a filtering packet router that
       does not	allow you to use the regular mode of opening  files,  you  may
       want  to	 force the program to use the passive-open mode.  To use this,
       set the ftpfs_use_passive_connections option.

       The Midnight Commander keeps the	directory listing  in  a  cache.   The
       cache  expire  time  is	configurable in	the Virtual File System	dialog
       box.  This has the funny	behavior that even if you make	changes	 to  a
       directory,  they	 will  not be reflected	in the directory listing until
       you force a cache reload	with the C-r key.  This	is a feature (when you
       think  it's  a bug, think about manipulating files on the other side of
       the Atlantic with ftpfs).

  Tar File System
       The tar file system provides you	with  read-only	 access	 to  your  tar
       files  and  compressed tar files	by using the chdir command.  To	change
       your directory to a tar file, you change	your current directory to  the
       tar file	by using the following syntax:


       The  mc.ext  file already provides a shortcut for tar files, this means
       that usually you	just point to a	tar file and  press  return  to	 enter
       into  the  tar file, see	the Extension File Edit	section	for details on
       how this	is done.



       The latter specifies the	full path of the tar archive.

  Network File System
       The Midnight Commander file system is a network base file  system  that
       allows  you to manipulate the files in a	remote machine as if they were
       local.  To use this, the	remote machine must be running	the  mcserv(8)
       server program.

       To  connect  to a remote	machine, you just need to chdir	into a special
       directory which name is in the following	format:


       The, user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.  If  you  specify
       the  user  element then the Midnight Commander will try to logon	on the
       remote machine as that user, otherwise it will use your login name.

       The port	element	is used	when the remote	machine	running	on  a  special
       port  (see the mcserv(8)	manual page for	more information about ports);
       finally,	if the remote-dir element is present, your  current  directory
       on the remote machine will be set to this one.


  Undelete File	System
       On  Linux  systems,  if	you asked configure to use the ext2fs undelete
       facilities, you will have the undelete file system available.  Recovery
       of  deleted files is only available on ext2 file	systems.  The undelete
       file system is just an interface	to the ext2fs library to: retrieve all
       of the deleted files names on an	ext2fs and provides and	to extract the
       selected	files into a regular partition.

       To use this file	system,	you have to chdir into the special  file  name
       formed  by  the "undel:"	prefix and the file name where the actual file
       system resides.

       For example, to recover deleted files on	the second  partition  of  the
       first scsi disk on Linux, you would use the following path name:


       It  may	take  a	while for the undelfs to load the required information
       before you start	browsing files there.

       The Midnight Commander will try to detect  if  your  terminal  supports
       color using the terminal	database and your terminal name.  Sometimes it
       gets confused, so you may force color mode or disable color mode	 using
       the -c and -b flag respectively.

       If  the	program	 is  compiled with the Slang screen manager instead of
       ncurses,	it will	also check the variable	COLORTERM, if it  is  set,  it
       has the same effect as the -c flag.

       You  may	 specify  terminals that always	force color mode by adding the
       color_terminals variable	to the Colors section  of  the	initialization
       file. This will prevent the Midnight Commander from trying to detect if
       your terminal supports color. Example:

       The program can be compiled with	both ncurses and slang,	 ncurses  does
       not  provide  a way to force color mode:	ncurses	uses just the informa-
       tion in the terminal database.

       The Midnight Commander provides a way to	 change	 the  default  colors.
       Currently  the  colors  are  configured	using the environment variable
       MC_COLOR_TABLE or the Colors section in the initialization file.

       In the Colors section,  the  default  color  map	 is  loaded  from  the
       base_color variable.  You can specify an	alternate color	map for	a ter-
       minal by	using the terminal name	as the key in this section.  Example:


       The format for the color	definition is:

	 <keyword>=<foregroundcolor>,<backgroundcolor>:<keyword>= ...

       The colors are  optional,  and  the  keywords  are:  normal,  selected,
       marked,	markselect,  errors,  input,  reverse  menu, menusel, menuhot,
       menuhotsel, gauge;  the dialog colors are: dnormal, dfocus, dhotnormal,
       dhotfocus; Help colors are: helpnormal, helpitalic, helpbold, helplink,
       helpslink; Viewer color is: viewunderline; Special  highlighting	 mode:
       executable, directory, link, device, special.

