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MAP(1)			    General Commands Manual			MAP(1)

       map, mapdemo, mapd - draw maps on various projections

       map projection [	option ...  ]


       Map  prepares  on the standard output a map suitable for	display	by any
       plotting	filter described in plot(1).  A	menu of	 projections  is  pro-
       duced  in response to an	unknown	projection.  Mapdemo is	a short	course
       in mapping.

       The default data	for map	are world shorelines.  Option -f accesses more
       detailed	data classified	by feature.

       -f [ feature ...	]
	      Features	are  ranked  1	(default)  to  4  from major to	minor.
	      Higher-numbered ranks include all	lower-numbered ones.  Features

		     seacoasts,	 lakes,	 and  islands;	option -f always shows

		     intermittent lakes


		     intermittent rivers

		     3=irrigation canals





		     2=disputed	boundaries, 3=indefinite boundaries

	      state  states and	provinces (US and Canada only)

       In other	options	coordinates are	in degrees, with  north	 latitude  and
       west longitude counted as positive.

       -l S N E	W
       Set the southern	and northern latitude and the eastern and western lon-
       gitude limits.  Missing arguments are filled out	from the list -90, 90,
       -180, 180, or lesser limits suitable to the projection at hand.

       -k S N E	W
       Set the scale as	if for a map with limits -l S N	E W .  Do not consider
       any -l or -w option in setting scale.

       -o lat lon rot
       Orient the map in a nonstandard position.  Imagine a transparent	 grid-
       ded  sphere around the globe.  Turn the overlay about the North Pole so
       that the	Prime Meridian (longitude 0) of	 the  overlay  coincides  with
       meridian	 lon  on  the  globe.  Then tilt the North Pole	of the overlay
       along its Prime Meridian	to latitude lat	on the globe.	Finally	 again
       turn  the overlay about its `North Pole'	so that	its Prime Meridian co-
       incides with the	previous position of meridian rot.  Project the	map in
       the  standard  form appropriate to the overlay, but presenting informa-
       tion from the underlying	globe.	Missing	arguments are filled out  from
       the  list 90, 0,	0.  In the absence of -o, the orientation is 90, 0, m,
       where m is the middle of	the longitude range.

       -w S N E	W
       Window the map by the specified latitudes and longitudes	in the tilted,
       rotated	coordinate  system.  Missing arguments are filled out from the
       list -90, 90, -180, 180.	 (It is	wise to	give an	encompassing -l	option
       with  -w.   Otherwise for small windows computing time varies inversely
       with area!)

       -d n
       For speed, plot only every nth point.

       Reverse left and	right (good for	star charts and	inside-out views).

       Verso.  Switch to a normally suppressed sheet of	the map, such  as  the
       back side of the	earth in orthographic projection.

       Superpose;  outputs  for	a -s1 map (no closing) and a -s2 map (no open-
       ing) may	be concatenated.

       -g dlat dlon res
       Grid spacings are dlat, dlon.  Zero spacing  means  no  grid.   Missing
       dlat  is	 taken	to  be	zero.  Missing dlon is taken the same as dlat.
       Grid lines are drawn to a resolution of res (2A<degree> or less by  de-
       fault).	In the absence of -g, grid spacing is 10A<degree>.

       -p lat lon extent
       Position	 the point lat,	lon at the center of the plotting area.	 Scale
       the map so that the height (and width) of the nominal plotting area  is
       extent  times the size of one degree of latitude	at the center.	By de-
       fault maps are scaled and positioned to fit within the  plotting	 area.
       An extent overrides option -k.

       -c x y rot
       After all other positioning and scaling operations have been performed,
       rotate the image	rot degrees counterclockwise about the center and move
       the  center  to	position  x,  y,  where	 the  nominal plotting area is
       -1axxax1, -1axyax1.  Missing arguments are taken	to be 0.  -x Allow the
       map to extend outside the nominal plotting area.

       -m [ file ... ]
       Use  map	 data from named files.	 If no files are named,	omit map data.
       Names that do not exist as pathnames are	looked up in a standard	direc-
       tory, which contains, in	addition to the	data for -f,

       world  World Data Bank I	(default)

       states US map from Census Bureau

	      US map from Census Bureau

       The environment variables MAP and MAPDIR	change the default map and de-
       fault directory.

