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mc(1)			    General Commands Manual			 mc(1)

       mc - Visual shell for Unix-like systems.

       mc [-abcCdfhPstuUVx?] [-l log] [dir1 [dir2]] [-v	file]

       The  Midnight  Commander	 is a directory	browser/file manager for Unix-
       like operating systems.

       -a     Disables the usage of graphic characters for line	drawing.

       -b     Forces black and white display.

       -c     Force color mode,	please check the section Colors	for  more  in-

       -C arg Used  to specify a different color set in	the command line.  The
	      format of	arg is documented in the Colors	section.

       -d     Disables mouse support.

       -f     Displays the compiled-in search  paths  for  Midnight  Commander

       -k     Reset  softkeys to their default from the	termcap/terminfo data-
	      base. Only useful	on HP terminals	when the function  keys	 don't

       -l file
	      Save the ftpfs dialog with the server in file.

       -P     At program end, the Midnight Commander will print	the last work-
	      ing directory; this, along with the shell	function  below,  will
	      allow  you  to browse through your directories and automatically
	      move to the last directory you were in (thanks to	Torben	Fjerd-
	      ingstad  and  Sergey for contributing this function and the code
	      which implements this option).

	      bash and zsh users:

	      mc ()
		      /usr/local/bin/mc	-P "$@"	> "$MC"
		      cd "`cat $MC`"
		      rm "$MC"
		      unset MC;

	      tcsh users:
	      alias mc 'setenv MC `/usr/local/bin/mc -P	*`; cd $MC; unsetenv MC'

       I know the bash function	could be shorter for zsh and bash but the
	      backquotes on bash won't accept your suspension the program with

       -s     Turns  on	 the slow terminal mode, in this mode the program will
	      not draw expensive line drawing characters and will toggle  ver-
	      bose mode	off.

       -t     Used  only  if the code was compiled with	Slang and terminfo: it
	      makes the	Midnight Commander use the value of the	TERMCAP	 vari-
	      able  for	the terminal information instead of the	information on
	      the system wide terminal database

       -u     Disables the use of a concurrent shell (only makes sense if  the
	      Midnight	Commander  has	been  built with concurrent shell sup-

       -U     Enables the use of the  concurrent  shell	 support  (only	 makes
	      sense if the Midnight Commander was built	with the subshell sup-
	      port set as an optional feature).

       -v file
	      Enters the internal viewer to view the file specified.

       -V     Displays the version of the program.

       -x     Forces xterm mode.  Used when running on xterm-capable terminals
	      (two screen modes, and able to send mouse	escape sequences).

       If  specified,  the first path name is the directory to show in the se-
       lected panel; the second	path name is the directory to be shown in  the
       other panel.

       The screen of the Midnight Commander is divided into four parts.	Almost
       all of the screen space is taken	up by two directory  panels.   By  de-
       fault,  the  second  bottommost line of the screen is the shell command
       line, and the bottom line shows the function key	 labels.  The  topmost
       line  is	 the menu bar line.  The menu bar line may not be visible, but
       appears if you click the	topmost	line with the mouse or	press  the  F9

       The  Midnight  Commander	provides a view	of two directories at the same
       time. One of the	panels is the current panel (a selection bar is	in the
       current	panel).	Almost all operations take place on the	current	panel.
       Some file operations like Rename	and Copy by default use	the  directory
       of  the unselected panel	as a destination (don't	worry, they always ask
       you for confirmation first). For	more information, see the sections  on
       the Directory Panels, the Left and Right	Menus and the File Menu.

       You  can	 execute system	commands from the Midnight Commander by	simply
       typing them. Everything you type	will appear on the shell command line,
       and  when  you press Enter the Midnight Commander will execute the com-
       mand line you typed; read the Shell Command Line	and  Input  Line  Keys
       sections	to learn more about the	command	line.

Mouse Support
       The Midnight Commander comes with mouse support.	 It is activated when-
       ever you	are running on an xterm(1) terminal (it	even works if you take
       a  telnet or rlogin connection to another machine from the xterm) or if
       you are running on a Linux console and have the gpm mouse  server  run-

       When you	left click on a	file in	the directory panels, that file	is se-
       lected; if you click with the right button, the file is marked (or  un-
       marked, depending on the	previous state).

       Double-clicking	on  a file will	try to execute the command if it is an
       executable program; and if the extension	file has a  program  specified
       for the file's extension, the specified program is executed.

       Also,  it  is possible to execute the commands assigned to the function
       key labels by clicking on them.

       If a mouse button is clicked on the top frame  line  of	the  directory
       panel, it is scrolled one pageful backward. Correspondingly, a click on
       the bottom frame	line will cause	a scroll of one	pageful	forward.  This
       frame line method works also in the Help	Viewer and the Directory Tree.

       The default auto	repeat rate for	the mouse buttons is 400 milliseconds.
       This may	be changed to other values by editing the ~/.mc/ini  file  and
       changing	the mouse_repeat_rate parameter.

       If you are running the Commander	with the mouse support,	you can	bypass
       the Commander and get the default mouse behavior	(cutting  and  pasting
       text) by	holding	down the Shift key.

       Some  commands in the Midnight Commander	involve	the use	of the Control
       (sometimes labeled CTRL or CTL) and the Meta (sometimes labeled ALT  or
       even  Compose) keys. In this manual we will use the following abbrevia-

       C-<chr> means hold the Control key while	typing	the  character	<chr>.
       Thus C-f	would be: hold the Control key and type	f.

       M-<chr>	means  hold  the  Meta	or Alt key down	while typing <chr>. If
       there is	no Meta	or Alt key, type ESC, release it, then type the	 char-
       acter <chr>.

       All  input  lines in the	Midnight Commander use an approximation	to the
       GNU Emacs editor's key bindings.

       There are many sections which tell about	the keys.  The	following  are
       the most	important.

       The File	Menu section documents the keyboard shortcuts for the commands
       appearing in the	File menu. This	section	includes  the  function	 keys.
       Most  of	 these	commands  perform some action, usually on the selected
       file or the tagged files.

       The Directory Panels section documents the keys which select a file  or
       tag  files  as  a  target for a later action (the action	is usually one
       from the	file menu).

       The Shell Command Line section list the keys which are used for	enter-
       ing  and	 editing command lines.	Most of	these copy file	names and such
       from the	directory panels to the	command	line (to avoid excessive  typ-
       ing) or access the command line history.

       Input  Line  Keys are used for editing input lines. This	means both the
       command line and	the input lines	in the query dialogs.

  Miscellaneous	Keys
       Here are	some keys which	don't fall into	any of the other categories:

       Enter.  If there	is some	text in	the command line (the one at the  bot-
       tom  of the panels), then that command is executed. If there is no text
       in the command line then	if the selection bar is	over a	directory  the
       Midnight	 Commander  does  a  chdir(2)  to  the	selected directory and
       reloads the information on the panel; if	the selection is an executable
       file  then  it  is  executed. Finally, if the extension of the selected
       file name matches one of	the extensions in the extensions file then the
       corresponding command is	executed.

       C-l.  Repaint all the information in the	Midnight Commander.

       C-x c.  Run the Chmod command on	a file or on the tagged	files.

       C-x  o.	 Run  the  Chown  command on the current file or on the	tagged

       C-x l.  Run the link command.

       C-x s.  Run the symbolic	link command.

       C-x i.  Set the other panel display mode	to information.

       C-x q.  Set the other panel display mode	to quick view.

       C-x !.  Execute the External panelize command.

       C-x h Run the add directory to hotlist command.

       M-!, Executes the Filtered view command,	described in the view command.

       M-?, Executes the Find file command.

       M-c, Pops up the	quick cd dialog.

       C-o, When the program is	being run in the Linux or SCO console or under
       an  xterm,  it  will show you the output	of the previous	command.  When
       ran on the Linux	console, the Midnight Commander	uses an	external  pro-
       gram  (cons.saver) to handle saving and restoring of information	on the

       When the	subshell support is compiled in, you can type C-o at any  time
       and  you	 will  be taken	back to	the Midnight Commander main screen, to
       return to your application just type C-o.  If you have  an  application
       suspended  by using this	trick, you won't be able to execute other pro-
       grams from the Midnight Commander until you terminate the suspended ap-

  Directory Panels
       This  section  lists the	keys which operate on the directory panels. If
       you want	to know	how to change the appearance of	the panels take	a look
       at the section on Left and Right	Menus.

       Tab,  C-i.   Change  the	current	panel. The old other panel becomes the
       new current panel and the old  current  panel  becomes  the  new	 other
       panel.  The  selection  bar moves from the old current panel to the new
       current panel.

       Insert, C-t.  To	tag files you may use the Insert key (the  kich1  ter-
       minfo  sequence)	 or the	C-t (Control-t)	sequence. To untag files, just
       retag a tagged file.

       M-g, M-h	(or M-r), M-j.	Used to	select the top file in	a  panel,  the
       middle file and the bottom one, respectively.

       C-s,  M-s.   Start a filename search in the directory listing. When the
       search is active	the keypresses will be added to	the search string  in-
       stead  of  the  command line. If	the Show mini-status option is enabled
       the search string is shown on the mini-status line.  When  typing,  the
       selection  bar  will move to the	next file starting with	the typed let-
       ters. The backspace or DEL keys can be used to correct typing mistakes.
       If C-s is pressed again,	the next match is searched for.

       M-t Toggle the current display listing to show the next display listing
       mode.  With this	it is possible to quickly switch from long listing  to
       regular listing and the user defined listing mode.

       C-\  (control-backslash).  Show the directory hotlist and change	to the
       selected	directory.

       +  (plus).  This	is used	to select (tag)	a group	of files. The Midnight
       Commander  will	prompt	for a regular expression describing the	group.
       When Shell Patterns are enabled,	the regular expression	is  much  like
       the regular expressions in the shell (* standing	for zero or more char-
       acters and ?  standing for one character). If Shell  Patterns  is  off,
       then  the tagging of files is done with normal regular expressions (see
       ed (1)).

       If the expression starts	or ends	with a slash (/), then it will	select
       directories instead of files.

       \  (backslash).	 Use the "\" key to unselect a group of	files. This is
       the opposite of the Plus	key.

       up-key, C-p.  Move the selection	bar  to	 the  previous	entry  in  the

       down-key, C-n.  Move the	selection bar to the next entry	in the panel.

       home, a1, M-<.  Move the	selection bar to the first entry in the	panel.

       end, c1,	M->.  Move the selection bar to	the last entry in the panel.

       next-page, C-v.	Move the selection bar one page	down.

       prev-page, M-v.	Move the selection bar one page	up.

