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MAP(1)			    General Commands Manual			MAP(1)

       map, mapdemo, mapd - draw maps on various projections

       map projection [	option ...  ]


       Map  prepares  on the standard output a map suitable for	display	by any
       plotting	filter described in plot(1).  A	menu of	 projections  is  pro-
       duced  in response to an	unknown	projection.  Mapdemo is	a short	course
       in mapping.

       The default data	for map	are world shorelines.  Option -f accesses more
       detailed	data classified	by feature.

       -f [ feature ...	]
	      Features	are  ranked  1	(default)  to  4  from major to	minor.
	      Higher-numbered ranks include all	lower-numbered ones.  Features

		     seacoasts,	 lakes,	 and  islands;	option -f always shows

		     intermittent lakes


		     intermittent rivers

		     3=irrigation canals





		     2=disputed	boundaries, 3=indefinite boundaries

	      state  states and	provinces (US and Canada only)

       In other	options	coordinates are	in degrees, with  north	 latitude  and
       west longitude counted as positive.

       -l S N E	W
       Set the southern	and northern latitude and the eastern and western lon-
       gitude limits.  Missing arguments are filled out	from the list -90, 90,
       -180, 180, or lesser limits suitable to the projection at hand.

       -k S N E	W
       Set the scale as	if for a map with limits -l S N	E W .  Do not consider
       any -l or -w option in setting scale.

       -o lat lon rot
       Orient the map in a nonstandard position.  Imagine a transparent	 grid-
       ded  sphere around the globe.  Turn the overlay about the North Pole so
       that the	Prime Meridian (longitude 0) of	 the  overlay  coincides  with
       meridian	 lon  on  the  globe.  Then tilt the North Pole	of the overlay
       along its Prime Meridian	to latitude lat	on the globe.	Finally	 again
       turn  the overlay about its `North Pole'	so that	its Prime Meridian co-
       incides with the	previous position of meridian rot.  Project the	map in
       the  standard  form appropriate to the overlay, but presenting informa-
       tion from the underlying	globe.	Missing	arguments are filled out  from
       the  list 90, 0,	0.  In the absence of -o, the orientation is 90, 0, m,
       where m is the middle of	the longitude range.

       -w S N E	W
       Window the map by the specified latitudes and longitudes	in the tilted,
       rotated	coordinate  system.  Missing arguments are filled out from the
       list -90, 90, -180, 180.	 (It is	wise to	give an	encompassing -l	option
       with  -w.   Otherwise for small windows computing time varies inversely
       with area!)

       -d n
       For speed, plot only every nth point.

       Reverse left and	right (good for	star charts and	inside-out views).

       Verso.  Switch to a normally suppressed sheet of	the map, such  as  the
       back side of the	earth in orthographic projection.

       Superpose;  outputs  for	a -s1 map (no closing) and a -s2 map (no open-
       ing) may	be concatenated.

       -g dlat dlon res
       Grid spacings are dlat, dlon.  Zero spacing  means  no  grid.   Missing
       dlat  is	 taken	to  be	zero.  Missing dlon is taken the same as dlat.
       Grid lines are drawn to a resolution of res (2A<degree> or less by  de-
       fault).	In the absence of -g, grid spacing is 10A<degree>.

       -p lat lon extent
       Position	 the point lat,	lon at the center of the plotting area.	 Scale
       the map so that the height (and width) of the nominal plotting area  is
       extent  times the size of one degree of latitude	at the center.	By de-
       fault maps are scaled and positioned to fit within the  plotting	 area.
       An extent overrides option -k.

       -c x y rot
       After all other positioning and scaling operations have been performed,
       rotate the image	rot degrees counterclockwise about the center and move
       the  center  to	position  x,  y,  where	 the  nominal plotting area is
       -1axxax1, -1axyax1.  Missing arguments are taken	to be 0.  -x Allow the
       map to extend outside the nominal plotting area.

       -m [ file ... ]
       Use  map	 data from named files.	 If no files are named,	omit map data.
       Names that do not exist as pathnames are	looked up in a standard	direc-
       tory, which contains, in	addition to the	data for -f,

       world  World Data Bank I	(default)

       states US map from Census Bureau

	      US map from Census Bureau

       The environment variables MAP and MAPDIR	change the default map and de-
       fault directory.