       -b [lat0	lon0 lat1 lon1... ]
       Suppress	the drawing of the normal boundary (defined by options -l  and
       -w).   Coordinates,  if	present,  define  the vertices of a polygon to
       which the map is	clipped.  If only two vertices	are  given,  they  are
       taken to	be the diagonal	of a rectangle.	 To draw the polygon, give its
       vertices	as a -u	track.

       -t file ...
       The files contain lists of points, given	as latitude-longitude pairs in
       degrees.	  If  the  first file is named the standard input is taken in-
       stead.  The points of each list are plotted as connected	`tracks'.

       Points in a track file may be  followed	by  label  strings.   A	 label
       breaks  the  track.  A label may	be prefixed by ", or and is terminated
       by a newline.  An unprefixed string or a	string prefixed	with " is dis-
       played  at the designated point.	 The first word	of a or	string names a
       special symbol (see option -y).	An optional numerical second word is a
       scale  factor  for  the	size of	the symbol, 1 by default.  A symbol is
       aligned with its	top to the north; a symbol is  aligned	vertically  on
       the page.

       -u file ...
       Same as -t, except the tracks are unbroken lines.  (-t tracks appear as
       dot-dashed lines	if the plotting	filter supports	them.)

       -y file
       The file	contains plot(7)-style data for	or labels in -t	or  -u	files.
       Each  symbol  is	defined	by a comment :name then	a sequence of and com-
       mands.  Coordinates (0,0) fall on the plotting point.  Default  scaling
       is  as  if  the nominal plotting	range were commands in file change the

       Equatorial projections centered on the Prime  Meridian  (longitude  0).
       Parallels are straight horizontal lines.

       mercator	      equally  spaced  straight	meridians, conformal, straight
		      compass courses
       sinusoidal     equally spaced parallels,	equal-area, same as
       cylequalarea lat0
		      equally  spaced  straight	 meridians,  equal-area,  true
		      scale on lat0
       cylindrical    central projection on tangent cylinder
       rectangular lat0
		      equally spaced parallels,	equally	spaced straight	merid-
		      ians, true scale on lat0
       gall lat0      parallels	spaced stereographically  on  prime  meridian,
		      equally spaced straight meridians, true scale on lat0
       mollweide      (homalographic) equal-area, hemisphere is	a circle
		      gilbert()	 sphere	 conformally  mapped on	hemisphere and
		      viewed orthographically
       gilbert	      globe mapped conformally on  hemisphere,	viewed	ortho-

       Azimuthal  projections  centered	on the North Pole.  Parallels are con-
       centric circles.	 Meridians are equally spaced radial lines.

       azequidistant  equally spaced parallels,	true distances from pole
       azequalarea    equal-area
       gnomonic	      central projection on tangent plane, straight great cir-
       perspective dist
		      viewed  along  earth's axis dist earth radii from	center
		      of earth
       orthographic   viewed from infinity
       stereographic  conformal, projected from	opposite pole
       laue	      radius = tan(2xcolatitude), used in X-ray	 crystallogra-
       fisheye n      stereographic  seen from just inside medium with refrac-
		      tive index n
       newyorker r    radius = log(colatitude/r): New Yorker map from  viewing
		      pedestal of radius r degrees

       Polar  conic projections	symmetric about	the Prime Meridian.  Parallels
       are segments of concentric circles.  Except in  the  Bonne  projection,
       meridians are equally spaced radial lines orthogonal to the parallels.

       conic lat0     central projection on cone tangent at lat0
       simpleconic lat0	lat1
		      equally spaced parallels,	true scale on lat0 and lat1
       lambert lat0 lat1
		      conformal, true scale on lat0 and	lat1
       albers lat0 lat1
		      equal-area, true scale on	lat0 and lat1
       bonne lat0     equally  spaced parallels, equal-area, parallel lat0 de-
		      veloped from tangent cone