       M-o,  If	 the  other panel is a listing panel and you are standing on a
       directory in the	current	panel, then the	other panel contents  are  set
       to  the contents	of the currently selected directory (like Emacs' dired
       C-o key)	otherwise the other panel contents are set to the  parent  dir
       of the current dir.

       C-PageUp,  C-PageDown  Only when	ran on the Linux console: does a chdir
       to ".." and to the currently selected directory respectively.

  Shell	Command	Line
       This section lists keys which are useful	to avoid excessive typing when
       entering	shell commands.

       M-Enter.	 Copy the currently selected file name to the command line.

       C-Enter.	 Same a	M-Enter, this one only works on	the Linux console.

       M-Tab.	Does  the  filename,  command, variable, username and hostname
       completion for you.

       C-x t, C-x C-t.	Copy the tagged	files  (or  if	there  are  no	tagged
       files,  the selected file) of the current panel (C-x t) or of the other
       panel (C-x C-t) to the command line.

       C-x p, C-x C-p.	The first key sequence copies the current path name to
       the command line, and the second	one copies the unselected panel's path
       name to the command line.

       C-q.  The quote command can be used to insert characters	that are  oth-
       erwise interpreted by the Midnight Commander (like the '+' symbol)

       M-p,  M-n.   Use	 these keys to browse through the command history. M-p
       takes you to the	last entry, M-n	takes you to the next one.

       M-h.  Displays the history for the current input	line.

  General Movement Keys
       The help	viewer,	the file viewer	and the	directory tree use common code
       to  handle moving. Therefore they accept	exactly	the same keys. Each of
       them also accepts some keys of its own.

       Other parts of the Midnight Commander use some  of  the	same  movement
       keys, so	this section may be of use for those parts too.

       Up, C-p.	 Moves one line	backward.

       Down, C-n.  Moves one line forward.

       Prev Page, Page Up, M-v.	 Moves one pageful backward.

       Next Page, Page Down, C-v.  Moves one pageful forward.

       Home, A1.  Moves	to the beginning.

       End, C1.	 Move to the end.

       The  help viewer	and the	file viewer accept the following keys in addi-
       tion the	to ones	mentioned above:

       b, C-b, C-h, Backspace, Delete.	Moves one pageful backward.

       Space bar.  Moves one pageful forward.

       u, d.  Moves one	half of	a page backward	or forward.

       g, G.  Moves to the beginning or	to the end.

  Input	Line Keys
       The input lines (they are used for the command line and for  the	 query
       dialogs in the program) accept these keys:

       C-a puts	the cursor at the beginning of line.

       C-e puts	the cursor at the end of the line.

       C-b, move-left move the cursor one position left.

       C-f, move-right move the	cursor one position right.

       M-f moves one word forward.

       M-b moves one word backward.

       C-h, backspace delete the previous character.

       C-d, Delete delete the character	in the point (over the cursor).

       C-@ sets	the mark for cutting.

       C-w  copies  the	 text between the cursor and the mark to a kill	buffer
       and removes the text from the input line.

       M-w copies the text between the cursor and the mark to a	kill buffer.

       C-y yanks back the contents of the kill buffer.

       C-k kills the text from the cursor to the end of	the line.

       M-p, M-n	Use these keys to browse  through  the	command	 history.  M-p
       takes you to the	last entry, M-n	takes you to the next one.

       M-C-h, M-Backspace delete one word backward.

       M-Tab  does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname com-
       pletion for you.

Menu Bar
       The menu	bar pops up when you press F9 or click the mouse  on  the  top
       row  of	the screen. The	menu bar has five menus: "Left", "File", "Com-
       mand", "Options"	and "Right".

       The Left	and Right Menus	allow you to modify the	appearance of the left
       and right directory panels.

       The  File  Menu	lists the actions you can perform on the currently se-
       lected file or the tagged files.

       The Command Menu	lists the actions which	are more general and  bear  no
       relation	to the currently selected file or the tagged files.

  Left and Right Menus
       The  outlook  of	 the directory panels can be changed from the Left and
       Right menus.

    Listing Mode...
       The listing mode	view is	used to	display	a listing of files, there  are
       four  different	listing	 modes available: Full,	Brief, Long, and User.
       The full	directory view shows the file name, the	size of	the  file  and
       the modification	time.

       The  brief view shows only the file name	and it has two columns (there-
       fore showing twice as many files	as other views). The long view is sim-
       ilar  to	 the  output  of  ls -l	command. The long view takes the whole
       screen width.

       If you choose the "User"	display	format,	then you have to  specify  the
       display format.

       The  user  display format must start with a panel size specifier.  This
       may be "half" or	"full",	and they specify a half	 screen	 panel	and  a
       full screen panel respectively.

       After  the  panel  size,	 you  may  specify the two columns mode	on the
       panel, this is done by adding the number	"2" to the user	format string.

       After this you add the name of the fields with an optional size	speci-
       fier.  This are the available fields you	may display:

       name, displays the file name.

       size, displays the file size.

       bsize,  is an alternative form of the <bf/size/ format. It displays the
       size of the files and for directories it	just shows SUB-DIR or UP--DIR.

       type, displays a	one character field type.  This	character is a	super-
       set  of what is displayed by ls with the	-F flag.  An asterisk for exe-
       cutable files, a	slash for directories, an at-sign for links, an	 equal
       sign for	sockets, a hyphen for character	devices, a plus	sign for block
       devices,	a pipe for fifos, a tilde for symbolic	links  to  directories
       and  an	exclamation  mark  for	stalled	 symlinks  (links  that	 point

       mtime, file's last modification time.

       atime, file's last access time.

       ctime, file's creation time.

       perm, a string representing the current permission bits of the file.

       mode, an	octal value with the current permission	bits of	the file.

       nlink, the number of links to the file.	ngid, the GID (numeric).

       nuid, the UID (numeric).

       owner, the owner	of the file.

       group, the group	of the file.

       inode, the inode	of the file.

       Also you	may use	these field names for arranging	the display:

       space, a	space in the display format.

       mark, An	asterisk if the	file is	tagged,	a space	if it's	not.

       |, This character is used to add	a vertical line	to the display format.

       To force	one field to a fixed size (a size specifier), you just	add  a
       ':'  and	 then  the number of characters	you want the field to have, if
       the number is followed by the symbol '+', then the size	specifies  the
       minimum	field  size, if	the program finds out that there is more space
       on the screen, it will then expand this field.

       For example, the	Full display corresponds to this format:

       half type,name,|,size,|,mtime

       And the Long display corresponds	to this	format:

       full	    perm,space,nlink,space,owner,space,group,space,size,space,

       This is a nice user display format:

       half name,|,size:7,|,type,mode:3

       Panels may also be set to the following modes:

       Info   The  info	 view display information related to the currently se-
	      lected file and if possible information about the	 current  file

       Tree   The  tree	 view  is quite	similar	to the directory tree feature.
	      See the section about it for more	information.

       Quick View
	      In this mode, the	panel will switch to  a	 reduced  viewer  that
	      displays the contents of the currently selected file, if you se-
	      lect the panel (with the tab key or the mouse),  you  will  have
	      access to	the usual viewer commands.

    Sort Order...
       The  eight sort orders are by name, by extension, by modification time,
       by access time, and by inode information	modification time, by size, by
       inode  and  unsorted.   In the Sort order dialog	box you	can choose the
       sort order and you may also specify if you want to sort in reverse  or-
       der by checking the reverse box.

       By  default directories are sorted before files but this	can be changed
       from the	Options	menu (option Mix all files ).

       The filter command allows you to	specify	a shell	pattern	 (for  example
       *.tar.gz	 )  which  the files must match	to be shown. Regardless	of the
       filter pattern, the directories and the links to	directories are	always
       shown in	the directory panel.

       The  reread  command  reload  the list of files in the directory. It is
       useful if other processes have created or removed files.	 If  you  have
       panelized file names in a panel this will reload	the directory contents
       and remove the panelized	information (See the section External panelize
       for more	information).

  File Menu
       The Midnight Commander uses the F1 - F10	keys as	keyboard shortcuts for
       commands	appearing in the file menu. The	escape sequences for the Fkeys
       are  terminfo capabilities kf1 trough kf10.  On terminals without func-
       tion key	support, you can achieve the same  functionality  by  pressing
       the  ESC	 key  and then a number	in the range 1 through 9 and 0 (corre-
       sponding	to F1 to F9 and	F10 respectively).

       The File	menu has the following commands	(keyboard shortcuts in	paren-

       Help (F1)

       Invokes the built-in hypertext help viewer. Inside the help viewer, you
       can use the Tab key to select the next link and the Enter key to	follow
       that  link.  The	 keys Space and	Backspace are used to move forward and
       backward	in a help page.	Press F1 again to get the  full	 list  of  ac-
       cepted keys.

       Menu (F2)

       Invoke  the  user  menu.	 The user menu provides	an easy	way to provide
       users with a menu and add extra features	to the Midnight	Commander.

       View (F3, Shift-F3)

       View the	currently selected file. By default this invokes the  Internal
       File Viewer but if the option "Use internal view" is off, it invokes an
       external	file viewer specified by the PAGER  environment	 variable.  If
       PAGER is	undefined, the "view" command is invoked.  If you use Shift-F3
       instead,	the viewer will	be invoked without doing any formatting	or pre
       processing to the file.

       Filtered	View (M-!)

       this command prompts for	a command and it's arguments (the argument de-
       faults to the currently selected	file name), the	output from such  com-
       mand is shown in	the internal file viewer.

       Edit (F4)

       Currently it invokes the	vi editor, or the editor specified in the EDI-
       TOR environment variable, or the	Internal File Editor if	the use_inter-
       nal_edit	option is on.

       Copy (F5)

       Pop  up an input	dialog with destination	that defaults to the directory
       in the non-selected panel and copies the	currently  selected  file  (or
       the  tagged  files, if there is at least	one file tagged) to the	direc-
       tory specified by the user in the input dialog.	During	this  process,
       you  can	 press	C-c  or	 ESC to	abort the operation. For details about
       source mask (which will be usually either * or  ^\(.*\)$	 depending  on
       setting	of  Use	shell patterns)	and possible wildcards in the destina-
       tion see	Mask copy/rename.

       On some systems,	it is possible to do the copy  in  the	background  by
       clicking	 on the	background button (or pressing M-b in the dialog box).
       The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Link (C-x l)

       Create a	hard link to the current file.

       SymLink (C-x s)

       Create a	symbolic link to the current file. To those of you  who	 don't
       know  what  links  are: creating	a link to a file is a bit like copying
       the file, but both the source filename  and  the	 destination  filename
       represent  the  same  file image. For example, if you edit one of these
       files, all changes you make will	appear in both files. Some people call
       links aliases or	shortcuts.

