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MARADNS(8)		       MaraDNS reference		    MARADNS(8)

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NAME
       maradns - DNS server

SYNOPSIS
       maradns [ -v | -f mararc_file_location ]

TABLE OF CONTENTS
       This man	page has the following sections:

	   Name
	   Synopsis
	   Table of Contents
	   Description
	   Usage
	   Firewall Configuration
	   Frequently Asked Questions
	   Bugs
	   Unimplemented Features
	   Legal Disclaimer
	   Authors

DESCRIPTION
       maradns is a DNS	server written with security, simplicity, and
       performance in mind.

       maradns has two forms of	arguments, both	of which are optional.

       The first is the	location of a mararc file which	MaraDNS	obtains	all
       configuration information from.	The default location of	this file is
       /usr/local/etc/maradns.	This is	specified in the form maradns -f
       mararc_file_location; mararc_file_location is the location of the
       mararc file.

       It is also possible to have MaraDNS display the version number and
       exit. This is specified by invoking maradns in the form maradns -v or
       maradns --version

USAGE
       MaraDNS consists	of two programs: maradns, an authoritative-only
       nameserver, and Deadwood, a recursive name server. Deadwood has its own
       man page.

       In order	for MaraDNS to function	as an authoritative nameserver,	two or
       more files need to be set up: the mararc	file and one or	more "csv2"
       (or "csv1") zone	files.

       The format of a csv2 zone file can be obtained from the csv2(5) manual
       page. The configuration format of the mararc file can be	obtained from
       the mararc(5) manual page.

       In order	to have	MaraDNS	run as a daemon, the duende program is used to
       daemonize MaraDNS. See the duende(8) manual page	for details.

FIREWALL CONFIGURATION
       When using the maradns authoritative nameserver,	allow UDP connections
       from all	hosts on the internet to UDP port 53 for the IP	that the
       authoritative nameserver	uses.

       When using the Deadwood recursive nameserver:

       * Allow UDP connections from the	Deadwood server	to any machine on the
	 internet where	the UDP	destination port is 53

       * Allow UDP connections from any	machine	on the internet	to the IP of
	 the recursive server, where the source	port from the remote server is
	 53, and the destination port is between 15000 and 19095 (inclusive)

       * Allow UDP connections from IPs	that use Deadwood as a recursive DNS
	 server	to port	53

       Deadwood	uses a strong secure RNG (RadioGatun[32]) for both the query
       (16 bits	of entropy) and	the source port	of the query (12 bits of
       entropy).  This makes spoofing replies to a Deadwood recursive server
       more difficult, since the attacker has only a one in 250	million	chance
       that a given spoofed reply will be considered valid.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
    INDEX

	   1. I'm using	an older version of MaraDNS

	   2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

	   3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

	   4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

	   5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about
	   MaraDNS!

	   6. How do I get off the mailing list?

	   7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

	   8. I	am on a	slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive
	   queries

	   9. When I try to run	MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

	   10. After I start MaraDNS, I	can not	see the	process	when I run
	   netstat -na

	   11. What string library does	MaraDNS	use?

	   12. Why does	MaraDNS	use a multi-threaded model?

	   13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

	   14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

	   15. Is there	any process I need to follow to	add a patch to
	   MaraDNS?

	   16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

	   17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

	   18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive
	   DNS server?

	   19. The getzone client isn't	allowing me to add certain hostnames
	   to my zone

	   20. Is MaraDNS portable?

	   21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

	   22. MaraDNS freezes up after	being used for a while

	   23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

	   24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

	   25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

	   26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

	   27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

	   28. How do MX records work?

	   29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

	   30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

	   31. I have a	NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

	   32. I am transferring a zone	from another server, but the NS
	   records are these strange "synth-ip"	records.

	   33. Where is	the root.hints file?

	   34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

	   35. How do I	change the compiler or compile-time flags with
	   MaraDNS' build process?

	   36. Will you	make a package for the particular Linux	distribution I
	   am using?

	   37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some
	   features are	not working.

	   38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

	   39. You make	a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT
	   department, updating	software is non-trivial.

	   40. I have star records in my zones,	and am having problems with
	   NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

	   41. I have a	zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not
	   working.

	   42. I am having problems registering	my domain with AFNIC (the
	   registrar for .fr domains)

	   43. I can't see the full answers for	subdomains I have delegated

	   44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

	   45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

	   46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious	sites?

	   47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

	   48. I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX	command	line
	   applications	like telnet

	   49. My virus	scanner	reports	that MaraDNS or	Deadwood has a virus

	   50. I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

	   51. How does	MaraDNS	respond	to EDNS	(RFC2671) packets?

	   52. How to I	get MaraDNS to always give the same IP to all DNS
	   queries?

	   53. Why did you change MaraDNS' tagline?

	   54. How do you stop MaraDNS from taking part	in a distributed
	   denial-of-service attack?

	   55. What about DNS-over-TCP?

	   56. How do I	use MaraDNS with systemd?

	   57. Why doesn't MaraDNS use IP_FREEBIND?

	   58. Is there	a web interface	for MaraDNS?

	   59. What does the message adonat forget the trailing	dota mean?

	   60. Does MaraDNS support newer top level domains?

    ANSWERS

    1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

       Upgrade to MaraDNS 2.0.	Here is	an upgrade guide.

       MaraDNS 1.4 is only supported for critical security updates; this
       support is being	phased out and MaraDNS 1 will no longer	be supported
       on June 21, 2015.

