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MAXIMA(1)		    General Commands Manual		     MAXIMA(1)

       Maxima  -  Common  Lisp version of MACSYMA symbolic mathematics package
       released	under the GNU Public License

       rmaxima - A version of Maxima that supports command autocompletion

       Xmaxima - A graphical version of	Maxima

       maxima [options]

       rmaxima [options]

       xmaxima [options]

       Maxima is a version of the MIT-developed	MACSYMA	 system,  modified  to
       run under Common	Lisp.  It is an	interactive expert system and program-
       ming environment	for symbolic and numerical mathematical	 manipulation.
       Written	in  Lisp,  it allows differentiation, integration, solution of
       linear or polynomial equations, factoring of polynomials, expansion  of
       functions  in  Laurent or Taylor	series,	computation of Poisson series,
       matrix and tensor manipulations,	and two- and three-dimensional	graph-
       ics.   Procedures  may  be written using	an ALGOL-like syntax, and both
       Lisp-like functions  and	 pattern  matching  facilities	are  provided.
       Files  containing  Maxima  objects may be read from and written to disk
       files. Pre-written Maxima commands may be read from  a  file  and  exe-
       cuted, allowing batch-mode use.

       -b file,	--batch=file
	      Process file in noninteractive mode.

	      Process Lisp file	file in	noninteractive mode.

	      Process string in	noninteractive mode.

       -d, --directories
	      Display Maxima directory information.

	      Disable readline support.

       -g, --enable-lisp-debugger
	      Enable Lisp debugger.

       -h, --help
	      Display a	brief usage summary.

	      Load  the	 Maxima	 and  Lisp initialization files	string.mac and
	      string.lisp at startup.

	      Load the Maxima initialization file file at startup.

	      Load the Lisp initialization file	file at	startup.

       -l lisp,	--lisp=lisp
	      Use Lisp implementation lisp. Use	--list-avail to	see  the  list
	      of possible values.

	      List the available Lisp and Maxima versions.

       -p lisp_file, --preload-lisp=lisp_file
	      Preload lisp_file.

       -q, --quiet
	      Suppress Maxima start-up message.

       -r string, --run-string=string
	      Process string in	interactive mode.

       -s port,	--server=port
	      Connect  Maxima to server	on port.  Note that this does not cre-
	      ate a Maxima server; Maxima is the client.

       -u version, --use-version=version
	      Launch Maxima version version. Use --list-avail to see the  list
	      of possible values.

	      Use  directory for user directory	(default is %USERPROFILE%/max-
	      ima for Windows, $HOME/.maxima for others)

       -v, --verbose
	      Print extra information from the Maxima wrapper script.

	      Print the	(default) installed version.

	      Suppress expression labels and the Maxima	start-up message.

       -X Lisp options,	--lisp-options=Lisp options
	      Options to be given to the underlying Lisp.

       Upon initialization, maxima prints a startup message,  then  a  command
       line prompt:


       All Maxima commands must	be concluded with either:

       1)     a	 semicolon  (in	which case the result of the command is	echoed
	      on a display line, prefaced by %o	with an	appended sequence num-
	      ber), or

       2)     a	dollar sign (which suppresses printing of a display line).

       (%i1) diff(sin(x),x);

       (%o1)			     cos(x)

       (%i2) integrate(%o1,x);

       (%o2)			     sin(x)

       The  user  types	in commands which create Maxima	objects	(such as func-
       tions and system	variables) and which manipulate	these objects.

       On UNIX it may be preferable to run Maxima under	Gnu Emacs  or  XEmacs.
       You can do this by invoking shell mode in emacs,	and then invoking max-
       ima.  Preferably, install maxima.el from	the distribution and  use  the

	      M-x maxima

       The  main  advantage of working inside emacs is that it provides	a com-
       plete history of	input/output.  If you execute the command

	      display2d: false

       you will	be able	to use your output as input,  by  simply  killing  and

       Lisp  is	 built	into  Maxima.	The function to_lisp() enters the Lisp
       read-eval-print loop. The Lisp function (run) may be used to return  to
       Maxima.	Alternatively, single Lisp commands may	be invoked by starting
       a command line with :lisp.

       The reference manual can	be accessed from the Maxima input  prompt.   A
       description of a	given command can be obtained by typing	the command


       or, simply,

	? command

       The command

	?? command

       searches	the list of functions for the string command and prints	match-
       ing functions.

       Demonstration files provide complete examples of	problems  solved  with
       Maxima, and may be accessed with	the command demo(command);.  A library
       of user-contributed command files is also provided (the share library),
       directed	toward a variety of problems.

       The reference manual is provided	in both	info and html formats.

       This  list  includes only commands which	the beginner might find	useful
       to know about prior to studying the reference manual and	other texts.

	      Execute the contents of file myfile, which is assumed to contain
	      Maxima commands.

	      Close session file opened	by a writefile command (see below).

	      Execute the contents of file myfile, which is assumed to contain
	      Maxima commands, one line	at a time.

	      Print the	contents of all	of the available information lists.

	      Print a list of the names	of currently defined functions.

	      Print a list of the various available information	lists.

	      Eliminate	the object(s) contained	within parentheses;  kill(all)
	      Delete  all objects created by the user, restoring Maxima	to its
	      initial state.