       A hard link appears as a	real file. After making	it, there is no	way of
       telling which one is the	original and which is the link.	If you	delete
       either  one of them the other one is still intact. It is	very difficult
       to notice that the files	represent the same image. Use hard links  when
       you don't even want to know.

       A symbolic link is a reference to the name of the original file.	If the
       original	file is	deleted	the symbolic link is useless. It is quite easy
       to notice that the files	represent the same image. The Midnight Comman-
       der shows an "@"-sign in	front of the file name if  it  is  a  symbolic
       link  to	 somewhere  (except to directory, where	it shows a tilde (~)).
       The original file which the link	points to is shown on mini-status line
       if  the Show mini-status	option is enabled. Use symbolic	links when you
       want to avoid the confusion that	can be caused by hard links.

       Rename/Move (F6)

       Pop up an input dialog that defaults to the directory  in  the  non-se-
       lected panel and	moves the currently selected file (or the tagged files
       if there	is at least one	tagged file) to	the directory specified	by the
       user  in	the input dialog. During the process, you can press C-c	or ESC
       to abort	the operation. For more	details	look at	Copy operation	above,
       most of the things are quite similar.

       On  some	 systems,  it  is possible to do the copy in the background by
       clicking	on the background button (or pressing M-b in the dialog	 box).
       The Background Jobs is used to control the background process.

       Mkdir (F7)

       Pop up an input dialog and creates the directory	specified.

       Delete (F8)

       Delete the currently selected file or the tagged	files in the currently
       selected	panel. During the process, you can press C-c or	ESC  to	 abort
       the operation.

       Quick  cd  (M-c)	Use the	quick cd command if you	have full command line
       and want	to cd somewhere.

       Select group (+)

       This is used to select (tag) a group of files. The  Midnight  Commander
       will  prompt  for a regular expression describing the group. When Shell
       Patterns	are enabled, the regular expression is much like the  filename
       globbing	 in  the  shell	 (* standing for zero or more characters and ?
       standing	for one	character). If Shell Patterns is off, then the tagging
       of files	is done	with normal regular expressions	(see ed	(1)).

       To  mark	directories instead of files, the expression must start	or end
       with a '/'.

       Unselect	group (\)

       Used for	unselecting a group of files. This is the opposite of the  Se-
       lect group command.

       Quit (F10, Shift-F10)

       Terminate  the  Midnight	Commander.  Shift-F10 is used when you want to
       quit and	you are	using the shell	wrapper.  Shift-F10 will not take  you
       to  the last directory you visited with the Midnight Commander, instead
       it will stay at the directory where you started the Midnight Commander.

    Quick cd
       This command is useful if you have a full command line and want	to  cd
       somewhere  without having to yank and paste the command line. This com-
       mand pops up a small dialog, where you enter everything you would enter
       after  cd  on  the command line and then	you press enter. This features
       all the things that are already in the internal cd command.

  Command Menu
       The Directory tree command shows	a tree figure of the directories.

       The Find	file command allows you	to search for  a  specific  file.  The
       "Swap panels" command swaps the contents	of the two directory panels.

       The "Panels on/off" command shows the output of the last	shell command.
       This works only on xterm	and on Linux and SCO console.

       The Compare directories (C-x d) command compares	the  directory	panels
       with  each  other.  You	can then use the Copy (F5) command to make the
       panels identical. There are three compare  methods.  The	 quick	method
       compares	only file size and file	date. The thorough method makes	a full
       byte-by-byte compare. The thorough method is not	available if  the  ma-
       chine  does not support the mmap(2) system call.	 The size-only compare
       method just compares the	file sizes and does not	check the contents  or
       the date	times, it just checks the file size.

       The  Command  history  command  shows a list of typed commands. The se-
       lected command is copied	to the command line. The command  history  can
       also be accessed	by typing M-p or M-n.

       The  Directory  hotlist (C-\) command makes changing of the current di-
       rectory to often	used directories faster.

       The External panelize allows you	to execute an  external	 program,  and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       Extension  file edit command allows you to specify programs to executed
       when you	try to execute,	view, edit and do a bunch of  other  thing  on
       files  with  certain  extensions	(filename endings). The	Menu file edit
       command may be used for editing the user	menu (which appears by	press-
       ing F2).

    Directory Tree
       The  Directory Tree command shows a tree	figure of the directories. You
       can select a directory from the figure and the Midnight Commander  will
       change to that directory.

       There  are two ways to invoke the tree. The real	directory tree command
       is available from Commands menu.	The other way is to select  tree  view
       from the	Left or	Right menu.

       To  get rid of long delays the Midnight Commander creates the tree fig-
       ure by scanning only a small subset of all the directories. If the  di-
       rectory	which you want to see is missing, move to its parent directory
       and press C-r (or F2).

       You can use the following keys:

       General movement	keys are accepted.

       Enter.  In the directory	tree, exits the	directory tree and changes  to
       this  directory in the current panel. In	the tree view, changes to this
       directory in the	other panel and	stays in tree view mode	in the current

       C-r, F2 (Rescan).  Rescan this directory. Use this when the tree	figure
       is out of date: it is missing subdirectories or shows some  subdirecto-
       ries which don't	exist any more.

       F3  (Forget).   Delete this directory from the tree figure. Use this to
       remove clutter from the figure. If you want the directory back  to  the
       tree figure press F2 in its parent directory.

       F4  (Static/Dynamic).   Toggle between the dynamic navigation mode (de-
       fault) and the static navigation	mode.

       In the static navigation	mode you can use the Up	and Down keys  to  se-
       lect a directory. All known directories are shown.

       In  the dynamic navigation mode you can use the Up and Down keys	to se-
       lect a sibling directory, the Left key to move to the parent directory,
       and  the	 Right key to move to a	child directory. Only the parent, sib-
       ling and	children directories are shown,	others are left	out. The  tree
       figure changes dynamically as you traverse.

       F5 (Copy).  Copy	the directory.

       F6 (RenMov).  Move the directory.

       F7 (Mkdir).  Make a new directory below this directory.

       F8 (Delete).  Delete this directory from	the file system.

       C-s,  M-s.   Search  the	 next directory	matching the search string. If
       there is	no such	directory these	keys will move one line	down.

       C-h, Backspace.	Delete the last	character of the search	string.

       Any other character.  Add the character to the search string  and  move
       to  the	next directory which starts with these characters. In the tree
       view you	must first activate the	 search	 mode  by  pressing  C-s.  The
       search string is	shown in the mini status line.

       The  following  actions	are available only in the directory tree. They
       aren't supported	in the tree view.

       F1 (Help).  Invoke the help viewer and show this	section.

       Esc, F10.  Exit the directory tree. Do not change the directory.

       The mouse is supported. A double-click behaves like Enter. See also the
       section on mouse	support.

    Find File
       The Find	File feature first asks	for the	start directory	for the	search
       and the filename	to be searched for. By pressing	the  Tree  button  you
       can select the start directory from the directory tree figure.

       The  contents  field  accepts  regular expressions similar to egrep(1).
       That means you have to escape characters	 with  a  special  meaning  to
       egrep  with "\",	e.g. if	you search for "strcmp (" you will have	to in-
       put "strcmp \(" (without	the double quotes).

       You can start the search	by pressing the	Ok button.  During the	search
       you can stop from the Stop button and continue from the Start button.

       You  can	browse the filelist with the up	and down arrow keys. The Chdir
       button will change to the directory of the currently selected file. The
       Again  button  will  ask	 for the parameters for	a new search. The Quit
       button quits the	search operation. The Panelize button will  place  the
       found  files  to	 the  current directory	panel so that you can do addi-
       tional operations on them (view,	copy, move, delete and so  on).	 After
       panelizing you can press	C-r to return to the normal file listing.

       It is possible to have a	list of	directories that the Find File command
       should skip during the search (for  example,  you  may  want  to	 avoid
       searches	on a CDROM or on a NFS directory that is mounted across	a slow

       Directories to be skipped  should  be  set  on  the  variable  find_ig-
       nore_dirs in the	Misc section of	your ~/.mc/ini file.

       Directory components should be separated	with a colon, here is an exam-


       You may consider	using the External panelize command  for  some	opera-
       tions. Find file	command	is for simple queries only, while using	Exter-
       nal panelize you	can do as mysterious searches as you would like.

    External panelize
       The External panelize allows you	to execute an  external	 program,  and
       make the	output of that program the contents of the current panel.

       For  example,  if  you  want to manipulate in one of the	panels all the
       symbolic	links in the current directory,	you can	use external paneliza-
       tion to run the following command:

       find . -type l -print
       Upon  command  completion,  the directory contents of the panel will no
       longer be the directory listing of the current directory, but  all  the
       files that are symbolic links.

       If you want to panelize all of the files	that have been downloaded from
       your ftp	server,	you can	use this awk command to	extract	the file  name
       from the	transfer log files:

       awk '$9 ~! /incoming/ { print $9	}' < /usr/adm/xferlog

       You  may	 want to save often used panelize commands under a descriptive
       name, so	that you can recall them quickly. You do this  by  typing  the
       command on the input line and pressing Add new button. Then you enter a
       name under which	you want the command to	be saved. Next time, you  just
       choose that command from	the list and do	not have to type it again.

       The  Directory  hotlist	command	shows the labels of the	directories in
       the directory hotlist. The Midnight Commander will change to the	direc-
       tory  corresponding to the selected label. From the hotlist dialog, you
       can remove already created label/directory pairs	and add	new  one.  For
       adding you may want to use a standalone Add to hotlist command (C-x h),
       which adds the current directory	into the directory hotlist,  as	 well.
       The user	is prompted for	a label	for the	directory.

       This  makes cd to often used directories	faster.	You may	consider using
       the CDPATH variable as described	in internal cd command description.

    Extension File Edit
       This will invoke	your editor on the file	~/.mc/ext. The format of  this
       file is as follows (the format has changed with version 3.0):

       All lines starting with # or empty lines	are thrown away.

       Lines starting in the first column should have following	format:

       keyword/descNL, i.e. everything after keyword/ until new	line is	desc

       keyword can be:


	      (desc is then any	extension (no wildcards), i.e. matches all the
	      files *desc . Example: .tar matches *.tar)


	      (desc is a regular expression)


	      (file matches this if `file %f` matches regular expression  desc
	      (the filename: part from `file %f` is removed))


	      (matches any file	no matter what desc is)

       Other  lines should start with a	space or tab and should	be of the for-

       keyword=commandNL (with no spaces around	=), where keyword should be:

       Open (if	the user presses Enter or doubleclicks it),  View  (F3),  Edit
       (F4), Drop (user	drops some files on it)	or any other user defined name
       (those will be listed in	the extension dependent	 pop-up	 menu).	  Icon
       name is reserved	for future use by mc.

       command	is any one-line	shell command, with the	simple macro substitu-

       Target are evaluated from top to	bottom (order is thus important).   If
       some  actions  are  missing,  search continues as if this target	didn't
       match (i.e. if a	file matches the first and second entry	and  View  ac-
       tion  is	 missing in the	first one, then	on pressing F3 the View	action
       from the	second entry will be used. default should catch	 all  the  ac-

    Background jobs
       This  lets  you	control	the state of any background Midnight Commander
       process (only copy and move files operations can	be done	in  the	 back-
       ground).	 You can stop, restart and kill	a background job from here.