    2. How do I	try out	MaraDNS?

       Read the	quick start guide, which is the	file named 0QuickStart in the
       MaraDNS distribution.

    3. What license is MaraDNS released	under?

       MaraDNS is released with	the following two-clause BSD-type license:

	   Copyright (c) 2002-2015 Sam Trenholme and others

	   TERMS

	   Redistribution and use in source and	binary forms, with or without
	   modification, are permitted provided	that the following conditions
	   are met:

	   1. Redistributions of source	code must retain the above copyright
	   notice, this	list of	conditions and the following disclaimer.

	   2. Redistributions in binary	form must reproduce the	above
	   copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
	   disclaimer in the documentation and/or other	materials provided
	   with	the distribution.

	   This	software is provided 'as is' with no guarantees	of correctness
	   or fitness for purpose.

    4. How do I	report bugs in MaraDNS?

       Post your bug report as a Github	issue.

    5. Some of the postings to the mailing list	do not talk about MaraDNS!

       As of September 2013, the mailing list has become moderated and only
       postings	on the mailing list are	relevant MaraDNS announcements.

    6. How do I	get off	the mailing list?

       Send an email to	list-unsubscribe@maradns.org, or an email to list-
       request@maradns.org with	"unsubscribe" as the subject line.

       The mailing list	will send you an email confirming the unsubscribe
       request;	this email needs to be replied to in order to get off the
       list.

    7. How do I	set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

       Reverse DNS (sometimes called "reverse mapping")	is set up by using PTR
       (pointer) records. For example, the PTR record which performs the
       reverse DNS lookup for the ip 10.2.3.4 looks like this in a CSV2	zone
       file:

	   4.3.2.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR www.example.com.

       It is also possible to use a special "FQDN4" which automatically	sets
       up the reverse mapping of a given record:

	   www.example.com. FQDN4 10.2.3.4

       If you wish to have a PTR (reverse DNS lookup; getting a	DNS name from
       a numeric IP) record work on the	internet at large, it is not a simple
       matter of just adding a record like this	to a MaraDNS zonefile. One
       also needs control of the appropriate in-addr.arpa. domain.

       While it	could make logical sense to contact the	IP 10.11.12.13 when
       trying to get the reverse DNS lookup (fully qualified domain name) for
       a given IP, DNS servers don't do	this. DNS server, instead, contact the
       root DNS	servers	for a given in-addr.arpa name to get the reverse DNS
       lookup, just like they do with any other	record type.

       When an internet	service	provider is given a block of IPs, they are
       also given control of the DNS zones which allow them to control reverse
       DNS lookups for those IPs. While	it is possible to obtain a domain and
       run a DNS server	without	the knowledge or intervention of an ISP, being
       able to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs requires ISP
       intervention.

    8. I am on a slow network, and Deadwood can	not process recursive queries

       Deadwood, by default, only waits	two seconds for	a reply	from a remote
       DNS server. This	default	can be increased by adding a line like this in
       the mararc file:

	   timeout_seconds = 5

       Note that making	this too high will slow	MaraDNS	down when DNS servers
       are down, which is, alas, all too common	on today's internet.

    9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get	a cryptic error	message.

       There is	usually	some context of	where there is a syntax	error in a
       data file before	the cryptic error message. For example,	when there is
       a syntax	error in a csv2	zone file, MaraDNS will	tell you exactly at
       what point it had to terminate parsing of the zone file.

       If MaraDNS does return a	cryptic	error message without letting you know
       what is wrong, let us know in a Github issue so that we can fix the
       bug. MaraDNS is designed	to be easy to use; cryptic error messages go
       against this spirit.

    10.	After I	start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I	run netstat
    -na

       Udp services do not have	a prominent "LISTEN" when netstat is run.

       When MaraDNS is up, the relevant	line in	the netstat output looks like
       this: udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:*

       While on	the topic of netstat, if you run netstat -nap as root on Linux
       and some	other *nix operating systems, you can see the names of the
       processes which are providing internet services.

    11.	What string library does MaraDNS use?

       MaraDNS uses its	own string library, which is called the	"js_string"
       library.	Man pages for most of the functions in the js_string library
       are in the folder doc/man of the	MaraDNS	distribution

    12.	Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

       MaraDNS 2.0 no longer uses threads.

       It took me three	years to rewrite MaraDNS' recursive resolver as	a
       separate	non-threaded daemon. This has been done, and now all recursion
       is done with Deadwood which does	not need threads.

    13.	I feel that XXX	feature	should be added	to MaraDNS

       There are no plans to add new features to MaraDNS or Deadwood at	this
       time.

    14.	I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

       The reason that MaraDNS uses its	own documentation format is to satisfy
       both the	needs of translators to	have a unified document	format and my
       own need	to use a documentation format that is simple enough to be
       readily understood and which I can add features on an as	needed basis.

       The documentation format	is essentially simplified HTML with some
       special tags added to meet MaraDNS' special needs.

       This gives me more flexibility to adapt the documentation format	to
       changing	needs. For example, when someone pointed out that it's not a
       good idea to have man pages with	hi-bit characters, it was a simple
       matter to add a new HIBIT tag which allows man pages to be without hi-
       bit characters, and other document formats to retain hi-bit characters.

       Having a	given program have its own documentation format	is not without
       precedent; Perl uses its	own "pod" documentation	format.

    15.	Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to	MaraDNS?

