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MANDOC(1)		FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		     MANDOC(1)

     mandoc -- format and display UNIX manuals

     mandoc [-acfhkl] [-I os=name] [-K encoding] [-mformat] [-O	option]
	    [-T	output]	[-W level] [file ...]

     The mandoc	utility	formats	UNIX manual pages for display.

     By	default, mandoc	reads mdoc(7) or man(7)	text from stdin, implying
     -mandoc, and produces -T locale output.

     The options are as	follows:

     -a	     If	the standard output is a terminal device and -c	is not speci-
	     fied, use more(1) to paginate the output, just like man(1)	would.

     -c	     Copy the formatted	manual pages to	the standard output without
	     using more(1) to paginate them.  This is the default.  It can be
	     specified to override -a.

     -f	     A synonym for whatis(1).  This overrides any earlier -k and -l

     -h	     Display only the SYNOPSIS lines.  Implies -c.

     -I	os=name
	     Override the default operating system name	for the	mdoc(7)	`Os'
	     and for the man(7)	`TH' macro.

     -K	encoding
	     Specify the input encoding.  The supported	encoding arguments are
	     us-ascii, iso-8859-1, and utf-8.  If not specified, autodetection
	     uses the first match:

	     utf-8	 if the	first three bytes of the input file are	the
			 UTF-8 byte order mark (BOM, 0xefbbbf)

	     encoding	 if the	first or second	line of	the input file matches
			 the emacs mode	line format

			       .\" -*- [...;] coding: encoding;	-*-

	     utf-8	 if the	first non-ASCII	byte in	the file introduces a
			 valid UTF-8 sequence

	     iso-8859-1	 otherwise

     -k	     A synonym for apropos(1).	This overrides any earlier -f and -l

     -l	     A synonym for -a.	Also reverts any earlier -f and	-k options.

	     Input format.  See	Input Formats for available formats.  Defaults
	     to	-mandoc.

     -O	option
	     Comma-separated output options.

     -T	output
	     Output format.  See Output	Formats	for available formats.
	     Defaults to -T locale.

     -W	level
	     Specify the minimum message level to be reported on the standard
	     error output and to affect	the exit status.  The level can	be
	     warning, error, or	unsupp;	all is an alias	for warning.  By
	     default, mandoc is	silent.	 See EXIT STATUS and DIAGNOSTICS for

	     The special option	-W stop	tells mandoc to	exit after parsing a
	     file that causes warnings or errors of at least the requested
	     level.  No	formatted output will be produced from that file.  If
	     both a level and stop are requested, they can be joined with a
	     comma, for	example	-W error,stop.

     file    Read input	from zero or more files.  If unspecified, reads	from
	     stdin.  If	multiple files are specified, mandoc will halt with
	     the first failed parse.

     In	-f and -k mode,	mandoc also supports the options -CMmOSsw described in
     the apropos(1) manual.

   Input Formats
     The mandoc	utility	accepts	mdoc(7)	and man(7) input with -mdoc and	-man,
     respectively.  The	mdoc(7)	format is strongly recommended;	man(7) should
     only be used for legacy manuals.

     A third option, -mandoc, which is also the	default, determines encoding
     on-the-fly: if the	first non-comment macro	is `Dd'	or `Dt', the mdoc(7)
     parser is used; otherwise,	the man(7) parser is used.

     If	multiple files are specified with -mandoc, each	has its	file-type
     determined	this way.  If multiple files are specified and -mdoc or	-man
     is	specified, then	this format is used exclusively.

   Output Formats
     The mandoc	utility	accepts	the following -T arguments, which correspond
     to	output modes:

     -T	ascii	Produce	7-bit ASCII output.  See ASCII Output.

     -T	html	Produce	HTML5, CSS1, and MathML	output.	 See HTML Output.

     -T	lint	Parse only: produce no output.	Implies	-W warning.

     -T	locale	Encode output using the	current	locale.	 This is the default.
		See Locale Output.

     -T	man	Produce	man(7) format output.  See Man Output.

     -T	pdf	Produce	PDF output.  See PDF Output.

     -T	ps	Produce	PostScript output.  See	PostScript Output.

     -T	tree	Produce	an indented parse tree.	 See Syntax tree output.

     -T	utf8	Encode output in the UTF-8 multi-byte format.  See UTF-8

     -T	xhtml	This is	a synonym for -T html.

     If	multiple input files are specified, these will be processed by the
     corresponding filter in-order.