       The dialog boxes	use the	following colors: dnormal is used for the nor-
       mal text, dfocus	is the color used for the  currently  selected	compo-
       nent, dhotnormal	is the color used to differentiate the hotkey color in
       normal components, whereas the dhotfocus	color is used  for  the	 high-
       lighted color in	the currently selected component.

       Menus  use  the	same  scheme  but  uses	the menu, menusel, menuhot and
       menuhotsel tags instead.

       Help uses the following colors: helpnormal is  used  for	 normal	 text,
       helpitalic is used for text which is emphasized in italic in the	manual
       page, helpbold is used for text which is	emphasized in bold in the man-
       ual page, helplink is used for not selected hyperlinks and helpslink is
       used for	selected hyperlink.

       gauge determines	color of filled	part  of  the  progress	 bar  (gauge),
       which  shows  how many percent of files were copied etc.	in a graphical

       For file	type highlighting mode directory specifies the color in	 which
       directories are shown; executable for executable	files; link is used to
       represent links;	device for character and block devices;	special	is for
       special	files,	such  as  FIFO and IPC sockets;	core is	for core files
       (see also the option highlight_mode at  the  section  on	 Special  Set-

       The  possible  colors  are: black, gray,	red, brightred,	green, bright-
       green, brown, yellow, blue, brightblue, magenta,	 brightmagenta,	 cyan,
       brightcyan, lightgray and white.

Special	Settings
       Most  of	the settings of	the Midnight Commander can be changed from the
       menus. However, there are a small number	of settings which can only  be
       changed by editing the setup file.

       These variables may be set in your ~/.mc/ini file:


	      By  default the Midnight Commander clears	the screen before exe-
	      cuting a command.	If you would prefer to see the output  of  the
	      command at the bottom of the screen, edit	your ~/mc.ini file and
	      change the value of the field clear_before_exec to 0.


	      If you press F3 on a directory, normally MC enters  that	direc-
	      tory.  If	 this flag is set to 1,	then MC	will ask for confirma-
	      tion before changing the directory if you	have files tagged.


	      If this variable is set, when you	press the  F9  key,  the  pull
	      down  menus  will	be activated, else, you	will only be presented
	      with the menu title, and you will	have to	select the entry  with
	      the  arrow  keys	or the first letter and	from there select your
	      option in	the menu.


	      This value is the	number of seconds the Midnight Commander  will
	      wait  before attempting a	reconnection to	an ftp server that has
	      denied the login.	 If the	value is zero, the  the	 program  will
	      not retry	the login.


	      This  option  is	by off default.	 This makes the	ftpfs code use
	      the passive open mode for	transfering files.  This  is  used  by
	      people  that  are	behind a filtering packet router.  This	option
	      just works if you	are not	using an ftp proxy.


	      Specifies	how many screen	updates	can be skipped at most in  the
	      internal	file  viewer.  Normally	this value is not significant,
	      because the code automatically adjusts the number	of updates  to
	      skip  according  to the rate of incoming keypresses. However, on
	      very slow	machines  or  terminals	 with  a  fast	keyboard  auto
	      repeat, a	big value can make screen updates too jumpy.

	      It  seems	 that  setting	max_dirt_limit	to  10 causes the best
	      behavior,	and that is the	default	value.


	      Controls whenever	scrolling with the mouse is done by  pages  or
	      line by line on the panels.


	      Controls if scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or line by
	      line on the internal file	viewer.


	      If this setting is turned	on, then you may use the  arrows  keys
	      to  automatically	 chdir if the current selection	is a subdirec-
	      tory and the shell command line is empty.	 By default, this set-
	      ting is off.


	      When  on,	this flag causes the commander to show a rotating dash
	      as a work	in progress indicator.