       I no longer accept third	party patches

    16.	Can MaraDNS act	as a primary nameserver?

       Yes.

       The zoneserver program serves zones so that other DNS servers can be
       secondaries for zones which MaraDNS serves. This	is a separate program
       from the	maradns	server,	which processes	authoritative UDP DNS queries,
       and Deadwood which processes recursive DNS queries.

       See the DNS master document in the MaraDNS tutorial for details.

    17.	Can MaraDNS act	as a secondary nameserver?

       Yes.

       Please read the DNS slave document, which is part of the	MaraDNS
       tutorial.

    18.	What is	the difference between an authoritative	and a recursive	DNS
    server?

       A recursive DNS server is a DNS server that is able to contact other
       DNS servers in order to resolve a given domain name label. This is the
       kind of DNS server one points to	in /etc/resolv.conf. MaraDNS uses the
       Deadwood	daemon to process recursive DNS	queries.

       An authoritative	DNS server is a	DNS server that	a recursive server
       contacts	in order to find out the answer	to a given DNS query. The
       maradns daemon processes	authoritative DNS queries.

    19.	The fetchzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames	to my
    zone

       For security reasons, MaraDNS' fetchzone	client does not	add records
       which are not part of the zone in question. For example,	if someone has
       a zone for example.com, and this	record in the zone:

       1.1.1.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR dns.example.com.

       MaraDNS will not	add the	record,	since the record is out-of-bailiwick.
       In other	words, it is a host name that does not end in .example.com.

       There are two workarounds for this issue:

       * Create	a zone file for	1.1.10.in-addr.arpa., and put the PTR records
	 there.

       * Use rcp, rsync, or another method to copy over	the zone files in
	 question.

    20.	Is MaraDNS portable?

       MaraDNS is developed in CentOS 6	and Windows 7.	MaraDNS	may or may not
       compile and run on other	systems.

    21.	Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

       Yes. There is both a partial mingw32 (native win32 binary) port and a
       full Cygwin port	of MaraDNS; both of these ports	are part of the	native
       build of	MaraDNS. Deadwood has full Windows support, including the
       ability to run as a service.

    22.	MaraDNS	freezes	up after being used for	a while

       If using	your ISP's name	servers	or some	other name servers which are
       not, in fact, root name servers,	please make sure that you are using
       the upstream_servers dictionary variable	instead	of the root_servers
       dictionary variable.

       If you still see	MaraDNS	freeze up after	making this correction,	please
       send a bug report as a Github issue.

    23.	What kind of Python integration	does MaraDNS have

       The mararc file uses the	same syntax that Python	uses; in fact, Python
       can parse a properly formatted mararc file.

       There is	no other integration with Python.

    24.	Doesn't	"kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

       Indeed, it does.	However	the use	of "kvar" in the MaraDNS source	code
       only coincidentally is an Esperanto word. "kvar"	is short for "Kiwi
       variable"; a lot	of the parsing code comes from the code	used in	the
       Kiwi spam filter	project.

    25.	How scalable is	MaraDNS?

       MaraDNS is optimized for	serving	a small	number of domains as quickly
       as possible. That said, MaraDNS is remarkably efficnent for serving a
       large number of domains,	as long	as the server MaraDNS is on has	the
       memory to fit all of the	domains, and as	long as	the startup time for
       loading a large number of domains can be	worked around.

       The "big-O" or "theta" growth rates for various MaraDNS functions are
       as follows, where N is the number of authoritative host names being
       served:

       Startup time			       N
       Memory usage			       N
       Processing incoming DNS requests	       1

       As can be seen, MaraDNS will process 1 or 100000	domains	in the same
       amount of time, once the	domain names are loaded	in to memory.

    26.	I am having problems setting upstream_servers

       upstream_servers	is only	supported by Deadwood, and is no longer
       supported in MaraDNS 2.0.  The upstream_servers dwood3rc	variable is
       set thusly:

	   upstream_servers["."] = "10.3.28.79,	10.2.19.83"

       Note the	["."].

       Note that the upstream_servers variable needs to	be initialized before
       being used via upstream_servers = {} (the reason	for this is so that a
       dwood3rc	file has 100% Python-compatible	syntax). A complete dwood3rc
       file that uses upstream_servers may look	like this:

       ipv4_bind_addresses = "127.0.0.1"
       chroot_dir = "/usr/local/etc/maradns"
       recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8"
       upstream_servers	= {}
       upstream_servers["."] = "10.1.2.3, 10.2.4.6"

    27.	Why doesn't the	MaraDNS.org web	page validate?

       HTML pages on the MaraDNS.org web site should validate as HTML 4.0
       Transitional. However, the CSS will not validate.

       I have designed MaraDNS'	web page to be usable and as attractive	as
       possible	in any major browser released in the last ten years. Cross-
       browser support is more important than strict W3	validation. The	reason
       why the CSS does	not validate is	because	I need a way to	make sure
       there is	always a scrollbar on the web page, even if the	content	is not
       big enough to merit one;	this is	to avoid the content jumping from page
       to page.	There is no standard CSS tag that lets me do this. I'm using a
       non-standard tag	to enable this in Gecko	(Firefox's rendering engine);
       this is enabled by default in Trident (Internet Explorer's rendering
       engine).	The standards are deficient and	blind adherence	to them	would
       result in an inferior web site.

       There are also two validation warnings generated	by redefinitions which
       are needed as part of the CSS filters used to make the site attractive
       on older	browsers with limited CSS support.