   ASCII Output
     Output produced by	-T ascii is rendered in	standard 7-bit ASCII docu-
     mented in ascii(7).

     Font styles are applied by	using back-spaced encoding such	that an	under-
     lined character `c' is rendered as	`_\[bs]c', where `\[bs]' is the	back-
     space character number 8.	Emboldened characters are rendered as

     The special characters documented in mandoc_char(7) are rendered best-
     effort in an ASCII	equivalent.

     Output width is limited to	78 visible columns unless literal input	lines
     exceed this limit.

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     The left margin for normal	text is	set to indent blank characters
	     instead of	the default of five for	mdoc(7)	and seven for man(7).
	     Increasing	this is	not recommended; it may	result in degraded
	     formatting, for example overfull lines or ugly line breaks.

	     The output	width is set to	width, which will normalise to >=58.

   HTML	Output
     Output produced by	-T html	conforms to HTML5 using	optional self-closing
     tags.  Default styles use only CSS1.  Equations rendered from eqn(7)
     blocks use	MathML.

     The mandoc.css file documents style-sheet classes available for customis-
     ing output.  If a style-sheet is not specified with -O style, -T html
     defaults to simple	output (via an embedded	style-sheet) readable in any
     graphical or text-based web browser.

     Special characters	are rendered in	decimal-encoded	UTF-8.

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     Omit the <!DOCTYPE> declaration and the <html>, <head>, and
	     <body> elements and only emit the subtree below the <body>	ele-
	     ment.  The	style argument will be ignored.	 This is useful	when
	     embedding manual content within existing documents.

	     The string	fmt, for example, ../src/%I.html, is used as a tem-
	     plate for linked header files (usually via	the `In' macro).
	     Instances of `%I' are replaced with the include filename.	The
	     default is	not to present a hyperlink.

	     The string	fmt, for example, ../html%S/%N.%S.html,	is used	as a
	     template for linked manuals (usually via the `Xr' macro).
	     Instances of `%N' and `%S'	are replaced with the linked manual's
	     name and section, respectively.  If no section is included, sec-
	     tion 1 is assumed.	 The default is	not to present a hyperlink.

	     The file style.css	is used	for an external	style-sheet.  This
	     must be a valid absolute or relative URI.

   Locale Output
     Locale-depending output encoding is triggered with	-T locale.  This is
     the default.

     This option is not	available on all systems: systems without locale sup-
     port, or those whose internal representation is not natively UCS-4, will
     fall back to -T ascii.  See ASCII Output for font style specification and
     available command-line arguments.

   Man Output
     Translate input format into man(7)	output format.	This is	useful for
     distributing manual sources to legacy systems lacking mdoc(7) formatters.

     If	mdoc(7)	is passed as input, it is translated into man(7).  If the
     input format is man(7), the input is copied to the	output,	expanding any
     roff(7) `so' requests.  The parser	is also	run, and as usual, the -W
     level controls which DIAGNOSTICS are displayed before copying the input
     to	the output.

   PDF Output
     PDF-1.1 output may	be generated by	-T pdf.	 See PostScript	Output for -O
     arguments and defaults.

   PostScript Output
     PostScript	"Adobe-3.0" Level-2 pages may be generated by -T ps.  Output
     pages default to letter sized and are rendered in the Times font family,
     11-point.	Margins	are calculated as 1/9 the page length and width.
     Line-height is 1.4m.

     Special characters	are rendered as	in ASCII Output.

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     The paper size name may be	one of a3, a4, a5, legal, or letter.
	     You may also manually specify dimensions as NNxNN,	width by
	     height in millimetres.  If	an unknown value is encountered,
	     letter is used.

   UTF-8 Output
     Use -T utf8 to force a UTF-8 locale.  See Locale Output for details and

   Syntax tree output
     Use -T tree to show a human readable representation of the	syntax tree.
     It	is useful for debugging	the source code	of manual pages.  The exact
     format is subject to change, so don't write parsers for it.

     The first paragraph shows meta data found in the mdoc(7) prologue,	on the
     man(7) TH line, or	the fallbacks used.