	      By default the Midnight Commander	treats the ESC key  as	a  key
	      prefix	(old_esc_mode=0),    if	   you	  set	 this	option
	      (old_esc_mode=1),	then the ESC key will act as a prefix key  for
	      one  second, and if no extra keys	have arrived, then the ESC key
	      is interpreted as	a cancel key (ESC ESC).


	      set special treatment for	'+', '-', '*' in command line (select,
	      unselect,	 reverse  selection) only if command line is empty. No
	      need to quote this characters in the middle of the command line.
	      But  we can not change selection when command line is not	empty.

	      If set (the default), panel will scroll by half the display when
	      the cursor reaches the end or the	beginning of the panel,	other-
	      wise it will just	scroll a file at a time.


	      If this option is	set (the default), when	logged in as root  the
	      default  will be to preserve the UID and the GID of files.  Some
	      users prefer to disable this option, so that's why it's  config-


	      This  variable only works	if you are not using the subshell sup-
	      port.  When you use the C-o keystroke to go  back	 to  the  user
	      screen,  if this one is set, you will get	a fresh	shell.	Other-
	      wise, pressing any key will bring	you back to the	Midnight  Com-


	      By  default  the Midnight	Commander pops up all possible comple-
	      tions if the completion is ambiguous if you press	M-Tab for  the
	      second  time,  for  the  first time it just completes as much as
	      possible and in the case of ambiguity beeps. If you want to  see
	      all  the	possible  completions  already	after  the first M-Tab
	      pressing,	set this option	to 1.


	      If this flag is set, then	 the  home  and	 end  keys  will  work
	      slightly	different  on the panels, instead of moving the	selec-
	      tion to the first	and last files in the panels, they will	act as

	      The  home	 key will: Go up to the	middle line, if	below it; else
	      go to the	top line unless	it is already on the top line, in this
	      case it will go to the first file	in the panel.

	      The  end key has a similar behavior: Go down to the middle line,
	      if over it; else go to the bottom	line unless you	already	are at
	      the  bottom line,	in such	case it	will move the selection	to the
	      last file	name in	the panel.

       highlight_mode By default all information on panels displayed with  the
       same  color.  If	this variable is set to	1, then	perm or	mode tokens in
       display format get ability to show access rights	of  the	 user  to  the
       shown  file.  Appropriate  triplet  of  reading,	 writing and execution
       rights highlighted with the yellow ( selected ) color. In addition,  if
       the  variable is	equal to 2, then all lines are displaying by the color
       according to their type (see Colors).   Permissions  highlighting  also
       works in	this mode.


	      If this variable is on (the default) it will spawn the file com-
	      mand to match the	file types listed on the mc.ext	file.


	      If this variable is on (default is off) when you browse the file
	      system  on  a Tree panel,	it will	automatically reload the other
	      panel with the contents of the selected directory.

Terminal databases
       The Midnight Commander provides a way to	fix your system	terminal data-
       base   without  requiring  root	privileges.   The  Midnight  Commander
       searches	in the system initialization file (the mc.lib file located  in
       the  Midnight Commander library directory) or in	the ~/.mc/ini file for
       the section "terminal:your-terminal-name"  and  then  for  the  section
       "terminal:general", each	line of	the section contains a key symbol that
       you want	to define, followed by an equal	sign and  the  definition  for
       the key.	 You can use the special \E form to represent the escape char-
       acter and the ^x	to represent the control-x character.

       The possible key	symbols	are:

       f0 to f20     Function keys f0-f20
       bs	  backspace
       home	     home key
       end	     end key
       up	     up	arrow key
       down	     down arrow	key
       left	     left arrow	key
       right	     right arrow key
       pgdn	     page down key
       pgup	     page up key
       insert	     the insert	character
       delete	     the delete	character
       complete	     to	do completion

       For example, to define the key insert to	be the Escape +	[ + O +	p, you
       set this	in the ini file:


       The  complete key symbol	represents the escape sequences	used to	invoke
       the completion process, this is invoked with M-tab, but you can	define
       other keys to do	the same work (on those	keyboard with tons of nice and
       unused keys everywhere).


	      The help file for	the program.


	      The default system-wide extensions file.