       On a related note, the reason why I use tables instead of CSS for some
       of the layout is	because	Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 and other
       browsers	do not have support for	the max-width CSS property. Without
       this property, the web page will	not scale down correctly without using
       tables.	Additionally, tables allow a reasonably	attractive header in
       browsers	without	CSS support.

    28.	How do MX records work?

       How MX records work:

       * The mail transport agent (Sendmail, Postfix, Qmail, MS	Exchange,
	 etc.)	looks up the MX	record for the domain

       * For each of the records returned, the MTA (mail transport agent)
	 looks up the IP for the names.

       * It will choose, at random, any	of the MXes with the lowest priority
	 number.

       * Should	that server fail, it will try another server with the same
	 priority number.

       * Should	all MX records with a given priority number fail, the MTA will
	 try sending email to any of the MX records with the second-lowest
	 priority value.

       As an aside, do not have	MX records point to CNAMEs.

    29.	Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

       SPF, or sender policy framework,	is method of using DNS that makes it
       more difficult to forge email. MaraDNS has full support for SPF,	both
       via TXT records and RFC4408 SPF records.

       SPF configuration is beyond the scope of	MaraDNS' documentation.
       However,	at the time this FAQ entry was last updated (July, 2013),
       information and documentation concerning	SPF is available at
       http://openspf.org. The BIND examples will work in MaraDNS csv2 zone
       files as	long as	the double quotes (") are replaced by single quotes
       ('). For	example, a SPF TXT record that looks like example.net. IN TXT
       "v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all" in a BIND zone file will	look
       like example.net. TXT 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all' in	a
       MaraDNS zone file. MaraDNS can also make	the corresponding SPF record,
       which will have the syntax example.net. SPF 'v=spf1 +mx
       a:colo.example.com/28 -all'.

       Use '\x7e' to put a tilde ("~" character) in a SPF record:

       example.com. SPF	'v=spf1	+mx a:colo.example.com/28 '\x7e'all'

    30.	I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set	up.

       This is probably	because	you have set up	what MaraDNS calls a dangling
       CNAME record.

       Let us suppose we have a	CNAME record without an	A record in the	local
       DNS server's database, such as:

	    google.example.com.	CNAME www.google.com.

       This record, which is a CNAME record for	"google.example.com", points
       to "www.google.com". Some DNS servers will recursively look up
       www.google.com, and render the above record like	this:

	    google.example.com.	CNAME www.google.com.
	    www.google.com. A 66.102.7.104

       For security reasons, MaraDNS doesn't do	this. Instead, MaraDNS will
       simply output:

	    google.example.com.	CNAME www.google.com.

       Some stub resolvers will	be unable to resolve google.example.com	as a
       consequence.

       If you set up MaraDNS to	resolve	CNAMEs thusly, you will	get a warning
       in your logs about having a dangling CNAME record.

       If you want to remove these warnings, add the following to your mararc
       file:

	    no_cname_warnings =	1

       Information about how to	get MaraDNS to resolve dangling	CNAME records
       is in the tutorial file dangling.html

    31.	I have a NS delegation,	and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

       This is only an issue in	MaraDNS	1.4. MaraDNS 2.0 does not allow	the
       same IP to both authoritatively and recursively resolve records.

    32.	I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records are
    these strange "synth-ip" records.

       MaraDNS expects,	in csv2	zone files, for	all delegation NS records to
       be between the SOA record and the first non-NS record.

       If a zone looks like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       mail.example.net. +600 a	10.2.3.7
       www.example.net.	+600 a 10.2.3.11

       Then the	NS records will	be "synth-ip" records.

       The zone	should look like this:

       example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
       hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
       example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
       example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
       example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
       example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
       mail.example.net. +600 a	10.2.3.7
       www.example.net.	+600 a 10.2.3.11

       This will remove	the "synth-ip" records.

       To automate this	process, this awk script is useful:

       fetchzone whatever.zone.foo 10.1.2.3 | awk '
       {if($3 ~	/ns/ ||	$3 ~ /soa/){print}
       else{a =	a "\n" $0}}
       END{print a}' > zonefile.csv2

       Replace "whatever.zone.foo" with	the name of the	zone you are fetchin
       10.1.2.3	with the IP address of the DNS master, and zonefile.csv2 with
       the name	of the zone file MaraDNS loads.

    33.	Where is the root.hints	file?

       MaraDNS (actually, Deadwood), unlike BIND, does not need	a complicated
       root.hints file in order	to have	custom root servers. In	order to
       change the root.hints file, add something like this to your dwood3rc
       file:

       root_servers["."] =  "131.161.247.232,"
       root_servers["."] += "208.185.249.250,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.140,"
       root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.149,"
       root_servers["."] += "65.243.92.254"

       Note that there is no "+=" in the first line, and the last line does
       not have	a comma	at the end. Read the recursive tutorial	document for
       more information.

    34.	Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

       No.

       In more detail, MaraDNS does not	use autoconf for the following
       reasons:

       * Autoconf is designed to solve a problem that existed in the mid 1990s
	 but does not exist today: A large number of different incompatible C
	 compilers and libc implementations. These days, most systems are
	 using gcc as the compiler and some version of glibc as	the libc.
	 There is no longer a need, for	example, to figure out whether a given
	 implementation	of getopt() allows '--'	options.  MaraDNS's
	 ./configure script can	be run in only a second	or two;	compare	this
	 to the	3-5 minute process autoconf's ./configure needs.