    Menu File Edit
       The user	menu is	a menu of useful actions that can be customized	by the
       user. When you access the user menu, the	file from the current
       directory is used if it exists, but only	if it is owned by user or root
       and is not world-writable.  If no such file found, ~/.mc/menu is	 tried
       in  the	same  way,  and	otherwise mc uses the default system-wide menu

       The format of the menu file is very simple. Lines that start with  any-
       thing but space or tab are considered entries for the menu (in order to
       be able to use it like a	hot key, the first character should be a  let-
       ter).  All  the lines that start	with a space or	a tab are the commands
       that will be executed when the entry is selected.

       When an option is selected all the command  lines  of  the  option  are
       copied  to  a  temporary	 file  in  the	temporary  directory  (usually
       /usr/tmp) and then that file is executed. This allows the user  to  put
       normal  shell  constructs  in the menus.	Also simple macro substitution
       takes place before executing the	menu code. For more  information,  see
       macro substitution.

       Here is a sample	file:

       A    Dump the currently selected	file
	    od -c %f

       B    Edit a bug report and send it to root
	    vi /tmp/mail.$$
	    mail -s "Midnight Commander	bug" root < /tmp/mail.$$

       M    Read mail
	    emacs -f rmail

       N    Read Usenet	news
	    emacs -f gnus

       H    Call the info hypertext browser

       J    Copy current directory to other panel recursively
	    tar	cf - . | (cd %D	&& tar xvpf -)

       K    Make a release of the current subdirectory
	    echo -n "Name of distribution file:	"
	    read tar
	    ln -s %d `dirname %d`/$tar
	    cd ..
	    tar	cvhf ${tar}.tar	$tar

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       X       Extract the contents of a compressed tar	file
	    tar	xzvf %f

       Default Conditions

       Each  menu  entry  may  be  preceded by a condition. The	condition must
       start from the first column with	a '=' character. If the	 condition  is
       true, the menu entry will be the	default	entry.

       Condition syntax:   = <sub-cond>
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	| <sub-cond> ...
	 or:		   = <sub-cond>	& <sub-cond> ...

       Sub-condition is	one of following:

	 f <pattern>	   current file	matching pattern?
	 F <pattern>	   other file matching pattern?
	 d <pattern>	   current directory matching pattern?
	 D <pattern>	   other directory matching pattern?
	 t <type>	   current file	of type?
	 T <type>	   other file of type?
	 ! <sub-cond>	   negate the result of	sub-condition

       Pattern is a normal shell pattern or a regular expression, according to
       the shell patterns option. You can override the	global	value  of  the
       shell  patterns	option by writing "shell_patterns=x" on	the first line
       of the menu file	(where "x" is either 0 or 1).

       Type is one or more of the following characters:

	 n  not	directory
	 r  regular file
	 d  directory
	 l  link
	 c  char special
	 b  block special
	 f  fifo
	 s  socket
	 x  executable
	 t  tagged

       For example 'rlf' means either regular file, link or fifo. The 't' type
       is  a  little special because it	acts on	the panel instead of the file.
       The condition '=t t' is true if there are tagged	files in  the  current
       panel and false if not.

       If  the condition starts	with '=?' instead of '=' a debug trace will be
       shown whenever the value	of the condition is calculated.

       The conditions are calculated from left to right. This means
	    = f	*.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       is calculated as
	    ( (f *.tar.gz) | (f	*.tgz) ) & (t n)

       Here is a sample	of the use of conditions:

       = f *.tar.gz | f	*.tgz &	t n
       L    List the contents of a compressed tar-archive
	    gzip -cd %f	| tar xvf -

       Addition	Conditions

       If the condition	begins with '+'	(or '+?') instead of '=' (or '=?')  it
       is  an addition condition. If the condition is true the menu entry will
       be included in the menu.	If the condition is false the menu entry  will
       not be included in the menu.

       You  can	 combine default and addition conditions by starting condition
       with '+=' or '=+' (or '+=?' or '=+?' if you want	debug trace).  If  you
       want  to	 use  two different conditions,	one for	adding and another for
       defaulting, you can precede a menu entry	with two condition lines,  one
       starting	with '+' and another starting with '='.

       Comments	 are started with '#'. The additional comment lines must start
       with '#', space or tab.

  Options Menu
       The Configuration command pops up a dialog from which  you  can	change
       most of settings	of the Midnight	Commander.

       The  Display  bits  command  pops up a dialog from which	you may	select
       which characters	is your	terminal able to display.

       The Confirmation	command	pops up	a dialog from which you	specify	 which
       actions you want	to confirm.

       The  Learn  keys	command	pops up	a dialog from which you	test some keys
       which are not working on	some terminals and you may fix them.

       The Virtual FS command pops up a	dialog from which you specify some VFS
       related options.

       The  Layout  command pops up a dialog from which	you specify a bunch of
       options how mc looks like on the	screen.

       The Save	setup command saves the	current	settings of  the  Left,	 Right
       and Options menus. A small number of other settings is saved, too.

       The  program  has  some options that may	be toggled on and off from the
       Configuration dialog. Options are enabled if they have an  asterisk  or
       "x"  in	front  of  them.  These	options	are divided into three groups:
       Screen Colors, Panel Options and	Other Options.

       Screen Colors

       You can select whether your display supports  color  or	not.  Normally
       this  information  is in	the terminfo database. If you want to know how
       to change individual colors see the section on Colors.

       Panel Options

       Show Backup Files.  By default  the  Midnight  Commander	 doesn't  show
       files ending in '~' (like GNU's ls option -B).

       Show  Hidden  Files.   By  default the Midnight Commander will show all
       files that start	with a dot (like ls -a).

       Mark moves down.	 By default when you mark a file (with either  C-t  or
       the Insert key) the selection bar will move down.

       Show  Mini-Status.   If enabled,	show one line of status	information at
       the bottom of the panels	about the currently selected item.

       Mix all files.  When this option	is enabled, all	files and  directories
       are  shown mixed	together. If the option	is off,	directories (and links
       to directories) are shown at the	beginning of the  listing,  and	 other
       files afterwards.

       Fast  directory reload.	This option is off by default. If you activate
       the fast	reload,	the Midnight Commander will use	a trick	 to  determine
       if  the directory contents have changed.	The trick is to	reload the di-
       rectory only if the i-node of the directory  has	 changed;  this	 means
       that  reloads  only  happen  when files are created or deleted. If what
       changes is the i-node for a file	in the directory (file	size  changes,
       mode or owner changes, etc) the display is not updated. In these	cases,
       if you have the option on, you have to rescan  the  directory  manually
       (with C-r).

       Other Options

       Verbose	operation.   This  toggles  whether  the file Copy, Rename and
       Delete operations are verbose (i.e., display a dialog box for each  op-
       eration). If you	have a slow terminal, you may wish to disable the ver-
       bose operation. It is automatically turned off if  the  speed  of  your
       terminal	is less	than 9600 bps.

       Pause after run.	 After executing your commands,	the Midnight Commander
       can pause, so that you can examine the output of	 the  command.	 There
       are three possible settings for this variable:

	      Never  Means that	you do not want	to see the output of your com-
	      mand.  If	you are	using the Linux	or SCO console	or  an	xterm,
	      you will be able to see the output of the	command	by typing C-o.

	      On  dumb	terminals  You will get	the pause message on terminals
	      that are not capable of showing the output of the	 last  command
	      executed	(any  terminal	that is	not an xterm or	the Linux con-

	      Always The program will pause after executing all	of  your  com-

       Shell  Patterns.	  By  default the Select, Unselect and Filter commands
       will use	shell-like regular expressions.	The following conversions  are
       performed  to  achieve  this: the '*' is	replaced by '.*' (zero or more
       characters); the	'?'  is	replaced by '.'	(exactly  one  character)  and
       '.' by the literal dot. If the option is	disabled, then the regular ex-
       pressions are the ones described	in ed(1).

       Auto Save Setup.	 If this option	is enabled, when you exit the Midnight
       Commander  the configurable options of the Midnight Commander are saved
       in the ~/.mc/ini	file.

       Auto menus.  If this option is enabled, the user	menu will  be  invoked
       at startup.  Useful for building	menus for non-unixers.

       Use internal editor.  If	this option is enabled,	the built-in file edi-
       tor is used to edit files. If the option	is disabled, the editor	speci-
       fied in the EDITOR environment variable is used.	 If no editor is spec-
       ified, vi is used.  See the section on the internal file	editor.

       Use internal viewer.  If	this option  is	 enabled,  the	built-in  file
       viewer  is  used	 to  view  files. If the option	is disabled, the pager
       specified in the	PAGER environment variable is used.  If	 no  pager  is
       specified,  the	view command is	used.  See the section on the internal
       file viewer.

       Confirm Delete.	This option is toggled on by default, and  will	 cause
       the  Midnight  Commander	to ask for confirmation	when deleting a	single

       Cd follows links.  This option, if set, causes the  Midnight  Commander
       to follow the logical chain of directories when changing	current	direc-
       tory either in the panels, or using the cd command. This	is the default
       behavior	 of  bash. When	unset, the Midnight Commander follows the real
       directory structure, so cd .. if	you've entered that directory  through
       a  link will move you to	the current directory's	real parent and	not to
       the directory where the link was	present.

    Display bits
       This is used to configure  the  range  of  visible  characters  on  the
       screen.	 This  setting	may be 7-bits if your terminal/curses supports
       only seven output bits, ISO-8859-1 displays all the characters  in  the
       ISO-8859-1  map and full	8 bits is for those terminals that can display
       full 8 bit characters.

       In this menu you	configure the confirmation options for file  deletion,
       overwriting, execution by pressing enter	and quitting the program.

    Learn keys
       This  dialog  lets  you	test if	your keys F1-F20, Home,	End, etc. work
       properly	on your	terminal. They often don't, since many terminal	 data-
       bases are broken.

       You  can	 move  around  with  the Tab key, with the vi moving keys ('h'
       left, 'j' down, 'k' up and 'l' right) and after you press any arrow key
       once (this will mark it OK), then you can use that key as well.