       -b [lat0	lon0 lat1 lon1... ]
       Suppress	the drawing of the normal boundary (defined by options -l  and
       -w).   Coordinates,  if	present,  define  the vertices of a polygon to
       which the map is	clipped.  If only two vertices	are  given,  they  are
       taken to	be the diagonal	of a rectangle.	 To draw the polygon, give its
       vertices	as a -u	track.

       -t file ...
       The files contain lists of points, given	as latitude-longitude pairs in
       degrees.	  If  the  first file is named the standard input is taken in-
       stead.  The points of each list are plotted as connected	`tracks'.

       Points in a track file may be  followed	by  label  strings.   A	 label
       breaks  the  track.  A label may	be prefixed by ", or and is terminated
       by a newline.  An unprefixed string or a	string prefixed	with " is dis-
       played  at the designated point.	 The first word	of a or	string names a
       special symbol (see option -y).	An optional numerical second word is a
       scale  factor  for  the	size of	the symbol, 1 by default.  A symbol is
       aligned with its	top to the north; a symbol is  aligned	vertically  on
       the page.

       -u file ...
       Same as -t, except the tracks are unbroken lines.  (-t tracks appear as
       dot-dashed lines	if the plotting	filter supports	them.)

       -y file
       The file	contains data for or labels in -t or -u	files.	Each symbol is
       defined	by  a  comment :name then a sequence of	and commands.  Coordi-
       nates (0,0) fall	on the plotting	point.	Default	scaling	is as  if  the
       nominal plotting	range were commands in file change the scaling.

       Equatorial  projections	centered  on the Prime Meridian	(longitude 0).
       Parallels are straight horizontal lines.

       mercator	      equally spaced straight meridians,  conformal,  straight
		      compass courses
       sinusoidal     equally spaced parallels,	equal-area, same as
       cylequalarea lat0
		      equally  spaced  straight	 meridians,  equal-area,  true
		      scale on lat0
       cylindrical    central projection on tangent cylinder
       rectangular lat0
		      equally spaced parallels,	equally	spaced straight	merid-
		      ians, true scale on lat0
       gall lat0      parallels	 spaced	 stereographically  on prime meridian,
		      equally spaced straight meridians, true scale on lat0
       mollweide      (homalographic) equal-area, hemisphere is	a circle
		      gilbert()	sphere conformally mapped  on  hemisphere  and
		      viewed orthographically
       gilbert	      globe  mapped  conformally  on hemisphere, viewed	ortho-

       Azimuthal projections centered on the North Pole.  Parallels  are  con-
       centric circles.	 Meridians are equally spaced radial lines.

       azequidistant  equally spaced parallels,	true distances from pole
       azequalarea    equal-area
       gnomonic	      central projection on tangent plane, straight great cir-
       perspective dist
		      viewed along earth's axis	dist earth radii  from	center
		      of earth
       orthographic   viewed from infinity
       stereographic  conformal, projected from	opposite pole
       laue	      radius  =	tan(2xcolatitude), used	in X-ray crystallogra-
       fisheye n      stereographic seen from just inside medium with  refrac-
		      tive index n
       newyorker r    radius  =	log(colatitude/r): New Yorker map from viewing
		      pedestal of radius r degrees

       Polar conic projections symmetric about the Prime Meridian.   Parallels
       are  segments  of  concentric circles.  Except in the Bonne projection,
       meridians are equally spaced radial lines orthogonal to the parallels.

       conic lat0     central projection on cone tangent at lat0
       simpleconic lat0	lat1
		      equally spaced parallels,	true scale on lat0 and lat1
       lambert lat0 lat1
		      conformal, true scale on lat0 and	lat1
       albers lat0 lat1
		      equal-area, true scale on	lat0 and lat1
       bonne lat0     equally spaced parallels,	equal-area, parallel lat0  de-
		      veloped from tangent cone