       * Autoconf leaves GPL-tained files in a program's build tree. MaraDNS
	 is licensed under a BSD license that is not GPL-compatible, so
	 MaraDNS can not be distributed	with these GPL-licensed	files.

       This leads us to	the next question:

    35.	How do I change	the compiler or	compile-time flags with	MaraDNS' build
    process?

       To change the compiler used by MaraDNS:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with	an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with CC

       * If there is no	line that starts with CC, create one just before the
	 line that starts with FLAGS

       * Change	(or create) that line to look something	like CC=gcc296 In this
	 example, the 2.96 version of gcc is used to compile MaraDNS.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you
	 do not	understand; doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or
	 run. So, if the CC line looks like
	 CC=gcc $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK	and you	want to	compile	with
	 gcc 2.96, change the line to look like
	 CC=gcc296 $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK retaining the flags added
	 by the	configuration script.

       Changing	compile-time flags is a	similar	process:

       * Run the ./configure script

       * Open up the file Makefile with	an editor

       * Look for a line that starts with FLAGS

       * Change	(or create) that line to look something	like FLAGS=-O3 In this
	 example, MaraDNS is compiled with the -O3 option.

       * Note that it is important to not remove anything from this line you
	 do not	understand; doing so will make MaraDNS unable to compile or
	 run. So, if the FLAGS line looks like
	 FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM and	you want to compile at
	 optimization level three, change this line to look like
	 FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM retaining the flags	added
	 by the	configuration script. -DSELECT_PROBLEM for example, is needed
	 in the	Linux compile or MaraDNS will have problems with freezing up.

    36.	Will you make a	package	for the	particular Linux distribution I	am
    using?

       No.

       There is, however, a CentOS 5-compatible	RPM spec file in the build
       directory.

    37.	I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some	features are
    not	working.

       Since Windows 32	does not have some features that *NIX OSes have, the
       native Windows port does	not have all of	the features of	the *NIX
       version of MaraDNS. In particular, the following	features are disabled:

       * ipv6 (this is actually	a mingw32, not a Windows deficiency)

       * The chroot_dir	mararc variable

       * The maradns_gid and maradns_uid mararc	variables

       * The maxprocs mararc variable

       * The synth_soa_serial variable can not have a value of 2

       * There is no DNS-over-TCP support

       If any of the above features are	desired, try compiling MaraDNS using
       Cygwin. Note that the Cygwin port of MaraDNS does not have ipv6
       support,	and that while chroot_dir works	in Cygwin, it does not have
       the security that the *NIX chroot() call	has.

    38.	MaraDNS	isn't starting up

       This is usually caused by a syntax error	in one's mararc	file, or by
       another MaraDNS process already running.	To see what is happening, look
       at your system log (/var/log/messages in	Centos 3) to see what errors
       MaraDNS reports.	If you do not know how to look at a system log,	you
       can also	invoke MaraDNS from the	command	line as	root; any errors will
       be visible when starting	MaraDNS.

    39.	You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT department,
    updating software is non-trivial.

       Regularly updating software is required to keep something as
       complicated as a	DNS server secure; there is not	a DNS server out there
       so secure that it never needs to	be updated.

       Since MaraDNS is	finished, updates usually only happen about once a
       year.

       The last	security bug which required a MaraDNS update was made before
       January 30, 2015.

    40.	I have star records in my zones, and am	having problems	with
    NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

       This was	a bug in MaraDNS 1.2 which has long since been fixed.

    41.	I have a zone with only	SOA/NS records,	and the	zone is	not working.

       MaraDNS 1.2 had a bug where it did not correctly	process	zones without
       any "normal" records. Upgrade to	MaraDNS	2.0.

    42.	I am having problems registering my domain with	AFNIC (the registrar
    for	.fr domains)

       Because of an issue with	AFNIC (who, annoyingly enough, check the RA
       bit when	registering a domain), in order	to register a domain with
       AFNIC using MaraDNS as your DNS server, the following steps need	to be
       followed:

       * MaraDNS version 1.4 or	2.0 needs to be	used; if you're	using an older
	 version of MaraDNS, upgrade.

       * It is necessary to have recursion disabled, if	using MaraDNS 1.4,
	 either	by compiling MaraDNS without recursive support (./configure
	 --authonly ; make), or	by making sure MaraDNS does not	have recursion
	 enabled (by not having	recursive_acl set in one's MaraDNS 1.4 mararc
	 file)

       If one wishes to	both register domains with AFNIC and use MaraDNS 1.4
       as a recursive DNS server, it is	required to have the recursive server
       be a separate instance of MaraDNS on a separate IP. It is not possible
       to have the same	DNS server both	send DNS packets in a way that both
       makes AFNIC happy and allows recursive queries.

       Note also: AFNIC	gives warnings about reverse DNS lookups; more
       information about this issue can	be found in the	FAQ entry about
       reverse DNS mappings (question 7). In addition, AFNIC requires DNS-
       over-TCP	to work; information on	configuring MaraDNS to have this can
       be found	in the DNS-over-TCP tutorial.

    43.	I can't	see the	full answers for subdomains I have delegated

       To have the subdomains be visible to MaraDNS 1.4	recursive nameservers,
       add the following to your mararc	file:

       recurse_delegation = 1

    44.	MaraDNS	1 has a	problem	resolving a domain

       This issue should be fixed in MaraDNS 2.0.

       Here's what happening: I	have rewritten the recursive resolver for
       MaraDNS.	 The old code was always designed to be	a placeholder until I
       wrote a new recursive resolver.