       You test	them just by pressing each of them. As soon as you press a key
       and the key works properly, OK should appear next to the	name  of  that
       key.  Once a key	is marked OK it	starts to work as usually, e.g.	F1 for
       the first time will just	check that F1 works OK,	but from that time  on
       it  will	show help.  The	same applies to	the arrow keys.	Tab key	should
       be working always.

       If some keys do not work	properly, then you won't see OK	after the  key
       name  after you have pressed that key. You may then want	to fix it. You
       do it by	pressing the button of that key	(either	by mouse or using  Tab
       and  Enter).   Then  a red message will appear and you will be asked to
       type that key.  If you want to abort this, press	just Esc and wait  un-
       til the message disappears. Otherwise type the key you're asked to type
       and also	wait until the dialog disappears.

       When you	finish with all	the keys, you may want either to Save your key
       fixes  into your	~/.mc/ini file into the	[terminal:TERM]	section	(where
       TERM is the name	of your	current	terminal) or to	discard	them.  If  all
       your  keys  were	 working properly and you had not to fix any key, then
       (of course) no saving will occur.

    Virtual FS
       This option gives you control over the settings	of  the	 Virtual  File
       System information cache.

       The  Midnight Commander keeps in	memory the information related to some
       of the virtual file systems to speed up the access to the files in  the
       file system.  Since the information that	must be	kept may be large (for
       example,	compressed tar files may be kept in RAM	 for  faster  access),
       you  may	 want  to tune the parameters of the cached information	to de-
       crease your memory usage	or to maximize the speed  of  access  to  fre-
       quently used file systems.

       The  Tar	file system is quite clever about how it handles tar files: it
       just loads the directory	entries	and when it needs to use the  informa-
       tion contained in the tar file, it goes and grab	it.

       In the wild, tar	files are usually kept compressed (plain tar files are
       species in extinction), and because of the nature of those  files  (the
       directory  entries  for the tar files is	not there waiting for us to be
       loaded),	the tar	file system has	two choices: load the complete,	uncom-
       pressed	tar  file  into	memory or uncompress the file in the disk in a
       temporary location and then access the uncompressed file	as  a  regular
       tar file.

       In this dialog box you tell the Midnight	Commander which	sizes for com-
       pressed tar files you will tolerate to load into	your precious  memory.
       The  default setting is set to one megabyte, this means that compressed
       tar files whose size is at most one megabyte will be loaded into	 core,
       otherwise  a  temporary uncompressed tar	file will be created to	access
       the contents (all of this is transparent	to the user).

       The program will	let you	add a suffix to	specify	the units of the  num-
       ber  you	typed in, use 'k' for kilobyte and 'm' for megabyte.  Our rou-
       tine does not accept floating point numbers, so you can't use ".5 m" to
       specify 512 kilobytes, you will have to use "512	k" instead.

       Now, since we all love to browse	files and tar files all	over the disk,
       it's common that	you will leave a tar file and the re-enter  it	later.
       Since  uncompression is slow, the Midnight Commander will cache the in-
       formation in memory for a limited amount	of time,  after	 you  hit  the
       timeout,	 all  of  the memory resources associated with the file	system
       will be freed.  The default timeout is set to one minute.

       The layout dialog gives you a possibility to change the general	layout
       of screen. You can specify whether the menubar, the command prompt, the
       hintbar and the function	keybar are visible. On the Linux or  SCO  con-
       sole you	can specify how	many lines are shown in	the output window.

       The  rest  of the screen	area is	used for the two directory panels. You
       can specify whether the area is split to	the panels in vertical or hor-
       izontal direction. The split can	be equal or you	can specify an unequal

    Save Setup
       At startup the Midnight Commander will try to load  initialization  in-
       formation  from the ~/.mc/ini file. If this file	doesn't	exist, it will
       load the	information from the system-wide configuration	file,  located
       in  /usr/local/lib/mc/mc.ini.  If  the  system-wide  configuration file
       doesn't exist, MC uses the default settings.

       The Save	Setup command creates the ~/.mc/ini file by saving the current
       settings	of the Left, Right and Options menus.

       If  you	activate  the  auto save setup option, MC will always save the
       current settings	when exiting.

       There also exist	settings which can't be	changed	 from  the  menus.  To
       change  these  settings	you  have to edit the setup file with your fa-
       vorite editor. See the section on Special Settings  for	more  informa-

Executing operating system commands
       You  may	 execute commands by typing them directly in the Midnight Com-
       mander's	input line, or by selecting the	program	you  want  to  execute
       with the	selection bar in one of	the panels and hitting Enter.

       If  you	press  Enter  over a file that is not executable, the Midnight
       Commander checks	the extension of the selected file against the	exten-
       sions  in the Extensions	File.  If a match is found then	the code asso-
       ciated with that	extension is executed. A very simple  macro  expansion
       takes place before executing the	command.

  The cd internal command
       The  cd	command	 is  interpreted  by the Midnight Commander, it	is not
       passed to the command shell for execution.  Thus	it may not handle  all
       of  the nice macro expansion and	substitution that your shell does, al-
       though it does some of them:

       Tilde substitution The (~) will be substituted with  your  home	direc-
       tory, if	you append a username after the	tilde, then it will be substi-
       tuted with the login directory of the the specified user.

       For example, ~guest is the home directory for  the  user	 guest,	 while
       ~/guest is the directory	guest in your home directory.

       Previous	directory You can jump to the directory	you were previously by
       using the special directory name	'-' like this: cd -

       CDPATH directories If the directory specified to	the cd command is  not
       in the current directory, then The Midnight Commander uses the value in
       the environment variable	CDPATH to search for the directory in  any  of
       the named directories.

       For  example  you could set your	CDPATH variable	to ~/src:/usr/src, al-
       lowing you to change your directory to any of  the  directories	inside
       the  ~/src  and /usr/src	directories, from any place in the file	system
       by using	it's relative name (for	example	cd linux  could	 take  you  to

  Macro	Substitution
       When  accessing	a  user	menu, or executing an extension	dependent com-
       mand, or	running	a command from the command line	input, a simple	 macro
       substitution takes place.

       The macros are:


	      The current file name.


	      The current directory name.


	      The current file in the unselected panel.


	      The directory name of the	unselected panel.


	      The currently tagged files.


	      The tagged files in the unselected panel.

       %u and %U

	      Similar  to  the %t and %T macros, but in	addition the files are
	      untagged.	You can	use this macro only once per menu  file	 entry
	      or  extension  file  entry,  because  next time there will be no
	      tagged files.

       %s and %S

	      The selected files: The tagged files if there are	any. Otherwise
	      the current file.


	      Dropped  files.  In  all places except in	the Drop action	of the
	      mc.ext file, this	will become a null string, in the Drop	action
	      it  will	be  replaced with a space separated list of files that
	      were dropped on the file.


	      This is a	special	macro that is used to change the  current  di-
	      rectory to the directory specified in front of it.  This is used
	      primarily	as an interface	to the Virtual File System.


	      This macro is used to invoke the internal	 viewer.   This	 macro
	      can be used alone, or with arguments.  If	you pass any arguments
	      to this macro, they should be enclosed in	brackets.

	      The arguments are: ascii to force	the viewer  into  ascii	 mode;
	      hex  to force the	viewer into hex	mode; nroff to tell the	viewer
	      that it should interpret the bold	 and  underline	 sequences  of
	      nroff; unformated	to tell	the viewer to not interpret nroff com-
	      mands for	making the text	bold or	underlined.


	      The % character

       %{some text}

	      Prompt for the substitution. An input box	is shown and the  text
	      inside  the braces is used as a prompt. The macro	is substituted
	      by the text typed	by the user. The user can press	ESC or F10  to
	      cancel. This macro doesn't work on the command line yet.

  The subshell support
       The  subshell  support  is  a  compile time option, that	works with the
       shells: bash, tcsh and zsh.

       When the	subshell code is activated the Midnight	Commander will spawn a
       concurrent  copy	 of  your shell	(the one defined in the	SHELL variable
       and if it is not	defined, then the one in the /etc/passwd file) and run
       it  in a	pseudo terminal, instead of invoking a new shell each time you
       execute a command, the command will be passed to	the subshell as	if you
       had  typed  it.	 This  also allows you to change the environment vari-
       ables, use shell	functions and define aliases that are valid until  you
       quit the	Midnight Commander.

       If you are using	bash you can specify startup commands for the subshell
       in your ~/.mc/bashrc file and special keyboard maps in the  ~/.mc/inpu-
       trc  file.  tcsh	users may specify startup commands in the ~/.mc/tcshrc

       When the	subshell code is used, you can	suspend	 applications  at  any
       time  with the sequence C-o and jump back to the	Midnight Commander, if
       you interrupt an	application, you will not be able to run other	exter-
       nal commands until you quit the application you interrupted.

       An  extra  added	 feature of using the subshell is that the prompt dis-
       played by the Midnight Commander	is the same prompt that	you  are  cur-
       rently using in your shell.

       The  OPTIONS  section  has  more	information on how you can control the
       subshell	code.

  Controlling Midnight Commander
       The Midnight Commander defines an environment variable MC_CONTROL_FILE.
       The  commands  executed by MC may give instructions to MC by writing to
       the file	specified by this variable.  This is  only  available  if  you
       compiled	 your  copy  of	the Midnight Commander with the	WANT_PARSE op-

       The following instructions are supported.

       clear_tags	   Clear all tags.
       tag <filename>	   Tag specified file.
       untag <filename>	   Untag specified file.
       select <filename>   Move	pointer	to file.
       change_panel	   Switch between panels.
       cd <path>      Change directory.

       If the first letter of the instruction is in lower case it operates  on
       the current panel. If the letter	is in upper case the instruction oper-
       ates on the other panel.	The additional letters must be in lower	 case.
       Instructions  must  be  separated by exactly one	space, tab or newline.
       The instructions	don't work in the Info,	 Tree  and  Quick  views.  The
       first error causes the rest to be ignored.

       The  Chmod  window  is  used to change the attribute bits in a group of
       files and directories.  It can be invoked with the C-x c	 key  combina-

       The Chmod window	has two	parts -	Permissions and	File

       In the File section are displayed the name of the file or directory and
       its permissions in octal	form, as well as its owner and group.

       In the Permissions section there	is a set of check buttons which	corre-
       spond  to  the  file attribute bits.  As	you change the attribute bits,
       you can see the octal value change in the File section.

       To move between the widgets (buttons and	check buttons) use  the	 arrow
       keys  or	 the  Tab key.	To change the state of the check buttons or to
       select a	button use Space.  You can also	use the	hotkeys	on the buttons
       to quickly activate that	selection (they	are the	highlit	letters	on the

       To set the attribute bits, use the Enter	key.