     In	the tree dump, each output line	shows one syntax tree node.  Child
     nodes are indented	with respect to	their parent node.  The	columns	are:

     1.	  For macro nodes, the macro name; for text and	tbl(7) nodes, the con-
	  tent.	 There is a special format for eqn(7) nodes.
     2.	  Node type (text, elem, block,	head, body, body-end, tail, tbl, eqn).
     3.	  Flags:
	  -   An opening parenthesis if	the node is an opening delimiter.
	  -   An asterisk if the node starts a new input line.
	  -   The input	line number (starting at one).
	  -   A	colon.
	  -   The input	column number (starting	at one).
	  -   A	closing	parenthesis if the node	is a closing delimiter.
	  -   A	full stop if the node ends a sentence.
	  -   NOSRC if the node	is not in the input file, but automatically
	      generated	from macros.
	  -   NOPRT if the node	is not supposed	to generate output for any
	      output format.

     MANPAGER  Any non-empty value of the environment variable MANPAGER	will
	       be used instead of the standard pagination program, more(1).

     PAGER     Specifies the pagination	program	to use when MANPAGER is	not
	       defined.	 If neither PAGER nor MANPAGER is defined, more(1) -s
	       will be used.

     The mandoc	utility	exits with one of the following	values,	controlled by
     the message level associated with the -W option:

     0	     No	warnings or errors occurred, or	those that did were ignored
	     because they were lower than the requested	level.
     2	     At	least one warning occurred, but	no error, and -W warning was
     3	     At	least one parsing error	occurred, but no unsupported feature
	     was encountered, and -W error or -W warning was specified.
     4	     At	least one unsupported feature was encountered, and -W unsupp,
	     -W	error or -W warning was	specified.
     5	     Invalid command line arguments were specified.  No	input files
	     have been read.
     6	     An	operating system error occurred, for example exhaustion	of
	     memory, file descriptors, or process table	entries.  Such errors
	     cause mandoc to exit at once, possibly in the middle of parsing
	     or	formatting a file.

     Note that selecting -T lint output	mode implies -W	warning.

     To	page manuals to	the terminal:

	   $ mandoc -W all,stop	mandoc.1 2>&1 |	less
	   $ mandoc mandoc.1 mdoc.3 mdoc.7 | less

     To	produce	HTML manuals with mandoc.css as	the style-sheet:

	   $ mandoc -T html -O style=mandoc.css	mdoc.7 > mdoc.7.html

     To	check over a large set of manuals:

	   $ mandoc -T lint `find /usr/src -name \*\.[1-9]`

     To	produce	a series of PostScript manuals for A4 paper:

	   $ mandoc -T ps -O paper=a4 mdoc.7 man.7 >

     Convert a modern mdoc(7) manual to	the older man(7) format, for use on
     systems lacking an	mdoc(7)	parser:

	   $ mandoc -T man foo.mdoc >

     Messages displayed	by mandoc follow this format:

	   mandoc: file:line:column: level: message: macro args

     Line and column numbers start at 1.  Both are omitted for messages	refer-
     ring to an	input file as a	whole.	Macro names and	arguments are omitted
     where meaningless.	 Fatal messages	about invalid command line arguments
     or	operating system errors, for example when memory is exhausted, may
     also omit the file	and level fields.

     Message levels have the following meanings:

     unsupp   An input file uses unsupported low-level roff(7) features.  The
	      output may be incomplete and/or misformatted, so using GNU troff
	      instead of mandoc	to process the file may	be preferable.

     error    An input file contains invalid syntax that cannot	be safely
	      interpreted.  By discarding part of the input or inserting miss-
	      ing tokens, the parser is	able to	continue, and the error	does
	      not prevent generation of	formatted output, but typically, pre-
	      paring that output involves information loss, broken document
	      structure	or unintended formatting, no matter whether mandoc or
	      GNU troff	is used.  In many cases, the output of mandoc and GNU
	      troff is identical, but in some, mandoc is more resilient	than
	      GNU troff	with respect to	malformed input.

	      Non-existent or unreadable input files are also reported on the
	      error level.  In that case, the parser cannot even be started
	      and no output is produced	from those input files.

     warning  An input file uses obsolete, discouraged or non-portable syntax.
	      All the same, the	meaning	of the input is	unambiguous and	a cor-
	      rect rendering can be produced.  Documents causing warnings may
	      render poorly when using other formatting	tools instead of

     Messages of the warning, error, and unsupp	levels except those about non-
     existent or unreadable input files	are hidden unless their	level, or a
     lower level, is requested using a -W option or -T lint output mode.