       The new recursive resolver is called "Deadwood";	right now it's fully
       functional and part of MaraDNS 2.0. More	information is here:

       http://maradns.blogspot.com/search/label/Deadwood

       http://maradns.samiam.org/deadwood/

       Since the old recursive code is a bit difficult to maintain, and	since
       I in the	process	of rewriting the recursive code, my rule is that I
       will only resolve security issues with MaraDNS 1.0's recursive
       resolver.

    45.	MaraDNS	1.2 had	issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

       There was a known bug in	MaraDNS	1.2.12 where, should a client ask for
       a non-existent record in	all caps, MaraDNS 1.2.12 will return a
       NXDOMAIN	instead	of a "not there" reply.	Upgrade	to 2.0.

    46.	Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

       Deadwood	can block up to	about 20,000 domains.  More details are	in the
       Deadwood	FAQ.

    47.	Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

       Yes.

       MaraDNS supports	both having stars at the beginning of records and the
       end of records. For example, to have anything.example.com.  have	the IP
       10.1.2.3, add this line to the zone file	for example.com:

       *.example.com. A	10.1.2.3

       To have stars at	the end	of records, csv2_default_zonefile has to be
       set. The	mararc parameter bind_star_handling affects how	star records
       are handled. More information is	in the mararc man page.

    48.	I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX command line
    applications like telnet.

       Some *NIX command line networking applications, such as telnet and ssh,
       try to do either	a reverse DNS lookup (IP-to-host name conversion) or
       an IPv6 lookup. This slows things down and sometimes causes the
       applications to not work	at all.

       For people who do not need IPv6 lookups,	add the	following line to
       one's mararc file to have MaraDNS respond to all	IPv6 lookups with a
       bogus "not found" reply:

       reject_aaaa = 1

       If knowing the hostname a given IP has isn't important, these kinds of
       lookups can also	be disabled:

       reject_ptr = 1

    49.	My virus scanner reports that MaraDNS or Deadwood has a	virus

       This can	be caused either by a poorly written anti-virus	program
       reporting a false positive, or because a	virus on your system has
       infected	your copy of MaraDNS/Deadwood.

       Please use GPG to verify	that the file which your scanner reports
       having a	virus in has not been altered.	In addition, please scan the
       file with AVG (free for non-commercial use) to verify your virus
       scanner has not reported	a false	positive.

       If you have verified the	GPG signature of the program and AVG reports a
       virus, please let us know with a	Github issue.  Otherwise, please use a
       better virus scanner and	make sure there	are no viruses on your
       computer.

    50.	I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

       Please note that	the mailing list is no longer used to handle MaraDNS
       support requests. Please	file a Github issue at
       https://github.com/samboy/MaraDNS/issues	to file	a MaraDNS bug report.

       The procedure for subscribing to	the mailing list is as follows:

       * Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with	"Subscribe" as the
	 subject, or an	email to list-subscribe@maradns.org

       * You will get an email from list-request@maradns.org asking you	to
	 confirm your subscription. This can be	done by	replying to the
	 message, or, more simply, by clicking on the link in the message.

       * Once you click	on that	link, click on the button marked "subscribe to
	 list list"

       * You will now get a message stating 'Welcome to	the "list" mailing
	 list'.

       * Note that the mailing list is moderated and only relevant MaraDNS
	 announcements are approved. People who	need help should read the
	 manuals or search the MaraDNS webpage for support.

       If you get an email from	list-request@maradns.org with the subject "The
       results of your email commands",	you did	not correctly send an email to
       list-request@maradns.org	with the subject "Subscribe".

       If you do not get the email from	list-request@maradns.org asking	you
       for a confirmation, ensure that this email is not in your "spam"	or
       "junk mail" folder. If you are unable to	get these emails at your email
       address,	please get a gmail email account, which	can successfully
       subscribe to the	MaraDNS	mailing	list. Note that	subscription
       confirmation emails may be in Gmail's "promotions" tab.

    51.	How does MaraDNS respond to EDNS (RFC2671) packets?

       MaraDNS 2 (both the authoritative maradns server	and the	recursive
       Deadwood	server)	responds to EDNS packets by ignoring the OPT record
       and acting as if	it the packet did not have an OPT record.

       MicroDNS	(available in the tools/misc directory of any MaraDNS 2
       release)	responds to EDNS queries the same way Deadwood 2.9.03 did: By
       giving back "NOTIMPL" instead of	answering the query with the default
       IP. NanoDNS, in the interest of minimizing code side, responds to EDNS
       requests	by returning NOTIMPL in	the header, giving the OPT query in
       the AN section of the response, and giving the default IP in the	AR
       section of the DNS reply	packet.

    52.	How to I get MaraDNS to	always give the	same IP	to all DNS queries?

       There are three ways to have MaraDNS always give	the same IP in reply
       to any DNS query	given to it:

       * The best way to do this is to set up a	default	zonefile that causes
	 any and all A queries to always give the IP (and also allows all AAAA
	 queries to always give	out the	same IP6, all SPF or TXT queries to
	 give out the same SPF record, etc.).

       * Another possibility, if someone just wants a simple DNS server	that
	 always	gives out the same IP address to any and all DNS queries, is
	 to use	the MicroDNS program, available	in tools/misc, as well as
	 having	its own	web page.