       Projections with	bilateral symmetry about the Prime  Meridian  and  the

       polyconic      parallels	 developed  from tangent cones,	equally	spaced
		      along Prime Meridian
       aitoff	      equal-area projection  of	 globe	onto  2-to-1  ellipse,
		      based on azequalarea
       lagrange	      conformal, maps whole sphere into	a circle
       bicentric lon0 points  plotted  at true azimuth from two	centers	on the
		      equator  at  longitudes  _A+-lon0,	 great	 circles   are
		      straight lines (a	stretched gnomonic )
       elliptic	lon0  points  plotted at true distance from two	centers	on the
		      equator at longitudes _A+-lon0
       globular	      hemisphere is circle,  circular  arc  meridians  equally
		      spaced on	equator, circular arc parallels	equally	spaced
		      on 0- and	90-degree meridians
       vandergrinten  sphere is	circle,	meridians as in	globular, circular arc
		      parallels	resemble mercator

       Doubly periodic conformal projections.

       guyou	      W	and E hemispheres are square
       square	      world  is	 square	with Poles at diagonally opposite cor-
       tetra	      map on tetrahedron with edge tangent to  Prime  Meridian
		      at S Pole, unfolded into equilateral triangle
       hex	      world is hexagon centered	on N Pole, N and S hemispheres
		      are equilateral triangles

       Miscellaneous projections.

       harrison	dist angle
		      oblique perspective from	above  the  North  Pole,  dist
		      earth radii from center of earth,	looking	along the Date
		      Line angle degrees off vertical
       trapezoidal lat0	lat1
		      equally spaced  parallels,  straight  meridians  equally
		      spaced  along  parallels,	true scale at lat0 and lat1 on
		      Prime Meridian
		      lune(lat,angle) conformal, polar cap above latitude  lat
		      maps  to convex lune with	given angle at 90<degree>E and

       Retroazimuthal projections.  At every point the angle between  vertical
       and a straight line to `Mecca', latitude	lat0 on	the prime meridian, is
       the true	bearing	of Mecca.

       mecca lat0     equally spaced vertical meridians
       homing lat0    distances	to Mecca are true

       Maps based on the spheroid.  Of geodetic	quality, these projections  do
       not  make  sense	for tilted orientations.  For descriptions, see	corre-
       sponding	maps above.

       sp_albers lat0 lat1
       map perspective 1.025 -o	40.75 74
	      A	view looking down on New York from 100	miles  (0.025  of  the
	      4000-mile	 earth radius) up.  The	job can	be done	faster by lim-
	      iting the	map so as not to `plot'	 the  invisible	 part  of  the
	      world:  A	 circular border can be	forced by adding option	(Lati-
	      tude 77.33A<degree> falls	just inside a polar cap	of opening an-
	      gle arccos(1/1.025) = 12.6804A<degree>.)
       map mercator -o 49.25 -106 180
	      An `equatorial' map of the earth centered	on New York.  The pole
	      of the map is placed 90<degree>  away  (40.75+49.25=90)  on  the
	      other  side  of the earth.  A 180A<degree> twist around the pole
	      of the map arranges that the `Prime Meridian' of	the  map  runs
	      from the pole of the map over the	North Pole to New York instead
	      of down the back side of the earth.  The same effect can be  had
	      from map mercator	-o 130.75 74
       map albers 28 45	-l 20 50 60 130	-m states
	      A	customary curved-latitude map of the United States.
       map harrison 2 30 -l -90	90 120 240 -o 90 0 0
	      A	fan view covering 60A<degree> on either	side of	the Date Line,
	      as seen from one earth radius above the North Pole gazing	at the
	      earth's  limb, which is 30A<degree> off vertical.	 The -o	option
	      overrides	the default -o 90 0 180, which would rotate the	 scene
	      to behind	the observer.
	      World Data Bank II, for -f
	      maps for -m
	      map indexes
       mapd   Map driver program
       map(7), plot(1)
       `Map  seems  to be empty'--a coarse survey found	zero extent within the
       -l and -w bounds; for maps of limited extent the	grid resolution,  res,
       or the limits may have to be refined.
       Windows	(option	 -w)  cannot  cross  the Date Line.  No	borders	appear
       along edges arising from	visibility limits.  Segments that cross	a bor-
       der  are	 dropped,  not clipped.	 Excessively large scale or -d setting
       may cause long line segments to be dropped.  Map	 tries	to  draw  grid
       lines  dotted  and  -t tracks dot-dashed.  As very few plotting filters
       properly	support	curved textured	lines, these lines are likely  to  ap-
       pear  solid.   The  west-longitude-positive  convention	betrays	Yankee
       chauvinism.  Gilbert should be a	map from sphere	to sphere, independent
       of the mapping from sphere to plane.



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