       Projections  with  bilateral  symmetry about the	Prime Meridian and the

       polyconic      parallels	developed from tangent cones,  equally	spaced
		      along Prime Meridian
       aitoff	      equal-area  projection  of  globe	 onto  2-to-1 ellipse,
		      based on azequalarea
       lagrange	      conformal, maps whole sphere into	a circle
       bicentric lon0 points plotted at	true azimuth from two centers  on  the
		      equator	at   longitudes	 _A+-lon0,  great  circles  are
		      straight lines (a	stretched gnomonic )
       elliptic	lon0  points plotted at	true distance from two centers on  the
		      equator at longitudes _A+-lon0
       globular	      hemisphere  is  circle,  circular	 arc meridians equally
		      spaced on	equator, circular arc parallels	equally	spaced
		      on 0- and	90-degree meridians
       vandergrinten  sphere is	circle,	meridians as in	globular, circular arc
		      parallels	resemble mercator

       Doubly periodic conformal projections.

       guyou	      W	and E hemispheres are square
       square	      world is square with Poles at diagonally	opposite  cor-
       tetra	      map  on  tetrahedron with	edge tangent to	Prime Meridian
		      at S Pole, unfolded into equilateral triangle
       hex	      world is hexagon centered	on N Pole, N and S hemispheres
		      are equilateral triangles

       Miscellaneous projections.

       harrison	dist angle
		      oblique  perspective  from  above	 the  North Pole, dist
		      earth radii from center of earth,	looking	along the Date
		      Line angle degrees off vertical
       trapezoidal lat0	lat1
		      equally  spaced  parallels,  straight  meridians equally
		      spaced along parallels, true scale at lat0 and  lat1  on
		      Prime Meridian
		      lune(lat,angle)  conformal, polar	cap above latitude lat
		      maps to convex lune with given angle at 90<degree>E  and

       Retroazimuthal  projections.  At	every point the	angle between vertical
       and a straight line to `Mecca', latitude	lat0 on	the prime meridian, is
       the true	bearing	of Mecca.

       mecca lat0     equally spaced vertical meridians
       homing lat0    distances	to Mecca are true

       Maps  based on the spheroid.  Of	geodetic quality, these	projections do
       not make	sense for tilted orientations.	For descriptions,  see	corre-
       sponding	maps above.

       sp_albers lat0 lat1
       map perspective 1.025 -o	40.75 74
	      A	 view  looking	down  on New York from 100 miles (0.025	of the
	      4000-mile	earth radius) up.  The job can be done faster by  lim-
	      iting  the  map  so  as  not to `plot' the invisible part	of the
	      world: A circular	border can be forced by	adding	option	(Lati-
	      tude 77.33A<degree> falls	just inside a polar cap	of opening an-
	      gle arccos(1/1.025) = 12.6804A<degree>.)
       map mercator -o 49.25 -106 180
	      An `equatorial' map of the earth centered	on New York.  The pole
	      of  the  map  is	placed 90<degree> away (40.75+49.25=90)	on the
	      other side of the	earth.	A 180A<degree> twist around  the  pole
	      of  the  map  arranges that the `Prime Meridian' of the map runs
	      from the pole of the map over the	North Pole to New York instead
	      of  down the back	side of	the earth.  The	same effect can	be had
	      from map mercator	-o 130.75 74
       map albers 28 45	-l 20 50 60 130	-m states
	      A	customary curved-latitude map of the United States.
       map harrison 2 30 -l -90	90 120 240 -o 90 0 0
	      A	fan view covering 60A<degree> on either	side of	the Date Line,
	      as seen from one earth radius above the North Pole gazing	at the
	      earth's limb, which is 30A<degree> off vertical.	The -o	option
	      overrides	 the default -o	90 0 180, which	would rotate the scene
	      to behind	the observer.
	      World Data Bank II, for -f
	      maps for -m
	      map indexes
       mapd   Map driver program
       `Map seems to be	empty'--a coarse survey	found zero extent  within  the
       -l  and -w bounds; for maps of limited extent the grid resolution, res,
       or the limits may have to be refined.
       Windows (option -w) cannot cross	the  Date  Line.   No  borders	appear
       along edges arising from	visibility limits.  Segments that cross	a bor-
       der are dropped,	not clipped.  Excessively large	scale  or  -d  setting
       may  cause  long	 line  segments	to be dropped.	Map tries to draw grid
       lines dotted and	-t tracks dot-dashed.  As very	few  plotting  filters
       properly	 support  curved textured lines, these lines are likely	to ap-
       pear solid.   The  west-longitude-positive  convention  betrays	Yankee
       chauvinism.  Gilbert should be a	map from sphere	to sphere, independent
       of the mapping from sphere to plane.



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