       * If MicroDNS is	too bloated, there is also NanoDNS, which I will
	 include the source code of below:

       /*Placed	in the public domain by	Sam Trenholme*/
       #include	<arpa/inet.h>
       #include	<string.h>
       #include	<stdint.h>
       #define Z struct	sockaddr
       #define Y sizeof(d)
       int main(int a,char **b){uint32_t i;char	q[512]
       ,p[17]="\xc0\f\0\x01\0\x01\0\0\0\0\0\x04";if(a>
       1){struct sockaddr_in d;socklen_t f=511;bzero(&
       d,Y);a=socket(AF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0);*((uint32_t
       *)(p+12))=inet_addr(b[1]);d.sin_family=AF_INET;
       d.sin_port=htons(53);bind(a,(Z*)&d,Y);for(;;){i
       =recvfrom(a,q,255,0,(Z*)&d,&f);if(i>9&&q[2]>=0)
       {q[2]|=128;q[11]?q[3]|=4:1;q[7]++;memcpy(q+i,p,
       16);sendto(a,q,i+16,0,(Z*)&d,Y);}}}return 0;}

       NanoDNS takes one argument: The IP we return. This program binds	to all
       IP addresses a given machine has	on the UDP DNS port (port 53). For
       example,	to make	a DNS server that binds	to all IPs your	system has and
       return the IP 10.11.12.13 to any	UDP DNS	queries	sent to	it, compile
       the above C program, call it NanoDNS, and invoke	it with	NanoDNS
       10.11.12.13 Note	that NanoDNS does not daemonize, nor log anything, nor
       have any	other space-wasting features.

    Why	did you	change MaraDNS'	tagline?

       I have changed MaraDNS' tagline from "MaraDNS: A	security-aware DNS
       server" to "MaraDNS: A small open-source	DNS server" because MaraDNS
       does not	support	DNSSEC.	I have blogged about this:

	   http://samiam.org/blog/20120326.html

    How	do you stop MaraDNS from taking	part in	a distributed denial-of-
    service attack?

       While I do not have time	to implement rate limiting, CentOS 6 does
       support response	rate limiting at the firewall level.  The following
       iptables	commands allow a given IP to only send MaraDNS/Deadwood	20 DNS
       queries every four seconds:

       iptables	-A INPUT -p udp	--dport	53 -m state --state NEW	-m recent
       --set --name DDOS --rsource

       iptables	-A INPUT -p udp	--dport	53 -m state --state NEW	-m recent
       --update	--seconds 4 --hitcount 20 --name DDOS --rsource	-j DROP

       To verify they are applied:

       iptables	--list

       To save these commands in CentOS	so they	are applied at system boot
       time:

       iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables

       Disclaimer

       These incantations work in CentOS 6 but may or may not work in other
       versions	of Linux. I do not support non-CentOS6 Linux installs of
       MaraDNS.

    What about DNS-over-TCP?

       For people who want DNS-over-TCP, instructions are in the DNS-over-TCP
       tutorial. Note that Windows users will have to use Cygwin to have DNS-
       over-TCP.

       However,	DNS-over-TCP is	not necessary. DNS-over-TCP is optional	as per
       section 6.1.3.2 of RFC1123; any program or web service that considers
       no DNS-over-TCP an error	is not RFC-compliant.

       Not having DNS-over-TCP is more secure, because it gives	attackers a
       smaller surface to attack.

    How	do I use MaraDNS with systemd?

       While I like systemd, it	is not part of CentOS 6	nor, obviously,
       Windows 7. That in mind,	I have no plans	to support systemd until 2017,
       when I plan to update MaraDNS' supported	operating systems.

       However,	Tomasz Torcz has kindly	made some systemd files	for MaraDNS,
       which people are	free to	use.

       As an aside, I do not like the fact that	Debian will probably not make
       systemd the default init; I do not think	this kind of fragmentation is
       good for	Linux.

    Why	doesn't	MaraDNS	use IP_FREEBIND?

       IP_FREEBIND is a	non-POSIX Linux-specific extension to POSIX's
       netinet/in.h, and, as such, has no place	in MaraDNS' code. MaraDNS
       strives to use POSIX-compliant calls so that it can compile on as many
       systems as possible.

       When I say that Windows 7 and CentOS 6 are the only supported operating
       systems for MaraDNS, this does not mean that MaraDNS will not compile
       and run on other	systems; it merely means that I	can not	provide
       support for Github bug reports for people who want to run MaraDNS in
       Minix, one of the open-source BSD variants, or what not.

    Is there a web interface for MaraDNS?

       The Kloxo-MR control panel has MaraDNS support.

    What does the message ^adon^at forget	the trailing dot^a mean?

       It means	to not forget the tailing dot.

       Hostnames in zone files need to be properly terminated; if a hostname
       is in the form afoo.example.coma, this name will	not parse and return
       an error	with a note to not forget the trailing dot.

       To fix this, put	a trailing dot at the end of the hostname, so it looks
       like afoo.example.com.a (observe	that dot at the	end) instead of
       afoo.example.coma

    Does MaraDNS support newer top level domains?

       MaraDNS does not	impose any limitations on the top level	domain used in
       zone files and other places, as is fully	compatible with	newer top
       level domains like atoday.a

       Note that, if using an internationalized	domain name, it	needs to be
       translated in to	Punycode first.	For example, if	using the domain name
       aA+-.com.a, it needs to be in the form axn--ida.com.a in	MaraDNSa
       mararc and zone files.