       When working with a group of files or directories, you  just  click  on
       the bits	you want to set	or clear.  Once	you have selected the bits you
       want to change, you select one of the action  buttons  (Set  marked  or
       Clear marked).

       Finally,	 to set	the attributes exactly to those	specified, you can use
       the [Set	all] button, which will	act on all the tagged files.

       [Marked all] set	only marked attributes to all selected files

       [Set marked] set	marked bits in attributes of all selected files

       [Clean marked] clear marked bits	in attributes of all selected files

       [Set] set the attributes	of one file

       [Cancel]	cancel the Chmod command

       The Chown command is used to change the owner/group of a	file. The  hot
       key for this command is C-x o.

File Operations
       When  you  copy,	 move or delete	files the Midnight Commander shows the
       file operations dialog. It shows	the files currently being operated  on
       and  there  are at most three progress bars. The	file bar tells how big
       part of the current file	has been copied	so far.	The  count  bar	 tells
       how  many of tagged files have been handled so far. The bytes bar tells
       how big part of total size of the tagged	files has been handled so far.
       If the verbose option is	off the	file and bytes bars are	not shown.

       There  are  two	buttons	at the bottom of the dialog. Pressing the Skip
       button will skip	the rest of the	current	file. Pressing the Abort  but-
       ton will	abort the whole	operation, the rest of the files are skipped.

       There  are  three  other	dialogs	which you can run into during the file

       The error dialog	informs	about error conditions and has three  choices.
       Normally	 you  select  either  the  Skip	button to skip the file	or the
       Abort button to abort the operation altogether. You can also select the
       Retry button if you fixed the problem from another terminal.

       The  replace dialog is shown when you attempt to	copy or	move a file on
       the top of an existing file. The	dialog shows the dates	and  sizes  of
       the both	files. Press the Yes button to overwrite the file, the No but-
       ton to skip the file, the alL button to overwrite all  the  files,  the
       nonE  button  to	 never overwrite and the Update	button to overwrite if
       the source file is newer	than the target	file. You can abort the	 whole
       operation by pressing the Abort button.

       The recursive delete dialog is shown when you try to delete a directory
       which is	not empty. Press the Yes button	to delete the directory	recur-
       sively,	the  No	button to skip the directory, the alL button to	delete
       all the directories and the nonE	button to skip all the	non-empty  di-
       rectories. You can abort	the whole operation by pressing	the Abort but-
       ton. If you selected the	Yes or alL button you will be asked for	a con-
       firmation.  Type	 "yes"	only if	you are	really sure you	want to	do the
       recursive delete.

       If you have tagged files	and perform an	operation  on  them  only  the
       files on	which the operation succeeded are untagged. Failed and skipped
       files are left tagged.

Mask Copy/Rename
       The copy/move operations	lets you translate the names of	 files	in  an
       easy  way.  To  do  it, you have	to specify the correct source mask and
       usually in the trailing part of the destination specify some wildcards.
       All  the	files matching the source mask are copied/renamed according to
       the target mask.	If there are  tagged  files,  only  the	 tagged	 files
       matching	the source mask	are renamed.

       There are other option which you	can set:

       Follow  links  tells  whether  make  the	 symlinks and hardlinks	in the
       source directory	(recursively in	subdirectories)	new links in the  tar-
       get directory or	whether	would you like to copy their content.

       Dive  into subdirs tells	what to	do if in the target directory exists a
       directory with the same name as the file/directory  being  copied.  The
       default action is to copy it's content into that	directory, by enabling
       this you	can copy the source directory into that	directory.  Perhaps an
       example will help:

       You  want  to  copy content of a	directory foo to /bla/foo, which is an
       already existing	directory. Normally (when Dive is not set),  mc	 would
       copy  it	 exactly into /bla/foo.	 By enabling this option you will copy
       the content into	/bla/foo/foo, because the directory already exists.

       Preserve	attributes tells whether to preserve the original files'  per-
       missions, timestamps and	if you are root	whether	to preserve the	origi-
       nal files' UID and GID. If this option is not set the current value  of
       the umask will be respected.

       Use shell patterns on

       When the	shell patterns option is on you	can use	the '*'	and '?'	 wild-
       cards in	the source mask. They work like	they do	in the shell.  In  the
       target  mask  only  the	'*'  and '\<digit>' wildcards are allowed. The
       first '*' wildcard in the target	mask corresponds to the	first wildcard
       group  in  the  source  mask,  the second '*' corresponds to the	second
       group and so on.	The '\1' wildcard corresponds to  the  first  wildcard
       group  in  the source mask, the '\2' wildcard corresponds to the	second
       group and so on all the way up to '\9'. The '\0'	wildcard is the	 whole
       filename	of the source file.

       Two examples:

       If  the	source mask is "*.tar.gz", the destination is "/bla/*.tgz" and
       the file	to be copied is	"foo.tar.gz", the copy will  be	 "foo.tgz"  in

       Let's  suppose you want to swap basename	and extension so that "file.c"
       will become "c.file" and	so on. The source mask for this	is  "*.*"  and
       the destination is "\2.\1".

       Use shell patterns off

       When  the  shell	 patterns  option  is  off the MC doesn't do automatic
       grouping	anymore. You must use '\(...\)'	expressions in the source mask
       to  specify  meaning for	the wildcards in the target mask. This is more
       flexible	but also requires more typing. Otherwise target	masks are sim-
       ilar to the situation when the shell patterns option is on.

       Two examples:

       If   the	  source  mask	is  "^\(.*\)\.tar\.gz$",  the  destination  is
       "/bla/*.tgz" and	the file to be copied is "foo.tar.gz", the  copy  will
       be "/bla/foo.tgz".

       Let's  suppose you want to swap basename	and extension so that "file.c"
       will  become  "c.file"  and  so	on.  The  source  mask	for  this   is
       "^\(.*\)\.\(.*\)$" and the destination is "\2.\1".

       Case Conversions

       You  can	 also change the case of the filenames.	If you use '\u'	or up-
       percase or lowercase correspondingly.

       If you use '\U' or '\L' in the target mask the next characters will  be
       converted to uppercase or lowercase correspondingly up to the next

       The '\u'	and '\l' are stronger than '\U'	and '\L'.

       For  example,  if  the  source  mask  is	 '*'  (shell  patterns	on) or
       '^\(.*\)$' (shell patterns off) and the target mask is '\L\u*' the file
       names  will be converted	to have	initial	upper case and otherwise lower

       You can also use	'\' as a quote character. For example, '\\' is a back-
       slash and '\*' is an asterisk.

Internal File Viewer
       The internal file viewer	provides two display modes: ASCII and hex.  To
       toggle between modes, use the F4	key.  If you have the GNU gzip program
       installed, it will be used to automatically decompress the files	on de-

       The viewer will try to use the best method provided by your  system  or
       the  file  type	to  display the	information.  The internal file	viewer
       will interpret some string sequences to set the bold and	underline  at-
       tributes, thus making a pretty display of your files.

       When in hex mode, the search function accepts text in quotes as well as
       hexadecimal constants.

       You can mix quoted text with constants like this:  "String"  0xFE  0xBB
       "more text".  Text between constants and	quoted text is just ignored.

       Some  internal  details	about  the viewer: On systems that provide the
       mmap(2) system call, the	program	maps the file instead of  loading  it;
       if  the	system	does  not  provide the mmap(2) system call or the file
       matches an action that requires a filter, then the viewer will use it's
       growing buffers,	thus loading only those	parts of the file that you ac-
       tually access (this includes compressed files).

       Here is a listing of the	actions	associated with	each key that the Mid-
       night Commander handles in the internal file viewer.

       F1 Invoke the builtin hypertext help viewer.

       F2 Toggle the wrap mode.

       F4 Toggle the hex mode.

       F5  Goto	line.  This will prompt	you for	a line number and will display
       that line.

       F6, /.  Regular expression search.

       ?, Reverse regular expression search.

       F7 Normal search	/ hex mode search.

       C-s.  Start normal search if there was no  previous  search  expression
       else find next match.

       C-r.   Start  reverse search if there was no previous search expression
       else find next match.

       n.  Find	next match.

       F8 Toggle Raw/Parsed mode: This will show the file as found on disk  or
       if  a processing	filter has been	specified in the mc.ext	file, then the
       output from the filter. Current mode is always the other	 than  written
       on the button label, since on the button	is the mode which you enter by
       that key.

       F9 Toggle the format/unformat mode: when	format mode is on  the	viewer
       will  interpret	some  string sequences to show bold and	underline with
       different colors. Also, on button label is the other mode than current.

       F10, Esc.  Exit the internal file viewer.

       next-page, space, C-v.  Scroll one page forward.

       prev-page, M-v, C-b, backspace.	Scroll one page	backward.

       down-key	Scroll one line	forward.

       up-key Scroll one line backward.

       C-l Refresh the screen.

       !  Spawn	a shell	in the currently working directory.

       [n] m Set the mark n.

       [n] r Jump to the mark n.

       C-f Jump	to the next file.

       C-b Jump	to the previous	file.

       M-r Toggle the ruler.

       It's possible to	instruct the file viewer how to	display	a  file,  look
       at the Extension	File Edit section

Internal File Editor
       The  internal  file editor provides most	of the features	of common full
       screen editors. It is invoked using F4 provided	the  use_internal_edit
       option  is  set	in  the	initialization file. It	has an extensible file
       size limit of sixteen megabytes and edits binary	files flawlessly.

       The features it presently supports are: Block copy, move, delete,  cut,
       paste;  key for key undo	; pull-down menus; file	insertion; macro defi-
       nition; regular expression search and replace (and our own scanf-printf
       search  and  replace);  shift-arrow  MSW-MAC text highlighting (for the
       linux console only); insert-overwrite toggle; and  an  option  to  pipe
       text blocks through shell commands like indent.

       The  editor  is very easy to use	and requires no	tutoring.  To see what
       keys do what, just consult the appropriate pull-down menu.  Other  keys
       are:  Shift movement keys do text highlighting.	Ctrl-Ins copies	to the
       file cooledit.clip and Shift-Ins	pastes from cooledit.clip.   Shift-Del
       cuts  to	cooledit.clip, and Ctrl-Del deletes highlighted	text. The com-
       pletion key also	does a Return with an automatic	 indent.  Mouse	 high-
       lighting	also works, and	you can	override the mouse as usual by holding
       down the	shift key while	dragging the  mouse  to	 let  normal  terminal
       mouse highlighting work.