   Warnings related to the document prologue
     missing manual title, using UNTITLED
     (mdoc) A Dt macro has no arguments, or there is no	Dt macro before	the
     first non-prologue	macro.

     missing manual title, using ""
     (man) There is no TH macro, or it has no arguments.

     lower case	character in document title
     (mdoc, man) The title is still used as given in the Dt or TH macro.

     missing manual section, using ""
     (mdoc, man) A Dt or TH macro lacks	the mandatory section argument.

     unknown manual section
     (mdoc) The	section	number in a Dt line is invalid,	but still used.

     missing date, using today's date
     (mdoc, man) The document was parsed as mdoc(7) and	it has no Dd macro, or
     the Dd macro has no arguments or only empty arguments; or the document
     was parsed	as man(7) and it has no	TH macro, or the TH macro has less
     than three	arguments or its third argument	is empty.

     cannot parse date,	using it verbatim
     (mdoc, man) The date given	in a Dd	or TH macro does not follow the	con-
     ventional format.

     missing Os	macro, using ""
     (mdoc) The	default	or current system is not shown in this case.

     duplicate prologue	macro
     (mdoc) One	of the prologue	macros occurs more than	once.  The last
     instance overrides	all previous ones.

     late prologue macro
     (mdoc) A Dd or Os macro occurs after some non-prologue macro, but still
     takes effect.

     skipping late title macro
     (mdoc) The	Dt macro appears after the first non-prologue macro.  Tradi-
     tional formatters cannot handle this because they write the page header
     before parsing the	document body.	Even though this technical restriction
     does not apply to mandoc, traditional semantics is	preserved.  The	late
     macro is discarded	including its arguments.

     prologue macros out of order
     (mdoc) The	prologue macros	are not	given in the conventional order	Dd,
     Dt, Os.  All three	macros are used	even when given	in another order.

   Warnings regarding document structure
     .so is fragile, better use	ln(1)
     (roff) Including files only works when the	parser program runs with the
     correct current working directory.

     no	document body
     (mdoc, man) The document body contains neither text nor macros.  An empty
     document is shown,	consisting only	of a header and	a footer line.

     content before first section header
     (mdoc, man) Some macros or	text precede the first Sh or SH	section
     header.  The offending macros and text are	parsed and added to the	top
     level of the syntax tree, outside any section block.

     first section is not NAME
     (mdoc) The	argument of the	first Sh macro is not `NAME'.  This may	con-
     fuse makewhatis(8)	and apropos(1).

     NAME section without Nm before Nd
     (mdoc) The	NAME section does not contain any Nm child macro before	the
     first Nd macro.

     NAME section without description
     (mdoc) The	NAME section lacks the mandatory Nd child macro.

     description not at	the end	of NAME
     (mdoc) The	NAME section does contain an Nd	child macro, but other content
     follows it.

     bad NAME section content
     (mdoc) The	NAME section contains plain text or macros other than Nm and

     missing comma before name
     (mdoc) The	NAME section contains an Nm macro that is neither the first
     one nor preceded by a comma.

     missing description line, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Nd macro lacks the required argument.  The title line of the
     manual will end after the dash.

     sections out of conventional order
     (mdoc) A standard section occurs after another section it usually pre-
     cedes.  All section titles	are used as given, and the order of sections
     is	not changed.

     duplicate section title
     (mdoc) The	same standard section title occurs more	than once.

     unexpected	section
     (mdoc) A standard section header occurs in	a section of the manual	where
     it	normally isn't useful.

     unusual Xr	order
     (mdoc) In the SEE ALSO section, an	Xr macro with a	lower section number
     follows one with a	higher number, or two Xr macros	referring to the same
     section are out of	alphabetical order.

     unusual Xr	punctuation
     (mdoc) In the SEE ALSO section, punctuation between two Xr	macros differs
     from a single comma, or there is trailing punctuation after the last Xr

     AUTHORS section without An	macro
     (mdoc) An AUTHORS sections	contains no An macros, or only empty ones.
     Probably, there are author	names lacking markup.

   Warnings related to macros and nesting
     obsolete macro
     (mdoc) See	the mdoc(7) manual for replacements.

     macro neither callable nor	escaped
     (mdoc) The	name of	a macro	that is	not callable appears on	a macro	line.
     It	is printed verbatim.  If the intention is to call it, move it to its
     own input line; otherwise,	escape it by prepending	`\&'.

     skipping paragraph	macro
     In	mdoc(7)	documents, this	happens
     -	 at the	beginning and end of sections and subsections
     -	 right before non-compact lists	and displays
     -	 at the	end of items in	non-column, non-compact	lists
     -	 and for multiple consecutive paragraph	macros.
     In	man(7) documents, it happens
     -	 for empty P, PP, and LP macros
     -	 for IP	macros having neither head nor body arguments
     -	 for br	or sp right after SH or	SS

     moving paragraph macro out	of list
     (mdoc) A list item	in a Bl	list contains a	trailing paragraph macro.  The
     paragraph macro is	moved after the	end of the list.