	      Leave Maxima.

	      Reset all	Maxima control parameters to their default states.

	      Print a list of the names	of currently assigned scalar values.

	      Write record of session to file myfile; only one file at a  time
	      can  be open, and	the closefile command must be invoked prior to
	      leaving Maxima to	flush the buffer.

       Maxima is capable of producing 2- and 3-dimensional plots.  Here	 is  a
       simple 2-dimensional example

       plot2d (sin(x), [x, -2*%pi, 2*%pi]);

       and a simple 3-dimensional example

       plot3d (2^(-u^2 + v^2), [u, -5, 5], [v, -7, 7]);

       By  default  plots are made by the gnuplot plotting package.  Plots can
       be made by other	means; see "?  plot_options".	For  more  information
       about plotting, see "? plot".

		 Compiled files	for lisp implementation	lisp

		 primary  documentation	directory, containing info files which
		 are used for the 'describe' command, and also for viewing un-
		 der emacs or other info viewer.

		 HTML version of info documentation.

		 Maxima	demo files.

		 Elisp files for use with Emacs	or XEmacs.

		 Contributed external packages.

		 Documentation for contributed external	packages.

		 Complete Maxima source.

		 Test suite.

		 Xmaxima support files.

		 Maxima	utility	scripts.

	      Points to	a directory for	user customization files. Maxima's de-
	      fault  search  paths  include  MAXIMA_USERDIR.  Default	value:

	      Maxima  looks for	its input files	in the directory configured at
	      compile time, /usr/local.	Maxima can be relocated	to a different
	      directory	 as long as the	maxima script maintains	the same rela-
	      tive position with respect to the	Maxima input  files.  If,  for
	      some  reason,  the  maxima script	needs to be relocated indepen-
	      dently, MAXIMA_PREFIX needs to be	set to point to	the top	of the
	      tree holding the input files.

	      MAXIMA_DIRECTORY	is equivalent to MAXIMA_PREFIX.	It is included
	      only for backward	compatibility with older versions of Maxima.

       Maxima uses several other environment variables for  communication  be-
       tween  the  maxima  script and the lisp image. All such variables start
       with MAXIMA_. They should not need to be	modified by the	user.

	      maximarc is sourced by the maxima	script at startup.  It	should
	      be located in $MAXIMA_USERDIR (see above). maximarc can be used,
	      e.g., to change the user's default lisp implementation choice to
	      CMUCL by including the line "MAXIMA_LISP=cmucl".

	      At  startup,  Maxima will	load the lisp file maxima-init.lisp if
	      it is found in the search	path. For user customization,  maxima-
	      init.lisp	 should	 be placed in the $MAXIMA_USERDIR (see above).
	      Since Maxima typically has a system maxima-init.lisp in the Max-
	      ima  share  directory, the user may want to copy the contents of
	      the system maxima-init.lisp into his/her custom file.   Alterna-
	      tively,  the  user  can load a Lisp initialization file with an-
	      other name or location by	means of  the  --init-lisp  or	--init
	      command-line options.

	      At  startup,  Maxima will	load the file maxima-init.mac if it is
	      found in the  search  path.   For	 user  customization,  maxima-
	      init.mac	should	be  placed in the $MAXIMA_USERDIR (see above).
	      Alternatively, the user can load a  Maxima  initialization  file
	      with  another  name  or  location	 by means of the --init-mac or
	      --init command-line options.

       Old Reference: MACSYMA Reference	Manual (volumes	1 and 2).  The Mathlab
       Group,  Laboratory  for	Computer  Science,  MIT.  Version 10.  January

       Newer references:

       Maxima is a complex system. It includes both known  and	unknown	 bugs.
       Use at your own risk. The Maxima	bug database is	available at

       New  bug	 reports  are always appreciated. Please include the output of
       the Maxima function "build_info()" with the report.

       MACSYMA (Project	MAC's SYmbolic MAnipulation System) was	 developed  by
       the  Mathlab  group  of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (origi-
       nally known as Project MAC), during the years  1969-1972.   Their  work
       was  supported by grants	NSG 1323 of the	National Aeronautics and Space
       Administration, N00014-77-C-0641	 of  the  Office  of  Naval  Research,
       ET-78-C-02-4687	of  the	U.S. Department	of Energy, and F49620-79-C-020
       of the U.S. Air Force.  MACSYMA was further modified for	use under  the
       UNIX  operating	system	(for use on DEC	VAX computers and Sun worksta-
       tions), by Richard Fateman and colleagues at the	University of Califor-
       nia  at	Berkeley;  this	 version  of  MACSYMA is known as VAXIMA.  The
       present version stems from a re-working of the public domain  MIT  MAC-
       SYMA  for  GNU Common Lisp, prepared by William Schelter, University of
       Texas at	Austin until his passing away in 2001.	It  contains  numerous
       additions,  extensions  and enhancements	of the original.  The original
       version of this manual page was written	by  R.	P.  C.	Rodgers,  UCSF
       School	of   Pharmacy,	 San   Francisco,   CA	 94143	 (rodgers@max- in 1989. It was extensively revised by James	Amund-
       son in 2002.

       Maxima  is  now	developed  and	maintained  by	the  Maxima project at


				  2020-03-23			     MAXIMA(1)


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