BUGS
       In the unusual case of having a csv2 zone file with Macintosh-style
       newlines	(as opposed to DOS or UNIX newlines), while the	file will
       parse, any errors in the	file will be reported as being on line 1.

       The system startup script included with MaraDNS assumes that the	only
       MaraDNS processes running are started by	the script; it stops all
       MaraDNS processes running on the	server when asked to stop MaraDNS.

       MaraDNS needs to	use the	zoneserver program to serve DNS	records	over
       TCP. See	zoneserver(8) for usage	information.

       MaraDNS does not	use the	zone file ("master file") format specified in
       chapter 5 of RFC1035; however bind2csv2.py can convert the majority of
       such zone files.

       MaraDNS default behavior	with star records is not RFC-compliant.	 In
       more detail, if a wildcard MX record exists in the form
       "*.example.com",	and there is an	A record for "www.example.com",	but no
       MX record for "www.example.com",	the correct behavior (based on RFC1034
       section 4.3.3) is to return "no host" (nothing in the answer section,
       SOA in the authority section, 0 result code) for	a MX request to
       "www.example.com".  Instead, MaraDNS returns the	MX record attached to
       "*.example.com".	 This can be changed by	setting	bind_star_handling to
       1.

       Star records (what RFC1034 calls	"wildcards") can not be	attached to NS
       records.

       MaraDNS,	like every other known DNS implementation, only	supports a
       QDCOUNT of 0 or 1.

UNIMPLEMENTED FEATURES
       These are features which	I do not plan to implement in MaraDNS.

       MaraDNS does not	have a disk-based caching scheme for authoritative
       zones.

       MaraDNS'	UDP server only	loads zone files while MaraDNS is first
       started.	 UDP Zone information can only be updated by stopping MaraDNS,
       and restarting MaraDNS again. Note that TCP zone	files are loaded from
       the filesystem at the time the client requests a	zone.

       MaraDNS does not	have support for allowing given	host names to only
       resolve for a limited range of IPs querying the DNS server, or for host
       names to	resolve	differently, depending on the IP querying the host
       name.

       MaraDNS only allows wildcards at	the beginning or end of	a host name.
       E.g. names with wildcards like "foo.*.example.com". "www.*" will	work,
       however,	if a default zonefile is set up. Likewise, MaraDNS does	not
       have regular expression hostname	substitution.

       MaraDNS does not	have support for MRTG or any other SNMP-based logging
       mechanism.

LEGAL DISCLAIMER
       THIS SOFTWARE IS	PROVIDED BY THE	AUTHORS	''AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
       DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
       ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR	CONSEQUENTIAL
       DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
       OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
       HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY	OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
       STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
       IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN	IF ADVISED OF THE
       POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

AUTHORS
       Sam Trenholme (http://www.samiam.org) is	responsible for	this man page.

       MaraDNS is written by me, Sam Trenholme,	with a little help from	my
       friends.	Naturally, all errors in MaraDNS are my	own (but read the
       disclaimer above).

       Here is a partial list of people	who have provided assistance:

       Floh has	generously set up a FreeBSD 4, FreeBSD 6, and Mac OS X system
       so that I can port MaraDNS to more platforms.

       Albert Lee has provided countless bug reports, and, nicely enough,
       patches to fix said bugs. He has	also made improvements to the code in
       the tcp "zoneserver".

       Franky Van Liedekerke has provided much invaluable assistance. As just
       one example, he provided	invaluable assistance in getting MaraDNS to
       compile on Solaris. In addition,	he has provided	much valuable SQA
       help.

       Christian Kurz, who has provided	invaluable bug reports,	especially
       when I had to re-implement the core hashing algorithm.

       Remmy, who is providing both the	web space and a	mailing	list for
       maradns.org.

       Phil Homewood, who provided invaluable assistance with finding and
       fixing bugs in the authoritative	portion	of the MaraDNS server. He
       helped me plug memory leaks, find uninitialized variables being used,
       and found a number of bugs I was	unable to find.

       Albert Prats kindly provided Spanish translations for various text
       files.

       Shin Zukeran provided a patch to	recursive.c which properly makes a
       normal null-terminated string from a js_string object, to send as an
       argument	to open() so we	can get	the rijndael key for the PRNG.

       D Richard Felker	III has	provided invaluable bug	reports. By looking at
       his bug reports,	I have been able to hunt down and fix many problems
       that the	recursive nameserver had, in addition to at least one problem
       with the	authoritative nameserver.

       Ole Tange has also given	me many	valuable MaraDNS bug reports.

       Florin Iucha provided a tip in the FAQ for how to compile MaraDNS on
       OpenBSD.

       Roy Arends (one of the BIND developers, as it turns out)	found a
       serious security	problem	with MaraDNS, where MaraDNS would answer
       answers,	and pointed it out to me.

       Code used as the	basis for the psudo-random-number generator was
       written by Vincent Rijmen, Antoon Bosselaers, and Paulo Barreto.	I
       appreciate these	programmers making the code public domain, which is
       the only	license	under which I can add code to MaraDNS under.

       Ross Johnson and	others have made a Win32 port of the Pthreads library;
       this has	made a native win32 port of MaraDNS possible.

       I also appreciate the work of Dr. Brian Gladman and Fritz Schneider,
       who have	both written independent implementations of AES	from which I
       obtained	test vectors. With the help of their hard work,	I was able to
       discover	a subtle security problem that previous	releases of MaraDNS
       had.

MARADNS				 January 2002			    MARADNS(8)

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