     skipping no-space macro
     (mdoc) An input line begins with an Ns macro.  The	macro is ignored.

     blocks badly nested
     (mdoc) If two blocks intersect, one should	completely contain the other.
     Otherwise,	rendered output	is likely to look strange in any output	for-
     mat, and rendering	in SGML-based output formats is	likely to be outright
     wrong because such	languages do not support badly nested blocks at	all.
     Typical examples of badly nested blocks are "Ao Bo	Ac Bc" and "Ao Bq Ac".
     In	these examples,	Ac breaks Bo and Bq, respectively.

     nested displays are not portable
     (mdoc) A Bd, D1, or Dl display occurs nested inside another Bd display.
     This works	with mandoc, but fails with most other implementations.

     moving content out	of list
     (mdoc) A Bl list block contains text or macros before the first It	macro.
     The offending children are	moved before the beginning of the list.

     fill mode already enabled,	skipping
     (man) A fi	request	occurs even though the document	is still in fill mode,
     or	already	switched back to fill mode.  It	has no effect.

     fill mode already disabled, skipping
     (man) An nf request occurs	even though the	document already switched to
     no-fill mode and did not switch back to fill mode yet.  It	has no effect.

     line scope	broken
     (man) While parsing the next-line scope of	the previous macro, another
     macro is found that prematurely terminates	the previous one.  The previ-
     ous, interrupted macro is deleted from the	parse tree.

   Warnings related to missing arguments
     skipping empty request
     (roff, eqn) The macro name	is missing from	a macro	definition request, or
     an	eqn(7) control statement or operation keyword lacks its	required argu-

     conditional request controls empty	scope
     (roff) A conditional request is only useful if any	of the following fol-
     lows it on	the same logical input line:
     -	 The `\{' keyword to open a multi-line scope.
     -	 A request or macro or some text, resulting in a single-line scope.
     -	 The immediate end of the logical line without any intervening white-
	 space,	resulting in next-line scope.
     Here, a conditional request is followed by	trailing whitespace only, and
     there is no other content on its logical input line.  Note	that it
     doesn't matter whether the	logical	input line is split across multiple
     physical input lines using	`\' line continuation characters.  This	is one
     of	the rare cases where trailing whitespace is syntactically significant.
     The conditional request controls a	scope containing whitespace only, so
     it	is unlikely to have a significant effect, except that it may control a
     following el clause.

     skipping empty macro
     (mdoc) The	indicated macro	has no arguments and hence no effect.

     empty block
     (mdoc, man) A Bd, Bk, Bl, D1, Dl, RS, or UR block contains	nothing	in its
     body and will produce no output.

     empty argument, using 0n
     (mdoc) The	required width is missing after	Bd or Bl -offset or -width.

     missing display type, using -ragged
     (mdoc) The	Bd macro is invoked without the	required display type.

     list type is not the first	argument
     (mdoc) In a Bl macro, at least one	other argument precedes	the type argu-
     ment.  The	mandoc utility copes with any argument order, but some other
     mdoc(7) implementations do	not.

     missing -width in -tag list, using	8n
     (mdoc) Every Bl macro having the -tag argument requires -width, too.

     missing utility name, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Ex -std	macro is called	without	an argument before Nm has
     first been	called with an argument.

     missing function name, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Fo macro is called without an argument.	 No function name is

     empty head	in list	item
     (mdoc) In a Bl -diag, -hang, -inset, -ohang, or -tag list,	an It macro
     lacks the required	argument.  The item head is left empty.

     empty list	item
     (mdoc) In a Bl -bullet, -dash, -enum, or -hyphen list, an It block	is
     empty.  An	empty list item	is shown.

     missing font type,	using \fR
     (mdoc) A Bf macro has no argument.	 It switches to	the default font.

     unknown font type,	using \fR
     (mdoc) The	Bf argument is invalid.	 The default font is used instead.

     nothing follows prefix
     (mdoc) A Pf macro has no argument,	or only	one argument and no macro fol-
     lows on the same input line.  This	defeats	its purpose; in	particular,
     spacing is	not suppressed before the text or macros following on the next
     input line.

     empty reference block
     (mdoc) An Rs macro	is immediately followed	by an Re macro on the next
     input line.  Such an empty	block does not produce any output.