       To define a macro, press	Ctrl-R
	and then type out the key strokes you want to be executed. Press Ctrl-
	again when finished. You can then assign the macro to any key you like
       by  pressing  that key. The macro is executed when you press Ctrl-A and
       then the	assigned key. The macro	is also	executed if  you  press	 Meta,
       Ctrl,  or  Esc  and the assigned	key, provided that the key is not used
       for any other function. Once defined, the macro commands	 go  into  the
       file cedit/cooledit.macros
	in  your home directory. You can delete	a macro	by deleting the	appro-
       priate line in this file.

       F19 will	format C code when it is highlighted. For this to  work,  make
       an  executable  file called cedit/edit.indent.rc	in your	home directory
       containing the following:

       /usr/bin/indent -kr -pcs	~/cedit/cooledit.block >& /dev/null
       cat /dev/null > ~/cedit/cooledit.error

       You can use scanf search	and replace to search and replace a  C	format
       string.	First  take  a look at the sscanf and sprintf man pages	to see
       what a format string is and how it works. An  example  is  as  follows:
       Suppose	you  want  to  replace all occurences of say, an open bracket,
       three comma seperated numbers, and a close bracket, with	the  word  ap-
       ples,  the third	number,	the word oranges and then the second number, I
       would fill in the Replace dialog	box as follows:

	Enter search string
	Enter replace string
       apples %d oranges %d
	Enter replacement argument order

       The last	line specifies that the	third and then the second  number  are
       to be used in place of the first	and second.

       It  is advisable	to use this feature with Prompt	on replace on, because
       a match is thought to be	found whenever the number of  arguments	 found
       matches	the number given, which	is not always a	real match. Scanf also
       treats whitespace as being elastic.  Note that the scanf	 format	 %  is
       very useful for scanning	strings, and whitespace.

       The  editor also	displays non-us	characters (160+). When	editing	binary
       files, you should set display bits to 7 bits in	the  options  menu  to
       keep the	spacing	clean.

       See also	the file README.edit in	the source tree	for some more info.

       Let the Midnight	Commander type for you.

       Attempt	to  perform completion on the text before current position. MC
       attempts	completion treating the	text as	variable (if the  text	begins
       with  $ ), username (if the text	begins with ~ ), hostname (if the text
       begins with @ ) or command (if you are on the command line in the posi-
       tion  where you might type a command, possible completions then include
       shell reserved words and	shell builtin commands as well)	 in  turn.  If
       none of these produces a	match, filename	completion is attempted.

       Filename, username, variable and	hostname completion works on all input
       lines, command completion is command line specific.  If the  completion
       is ambiguous (there are more different possibilities), MC beeps and the
       following action	depends	on the setting	of  the	 show_all_if_ambiguous
       variable	 in  the  Initialization file. If it is	nonzero, a list	of all
       possibilities pops up next to the current position and you  can	select
       with  the arrow keys and	Enter the correct entry. You can also type the
       first letters in	which the possibilities	differ to move to a subset  of
       all  possibilities and complete as much as possible. If you press M-Tab
       again, only the subset will be shown  in	 the  listbox,	otherwise  the
       first  item  which  matches  all	 the previous characters will be high-
       lighted.	As soon	as there is no ambiguity, dialog disappears,  but  you
       can  hide  it by	canceling keys Esc, F10	and left and right arrow keys.
       If show_all_if_ambiguous	is set to zero,	the dialog pops	up only	if you
       press M-Tab for the second time,	for the	first time MC just beeps.

Virtual	File System
       The Midnight Commander is provided with a code layer to access the file
       system; this code layer is known	as the	virtual	 file  system  switch.
       The virtual file	system switch allows the Midnight Commander to manipu-
       late files not located on the Unix file system.

       Currently the Midnight Commander	is packaged  with  five	 Virtual  File
       Systems	(VFS):	the  local file	system,	used for accessing the regular
       Unix file system; the ftpfs, used to manipulate files on	remote systems
       with the	FTP protocol; the tarfs, used to manipulate tar	and compressed
       tar files; the undelfs, used to recover deleted files on	ext2 file sys-
       tems  (the  default file	system for Linux systems) and finally the mcfs
       (Midnight Commander file	system), a network based file system.

       The VFS switch code will	interpret all of the path names	used and  will
       forward	them to	the correct file system, the formats used for each one
       of the file systems is described	later in their own section.

  FTP File System
       The ftpfs allows	you to manipulate files	on remote machines,  to	 actu-
       ally  use it, you may try to use	the panel command FTP link (accessible
       from the	menubar) or you	may directly change your current directory  to
       it using	the cd command to a path name that looks like this:


       The,  user,  port and remote-dir	elements are optional.	If you specify
       the user	element, then the Midnight Commander will try to logon on  the
       remote  machine	as  that  user,	otherwise it will use your login name.
       The optional pass element, if present is	the password used for the con-
       nection.	 This use is not recomented (nor keeping this in your hotlist,
       unless you set the appropiate permissions there,	and then, it  may  not
       be entirely safe	anyways).


       To  connect to sites behind a firewall, you will	need to	use the	prefix
       ftp://! (ie, with a bang	character after	the double slash) to make  the
       Midnight	 Commander  use	 a proxy host for doing	the ftp	transfer.  You
       can define the proxy host in the	Virtual	File System dialog box.

       Another option is to set	the ftpfs_always_use_proxy  parameter  in  the
       initialization file.  This will configure the program to	always use the
       proxy host.  If this variable is	set, the program will do  two  things:
       consult	the  /usr/local/lib/mc.no_proxy	file for lines containing host
       names that are local (if	the host name starts with a dot, it is assumed
       to  be a	domain)	and to assume that any hostnames without dots in their
       names are directly accessible.

       If you are using	the ftpfs code with a  filtering  packet  router  that
       does  not  allow	 you to	use the	regular	mode of	opening	files, you may
       want to force the program to use	the passive-open mode.	To  use	 this,
       set the ftpfs_use_passive_connections option.

       The  Midnight  Commander	 keeps	the directory listing in a cache.  The
       cache expire time is configurable in the	 Virtual  File	System	dialog
       box.   This  has	 the funny behavior that even if you make changes to a
       directory, they will not	be reflected in	the  directory	listing	 until
       you force a cache reload	with the C-r key.  This	is a feature (when you
       think it's a bug, think about manipulating files	on the other  side  of
       the Atlantic with ftpfs).

  Tar File System
       The  tar	 file  system  provides	 you with read-only access to your tar
       files and compressed tar	files by using the chdir command.   To	change
       your  directory to a tar	file, you change your current directory	to the
       tar file	by using the following syntax:


       The mc.ext file already provides	a shortcut for tar files,  this	 means
       that  usually  you  just	 point to a tar	file and press return to enter
       into the	tar file, see the Extension File Edit section for  details  on
       how this	is done.



       The latter specifies the	full path of the tar archive.

  Network File System
       The  Midnight  Commander	file system is a network base file system that
       allows you to manipulate	the files in a remote machine as if they  were
       local.	To  use	this, the remote machine must be running the mcserv(8)
       server program.

       To connect to a remote machine, you just	need to	chdir into  a  special
       directory which name is in the following	format:


       The,  user,  port and remote-dir	elements are optional.	If you specify
       the user	element	then the Midnight Commander will try to	logon  on  the
       remote machine as that user, otherwise it will use your login name.

       The  port  element is used when the remote machine running on a special
       port (see the mcserv(8) manual page for more information	about  ports);
       finally,	 if  the remote-dir element is present,	your current directory
       on the remote machine will be set to this one.


  Undelete File	System
       On Linux	systems, if you	asked configure	to use the ext2fs undelete fa-
       cilities,  you  will have the undelete file system available.  Recovery
       of deleted files	is only	available on ext2 file systems.	 The  undelete
       file system is just an interface	to the ext2fs library to: retrieve all
       of the deleted files names on an	ext2fs and provides and	to extract the
       selected	files into a regular partition.

       To  use	this file system, you have to chdir into the special file name
       formed by the "undel:" prefix and the file name where the  actual  file
       system resides.

       For  example,  to  recover deleted files	on the second partition	of the
       first scsi disk on Linux, you would use the following path name:


       It may take a while for the undelfs to load  the	 required  information
       before you start	browsing files there.

       The  Midnight  Commander	 will  try to detect if	your terminal supports
       color using the terminal	database and your terminal name.  Sometimes it
       gets  confused, so you may force	color mode or disable color mode using
       the -c and -b flag respectively.

       If the program is compiled with the Slang  screen  manager  instead  of
       ncurses,	 it  will  also	check the variable COLORTERM, if it is set, it
       has the same effect as the -c flag.

       You may specify terminals that always force color mode  by  adding  the
       color_terminals	variable  to  the Colors section of the	initialization
       file. This will prevent the Midnight Commander from trying to detect if
       your terminal supports color. Example:

       The  program  can be compiled with both ncurses and slang, ncurses does
       not provide a way to force color	mode: ncurses uses just	 the  informa-
       tion in the terminal database.

       The  Midnight  Commander	 provides  a way to change the default colors.
       Currently the colors are	 configured  using  the	 environment  variable
       MC_COLOR_TABLE or the Colors section in the initialization file.

       In  the	Colors	section,  the  default	color  map  is loaded from the
       base_color variable.  You can specify an	alternate color	map for	a ter-
       minal by	using the terminal name	as the key in this section.  Example:


       The format for the color	definition is:

	 <keyword>=<foregroundcolor>,<backgroundcolor>:<keyword>= ...

       The  colors  are	 optional,  and	 the  keywords	are: normal, selected,
       marked, markselect, errors,  input,  reverse  menu,  menusel,  menuhot,
       menuhotsel, gauge;  the dialog colors are: dnormal, dfocus, dhotnormal,
       dhotfocus; Help colors are: helpnormal, helpitalic, helpbold, helplink,
       helpslink;  Viewer  color is: viewunderline; Special highlighting mode:
       executable, directory, link, device, special.

       The dialog boxes	use the	following colors: dnormal is used for the nor-
       mal  text,  dfocus  is the color	used for the currently selected	compo-
       nent, dhotnormal	is the color used to differentiate the hotkey color in
       normal  components,  whereas  the dhotfocus color is used for the high-
       lighted color in	the currently selected component.

       Menus use the same scheme but  uses  the	 menu,	menusel,  menuhot  and
       menuhotsel tags instead.

       Help  uses  the	following  colors: helpnormal is used for normal text,
       helpitalic is used for text which is emphasized in italic in the	manual
       page, helpbold is used for text which is	emphasized in bold in the man-
       ual page, helplink is used for not selected hyperlinks and helpslink is
       used for	selected hyperlink.

       gauge  determines  color	 of  filled  part of the progress bar (gauge),
       which shows how many percent of files were copied etc. in  a  graphical

       For  file type highlighting mode	directory specifies the	color in which
       directories are shown; executable for executable	files; link is used to
       represent links;	device for character and block devices;	special	is for
       special files, such as FIFO and IPC sockets; core  is  for  core	 files
       (see  also  the	option	highlight_mode	at the section on Special Set-

       The possible colors are:	black, gray, red,  brightred,  green,  bright-
       green,  brown,  yellow, blue, brightblue, magenta, brightmagenta, cyan,
       brightcyan, lightgray and white.