	      User's own extension, view configuration and edit	 configuration
	      file.   They  override  the contents of the system wide files if


	      The default system-wide setup for	the Midnight  Commander,  used
	      only if the user lacks his own ~/.mc/ini file.


	      Global  settings	for  the Midnight Commander.  Settings in this
	      file are global to any  Midnight	Commander,  it	is  useful  to
	      define site-global terminal settings.


	      User's  own  setup.  If  this  file is present then the setup is
	      loaded from here instead of the system-wide startup file.


	      This file	contains the hints (cookies) displayed by the program.


	      This file	contains the default system-wide applications menu.


	      User's  own application menu. If this file is present it is used
	      instead of the system-wide applications menu.


	      The directory list for the directory tree	 and  tree  view  fea-
	      tures.   Each line is one	entry. The lines starting with a slash
	      are full directory names.	The lines starting with	a number  have
	      that  many  characters  equal  to	the previous directory.	If you
	      want you may create this file by	giving	the  command  "find  /
	      -type  d -print |	sort > ~/.mc.tree". Normally there is no sense
	      in doing it because the Midnight Commander automatically updates
	      this file	for you.


	      Local  user-defined  menu.  If  this  file is present it is used
	      instead of the home or system-wide applications menu.

       This program is distributed under the terms of the GNU  General	Public
       License	as published by	the Free Software Foundation. See the built-in
       help for	details	on the License and the lack of warranty.

       The latest version of this program can be found at
       in the directory	/linux/local and from Europe at in
       the directory /GNU/mc and at in the	directory /lmb/mc.

       ed(1),  gpm(1),	mcserv(8),  terminfo(1),  view(1),   sh(1),   bash(1),
       tcsh(1),	zsh(1).

       The Midnight Commander page on the World	Wide Web:

       Miguel  de  Icaza  (,  Janne  Kukonlehto
       (,	  Radek	  Doulik   (,	  Fred
       Leeflang	 (,	 Dugan	Porter	(,
       Jakub	  Jelinek      (,       Ching	   Hui
       (,   Andrej  Borsenkow  (,
       Norbert	 Warmuth   (,	Mauricio    Plaza    (mok@rox- and Paul Sheer (	are the	devel-
       opers of	this package; Alessandro Rubini	 (  has
       been  especially	 helpful  debugging  and enhancing the program's mouse
       support,	John Davis ( also made his S-Lang  library
       available  to  us under the GPL and answered my questions about it, and
       the following people have contributed  code  and	 many  bug  fixes  (in
       alphabetical order):

       Adam   Tla/lka	(,  (Alex  I.
       Tkachenko), Antonio Palama, DOS port (,	 Erwin
       van  Eijk  (, Gerd Knorr (,
       Jean-Daniel  Luiset  (,  Jon	  Stevens   (root@dol-,	  Juan	 Francisco   Grigera,	Win32	port  (j-grig-, Juan  Jose	 Ciarlante  (,  Ilya
       Rybkin	 (,	Marcelo	  Roccasalva   (mfroc-,  Massimo	Fontanelli  (,	 Pavel
       Roskin	  (,	   Sergey    Ya.    Korshunoff
       (, Thomas Pundt (,	 Timur
       Bakeyev	      (,	  Tomasz       Cholewo
       (, Torben Fjerdingstad	(torben.fjerd-, Vadim	Sinolitis (	and Wim	Oster-
       holt (

       See the file TODO in the	distribution for information on	 what  remains
       to be done.

       If  you	want to	report a problem with the program, please send mail to
       this address:

       Provide a detailed description of the bug, the version of  the  program
       you  are	running	(mc -V display this information), the operating	system
       you are running the program on and if the  program  crashes,  we	 would
       appreciate a stack trace.

				20 October 1997				 mc(1)

NAME | USAGE | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | Overview | Mouse Support | Keys | Menu Bar | Executing operating system commands | Chmod | Chown | File Operations | Mask Copy/Rename | Internal File Viewer | Internal File Editor | Completion | Virtual File System | Colors | Special Settings | Terminal databases | FILES | LICENSE | AVAILABILITY | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | BUGS

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