     missing section argument
     (mdoc) An Xr macro	lacks its second, section number argument.  The	first
     argument, i.e. the	name, is printed, but without subsequent parentheses.

     missing -std argument, adding it
     (mdoc) An Ex or Rv	macro lacks the	required -std argument.	 The mandoc
     utility assumes -std even when it is not specified, but other implementa-
     tions may not.

     missing option string, using ""
     (man) The OP macro	is invoked without any argument.  An empty pair	of
     square brackets is	shown.

     missing resource identifier, using	""
     (man) The UR macro	is invoked without any argument.  An empty pair	of
     angle brackets is shown.

     missing eqn box, using ""
     (eqn) A diacritic mark or a binary	operator is found, but there is	noth-
     ing to the	left of	it.  An	empty box is inserted.

   Warnings related to bad macro arguments
     unterminated quoted argument
     (roff) Macro arguments can	be enclosed in double quote characters such
     that space	characters and macro names contained in	the quoted argument
     need not be escaped.  The closing quote of	the last argument of a macro
     can be omitted.  However, omitting	it is not recommended because it makes
     the code harder to	read.

     duplicate argument
     (mdoc) A Bd or Bl macro has more than one -compact, more than one
     -offset, or more than one -width argument.	 All but the last instances of
     these arguments are ignored.

     skipping duplicate	argument
     (mdoc) An An macro	has more than one -split or -nosplit argument.	All
     but the first of these arguments are ignored.

     skipping duplicate	display	type
     (mdoc) A Bd macro has more	than one type argument;	the first one is used.

     skipping duplicate	list type
     (mdoc) A Bl macro has more	than one type argument;	the first one is used.

     skipping -width argument
     (mdoc) A Bl -column, -diag, -ohang, -inset, or -item list has a -width
     argument.	That has no effect.

     wrong number of cells
     In	a line of a Bl -column list, the number	of tabs	or Ta macros is	less
     than the number expected from the list header line	or exceeds the
     expected number by	more than one.	Missing	cells remain empty, and	all
     cells exceeding the number	of columns are joined into one single cell.

     unknown AT&T UNIX version
     (mdoc) An At macro	has an invalid argument.  It is	used verbatim, with
     "AT&T UNIX	" prefixed to it.

     comma in function argument
     (mdoc) An argument	of an Fa or Fn macro contains a	comma; it should prob-
     ably be split into	two arguments.

     parenthesis in function name
     (mdoc) The	first argument of an Fc	or Fn macro contains an	opening	or
     closing parenthesis; that's probably wrong, parentheses are added auto-

     invalid content in	Rs block
     (mdoc) An Rs block	contains plain text or non-% macros.  The bogus	con-
     tent is left in the syntax	tree.  Formatting may be poor.

     invalid Boolean argument
     (mdoc) An Sm macro	has an argument	other than on or off.  The invalid
     argument is moved out of the macro, which leaves the macro	empty, causing
     it	to toggle the spacing mode.

     unknown font, skipping request
     (man, tbl)	A roff(7) ft request or	a tbl(7) f layout modifier has an
     unknown font argument.

     odd number	of characters in request
     (roff) A tr request contains an odd number	of characters.	The last char-
     acter is mapped to	the blank character.

   Warnings related to plain text
     blank line	in fill	mode, using .sp
     (mdoc) The	meaning	of blank input lines is	only well-defined in non-fill
     mode: In fill mode, line breaks of	text input lines are not supposed to
     be	significant.  However, for compatibility with groff, blank lines in
     fill mode are replaced with sp requests.

     tab in filled text
     (mdoc, man) The meaning of	tab characters is only well-defined in non-
     fill mode:	In fill	mode, whitespace is not	supposed to be significant on
     text input	lines.	As an implementation dependent choice, tab characters
     on	text lines are passed through to the formatters	in any case.  Given
     that the text before the tab character will be filled, it is hard to pre-
     dict which	tab stop position the tab will advance to.

     whitespace	at end of input	line
     (mdoc, man, roff) Whitespace at the end of	input lines is almost never
     semantically significant -- but in	the odd	case where it might be,	it is
     extremely confusing when reviewing	and maintaining	documents.

     bad comment style
     (roff) Comment lines start	with a dot, a backslash, and a double-quote
     character.	 The mandoc utility treats the line as a comment line even
     without the backslash, but	leaving	out the	backslash might	not be porta-

     invalid escape sequence
     (roff) An escape sequence has an invalid opening argument delimiter,
     lacks the closing argument	delimiter, or the argument has too few charac-
     ters.  If the argument is incomplete, \* and \n expand to an empty
     string, \B	to the digit `0', and \w to the	length of the incomplete argu-
     ment.  All	other invalid escape sequences are ignored.

     undefined string, using ""
     (roff) If a string	is used	without	being defined before, its value	is
     implicitly	set to the empty string.  However, defining strings explicitly
     before use	keeps the code more readable.