Special	Settings
       Most of the settings of the Midnight Commander can be changed from  the
       menus.  However,	there are a small number of settings which can only be
       changed by editing the setup file.

       These variables may be set in your ~/.mc/ini file:


	      By default the Midnight Commander	clears the screen before  exe-
	      cuting  a	 command. If you would prefer to see the output	of the
	      command at the bottom of the screen, edit	your ~/mc.ini file and
	      change the value of the field clear_before_exec to 0.


	      If  you  press F3	on a directory,	normally MC enters that	direc-
	      tory. If this flag is set	to 1, then MC will ask	for  confirma-
	      tion before changing the directory if you	have files tagged.


	      If  this	variable  is  set, when	you press the F9 key, the pull
	      down menus will be activated, else, you will only	 be  presented
	      with  the	menu title, and	you will have to select	the entry with
	      the arrow	keys or	the first letter and from  there  select  your
	      option in	the menu.


	      This  value is the number	of seconds the Midnight	Commander will
	      wait before attempting a reconnection to an ftp server that  has
	      denied  the  login.   If the value is zero, the the program will
	      not retry	the login.


	      This option is by	off default.  This makes the  ftpfs  code  use
	      the  passive  open  mode for transfering files.  This is used by
	      people that are behind a filtering packet	router.	  This	option
	      just works if you	are not	using an ftp proxy.


	      Specifies	 how many screen updates can be	skipped	at most	in the
	      internal file viewer.  Normally this value is  not  significant,
	      because  the code	automatically adjusts the number of updates to
	      skip according to	the rate of incoming keypresses.  However,  on
	      very  slow  machines  or terminals with a	fast keyboard auto re-
	      peat, a big value	can make screen	updates	too jumpy.

	      It seems that setting max_dirt_limit to 10 causes	the  best  be-
	      havior, and that is the default value.


	      Controls	whenever  scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or
	      line by line on the panels.


	      Controls if scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or line by
	      line on the internal file	viewer.


	      If  this	setting	is turned on, then you may use the arrows keys
	      to automatically chdir if	the current selection is  a  subdirec-
	      tory and the shell command line is empty.	 By default, this set-
	      ting is off.


	      When on, this flag causes	the commander to show a	rotating  dash
	      as a work	in progress indicator.


	      By  default  the	Midnight Commander treats the ESC key as a key
	      prefix   (old_esc_mode=0),    if	  you	 set	this	option
	      (old_esc_mode=1),	 then the ESC key will act as a	prefix key for
	      one second, and if no extra keys have arrived, then the ESC  key
	      is interpreted as	a cancel key (ESC ESC).


	      set special treatment for	'+', '-', '*' in command line (select,
	      unselect,	reverse	selection) only	if command line	is  empty.  No
	      need to quote this characters in the middle of the command line.
	      But we can not change selection when command line	is not	empty.

	      If set (the default), panel will scroll by half the display when
	      the cursor reaches the end or the	beginning of the panel,	other-
	      wise it will just	scroll a file at a time.


	      If  this option is set (the default), when logged	in as root the
	      default will be to preserve the UID and the GID of files.	  Some
	      users  prefer to disable this option, so that's why it's config-


	      This variable only works if you are not using the	subshell  sup-
	      port.   When  you	 use  the C-o keystroke	to go back to the user
	      screen, if this one is set, you will get a fresh shell.	Other-
	      wise,  pressing any key will bring you back to the Midnight Com-


	      By default the Midnight Commander	pops up	all  possible  comple-
	      tions  if	the completion is ambiguous if you press M-Tab for the
	      second time, for the first time it just  completes  as  much  as
	      possible	and in the case	of ambiguity beeps. If you want	to see
	      all the possible	completions  already  after  the  first	 M-Tab
	      pressing,	set this option	to 1.


	      If  this	flag  is  set,	then  the  home	and end	keys will work
	      slightly different on the	panels,	instead	of moving  the	selec-
	      tion to the first	and last files in the panels, they will	act as

	      The home key will: Go up to the middle line, if below  it;  else
	      go to the	top line unless	it is already on the top line, in this
	      case it will go to the first file	in the panel.

	      The end key has a	similar	behavior: Go down to the middle	 line,
	      if over it; else go to the bottom	line unless you	already	are at
	      the bottom line, in such case it will move the selection to  the
	      last file	name in	the panel.

       highlight_mode  By default all information on panels displayed with the
       same color. If this variable is set to 1, then perm or mode  tokens  in
       display	format	get  ability  to show access rights of the user	to the
       shown file. Appropriate	triplet	 of  reading,  writing	and  execution
       rights  highlighted with	the yellow ( selected )	color. In addition, if
       the variable is equal to	2, then	all lines are displaying by the	 color
       according  to  their  type (see Colors).	 Permissions highlighting also
       works in	this mode.


	      If this variable is on (the default) it will spawn the file com-
	      mand to match the	file types listed on the mc.ext	file.


	      If this variable is on (default is off) when you browse the file
	      system on	a Tree panel, it will automatically reload  the	 other
	      panel with the contents of the selected directory.

Terminal databases
       The Midnight Commander provides a way to	fix your system	terminal data-
       base  without  requiring	 root  privileges.   The  Midnight   Commander
       searches	 in the	system initialization file (the	mc.lib file located in
       the Midnight Commander library directory) or in the ~/.mc/ini file  for
       the  section  "terminal:your-terminal-name"  and	 then  for the section
       "terminal:general", each	line of	the section contains a key symbol that
       you  want  to  define, followed by an equal sign	and the	definition for
       the key.	 You can use the special \E form to represent the escape char-
       acter and the ^x	to represent the control-x character.

       The possible key	symbols	are:

       f0 to f20     Function keys f0-f20
       bs	  backspace
       home	     home key
       end	     end key
       up	     up	arrow key
       down	     down arrow	key
       left	     left arrow	key
       right	     right arrow key
       pgdn	     page down key
       pgup	     page up key
       insert	     the insert	character
       delete	     the delete	character
       complete	     to	do completion

       For example, to define the key insert to	be the Escape +	[ + O +	p, you
       set this	in the ini file:


       The complete key	symbol represents the escape sequences used to	invoke
       the  completion process,	this is	invoked	with M-tab, but	you can	define
       other keys to do	the same work (on those	keyboard with tons of nice and
       unused keys everywhere).


	      The help file for	the program.


	      The default system-wide extensions file.


	      User's  own extension, view configuration	and edit configuration
	      file.  They override the contents	of the system  wide  files  if


	      The  default  system-wide	setup for the Midnight Commander, used
	      only if the user lacks his own ~/.mc/ini file.


	      Global settings for the Midnight Commander.   Settings  in  this
	      file  are	 global	to any Midnight	Commander, it is useful	to de-
	      fine site-global terminal	settings.


	      User's own setup.	If this	file is	 present  then	the  setup  is
	      loaded from here instead of the system-wide startup file.


	      This file	contains the hints (cookies) displayed by the program.


	      This file	contains the default system-wide applications menu.


	      User's  own application menu. If this file is present it is used
	      instead of the system-wide applications menu.


	      The directory list for the directory tree	 and  tree  view  fea-
	      tures.   Each line is one	entry. The lines starting with a slash
	      are full directory names.	The lines starting with	a number  have
	      that  many  characters  equal  to	the previous directory.	If you
	      want you may create this file by	giving	the  command  "find  /
	      -type  d -print |	sort > ~/.mc.tree". Normally there is no sense
	      in doing it because the Midnight Commander automatically updates
	      this file	for you.


	      Local  user-defined menu.	If this	file is	present	it is used in-
	      stead of the home	or system-wide applications menu.

       This program is distributed under the terms of the GNU  General	Public
       License	as published by	the Free Software Foundation. See the built-in
       help for	details	on the License and the lack of warranty.

       The latest version of this program can be found at
       in the directory	/linux/local and from Europe at in
       the directory /GNU/mc and at in the	directory /lmb/mc.

       ed(1),  gpm(1),	mcserv(8),  terminfo(1),  view(1),   sh(1),   bash(1),
       tcsh(1),	zsh(1).

       The Midnight Commander page on the World	Wide Web:

       Miguel  de  Icaza  (,  Janne  Kukonlehto
       (,	  Radek	  Doulik   (,	  Fred
       Leeflang	 (,	 Dugan	Porter	(,
       Jakub	  Jelinek      (,       Ching	   Hui
       (,   Andrej  Borsenkow  (,
       Norbert	Warmuth	 (,  Mauricio  Plaza   ( and Paul Sheer ( are the developers of
       this package; Alessandro	Rubini (	has been espe-
       cially  helpful	debugging  and	enhancing the program's	mouse support,
       John Davis (	also made his S-Lang library available
       to us under the GPL and answered	my questions about it, and the follow-
       ing people have contributed code	and many bug  fixes  (in  alphabetical

       Adam   Tla/lka	(,  (Alex  I.
       Tkachenko), Antonio Palama, DOS port (,	 Erwin
       van  Eijk  (, Gerd Knorr (,
       Jean-Daniel  Luiset  (,  Jon	  Stevens   (root@dol-,	  Juan	 Francisco   Grigera,	Win32	port  (j-grig-, Juan Jose Ciarlante (, Ilya Ry-
       bkin    (,    Marcelo	  Roccasalva   (mfroc-,  Massimo	Fontanelli  (,	 Pavel
       Roskin	  (,	   Sergey    Ya.    Korshunoff
       (, Thomas Pundt (,	 Timur
       Bakeyev	   (,     Tomasz    Cholewo	  (tj-,  Torben  Fjerdingstad	(torben.fjerd-, Vadim	Sinolitis (	and Wim	Oster-
       holt (

       See the file TODO in the	distribution for information on	 what  remains
       to be done.

       If  you	want to	report a problem with the program, please send mail to
       this address:

       Provide a detailed description of the bug, the version of  the  program
       you  are	running	(mc -V display this information), the operating	system
       you are running the program on and if the program crashes, we would ap-
       preciate	a stack	trace.

				20 October 1997				 mc(1)

NAME | USAGE | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | Overview | Mouse Support | Keys | Menu Bar | Executing operating system commands | Chmod | Chown | File Operations | Mask Copy/Rename | Internal File Viewer | Internal File Editor | Completion | Virtual File System | Colors | Special Settings | Terminal databases | FILES | LICENSE | AVAILABILITY | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | BUGS

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