   Warnings related to tables
     tbl line starts with span
     (tbl) The first cell in a table layout line is a horizontal span (`s').
     Data provided for this cell is ignored, and nothing is printed in the

     tbl column	starts with span
     (tbl) The first line of a table layout specification requests a vertical
     span (`^').  Data provided	for this cell is ignored, and nothing is
     printed in	the cell.

     skipping vertical bar in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains more than two consecutive
     vertical bars.  A double bar is printed, all additional bars are dis-

   Errors related to tables
     non-alphabetic character in tbl options
     (tbl) The table options line contains a character other than a letter,
     blank, or comma where the beginning of an option name is expected.	 The
     character is ignored.

     skipping unknown tbl option
     (tbl) The table options line contains a string of letters that does not
     match any known option name.  The word is ignored.

     missing tbl option	argument
     (tbl) A table option that requires	an argument is not followed by an
     opening parenthesis, or the opening parenthesis is	immediately followed
     by	a closing parenthesis.	The option is ignored.

     wrong tbl option argument size
     (tbl) A table option argument contains an invalid number of characters.
     Both the option and the argument are ignored.

     empty tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	is completely empty, specifying	zero
     lines and zero columns.  As a fallback, a single left-justified column is

     invalid character in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains a character that can neither
     be	interpreted as a layout	key character nor as a layout modifier,	or a
     modifier precedes the first key.  The invalid character is	discarded.

     unmatched parenthesis in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains an opening parenthesis, but
     no	matching closing parenthesis.  The rest	of the input line, starting
     from the parenthesis, has no effect.

     tbl without any data cells
     (tbl) A table does	not contain any	data cells.  It	will probably produce
     no	output.

     ignoring data in spanned tbl cell
     (tbl) A table cell	is marked as a horizontal span (`s') or	vertical span
     (`^') in the table	layout,	but it contains	data.  The data	is ignored.

     ignoring extra tbl	data cells
     (tbl) A data line contains	more cells than	the corresponding layout line.
     The data in the extra cells is ignored.

     data block	open at	end of tbl
     (tbl) A data block	is opened with T{, but never closed with a matching
     T}.  The remaining	data lines of the table	are all	put into one cell, and
     any remaining cells stay empty.

   Errors related to roff, mdoc, and man code
     input stack limit exceeded, infinite loop?
     (roff) Explicit recursion limits are implemented for the following	fea-
     tures, in order to	prevent	infinite loops:
     -	 expansion of nested escape sequences including	expansion of strings
	 and number registers,
     -	 expansion of nested user-defined macros,
     -	 and so	file inclusion.
     When a limit is hit, the output is	incorrect, typically losing some con-
     tent, but the parser can continue.

     skipping bad character
     (mdoc, man, roff) The input file contains a byte that is not a printable
     ascii(7) character.  The message mentions the character number.  The
     offending byte is replaced	with a question	mark (`?').  Consider editing
     the input file to replace the byte	with an	ASCII transliteration of the
     intended character.

     skipping unknown macro
     (mdoc, man, roff) The first identifier on a request or macro line is nei-
     ther recognized as	a roff(7) request, nor as a user-defined macro,	nor,
     respectively, as an mdoc(7) or man(7) macro.  It may be mistyped or
     unsupported.  The request or macro	is discarded including its arguments.

     skipping insecure request
     (roff) An input file attempted to run a shell command or to read or write
     an	external file.	Such attempts are denied for security reasons.

     skipping item outside list
     (mdoc, eqn) An It macro occurs outside any	Bl list, or an eqn(7) above
     delimiter occurs outside any pile.	 It is discarded including its argu-

     skipping column outside column list
     (mdoc) A Ta macro occurs outside any Bl -column block.  It	is discarded
     including its arguments.

     skipping end of block that	is not open
     (mdoc, man, eqn, tbl, roff) Various syntax	elements can only be used to
     explicitly	close blocks that have previously been opened.	An mdoc(7)
     block closing macro, a man(7) RE or UE macro, an eqn(7) right delimiter
     or	closing	brace, or the end of an	equation, table, or roff(7) condi-
     tional request is encountered but no matching block is open.  The offend-
     ing request or macro is discarded.

     fewer RS blocks open, skipping
     (man) The RE macro	is invoked with	an argument, but less than the speci-
     fied number of RS blocks is open.	The RE macro is	discarded.

     inserting missing end of block
     (mdoc, tbl) Various mdoc(7) macros	as well	as tables require explicit
     closing by	dedicated macros.  A block that	doesn't	support	bad nesting
     ends before all of	its children are properly closed.  The open child
     nodes are closed implicitly.

     appending missing end of block
     (mdoc, man, eqn, tbl, roff) At the	end of the document, an	explicit
     mdoc(7) block, a man(7) next-line scope or	RS or UR block,	an equation,
     table, or roff(7) conditional or ignore block is still open.  The open
     block is closed implicitly.

     escaped character not allowed in a	name
     (roff) Macro, string and register identifiers consist of printable, non-
     whitespace	ASCII characters.  Escape sequences and	characters and strings
     expressed in terms	of them	cannot form part of a name.  The first argu-
     ment of an	am, as,	de, ds,	nr, or rr request, or any argument of an rm
     request, or the name of a request or user defined macro being called, is
     terminated	by an escape sequence.	In the cases of	as, ds,	and nr,	the
     request has no effect at all.  In the cases of am,	de, rr,	and rm,	what
     was parsed	up to this point is used as the	arguments to the request, and
     the rest of the input line	is discarded including the escape sequence.
     When parsing for a	request	or a user-defined macro	name to	be called,
     only the escape sequence is discarded.  The characters preceding it are
     used as the request or macro name,	the characters following it are	used
     as	the arguments to the request or	macro.

     NOT IMPLEMENTED: Bd -file
     (mdoc) For	security reasons, the Bd macro does not	support	the -file
     argument.	By requesting the inclusion of a sensitive file, a malicious
     document might otherwise trick a privileged user into inadvertently dis-
     playing the file on the screen, revealing the file	content	to bystanders.
     The argument is ignored including the file	name following it.

     skipping display without arguments
     (mdoc) A Bd block macro does not have any arguments.  The block is	dis-
     carded, and the block content is displayed	in whatever mode was active
     before the	block.

     missing list type,	using -item
     (mdoc) A Bl macro fails to	specify	the list type.

     missing manual name, using	""
     (mdoc) The	first call to Nm, or any call in the NAME section, lacks the
     required argument.

     uname(3) system call failed, using	UNKNOWN
     (mdoc) The	Os macro is called without arguments, and the uname(3) system
     call failed.  As a	workaround, mandoc can be compiled with

     unknown standard specifier
     (mdoc) An St macro	has an unknown argument	and is discarded.

     skipping request without numeric argument
     (roff, eqn) An it request or an eqn(7) size or gsize statement has	a non-
     numeric or	negative argument or no	argument at all.  The invalid request
     or	statement is ignored.

     NOT IMPLEMENTED: .so with absolute	path or	".."
     (roff) For	security reasons, mandoc allows	so file	inclusion requests
     only with relative	paths and only without ascending to any	parent direc-
     tory.  By requesting the inclusion	of a sensitive file, a malicious docu-
     ment might	otherwise trick	a privileged user into inadvertently display-
     ing the file on the screen, revealing the file content to bystanders.
     mandoc only shows the path	as it appears behind so.

     .so request failed
     (roff) Servicing a	so request requires reading an external	file, but the
     file could	not be opened.	mandoc only shows the path as it appears
     behind so.

     skipping all arguments
     (mdoc, man, eqn, roff) An mdoc(7) Bt, Ed, Ef, Ek, El, Lp, Pp, Re, Rs, or
     Ud	macro, an It macro in a	list that don't	support	item heads, a man(7)
     LP, P, or PP macro, an eqn(7) EQ or EN macro, or a	roff(7)	br, fi,	or nf
     request or	`..' block closing request is invoked with at least one	argu-
     ment.  All	arguments are ignored.

     skipping excess arguments
     (mdoc, man, roff) A macro or request is invoked with too many arguments:
       -   Fo, PD, RS, UR, ft, or sp with more than one	argument
       -   An with another argument after -split or -nosplit
       -   RE with more	than one argument or with a non-integer	argument
       -   OP or a request of the de family with more than two arguments
       -   Dt with more	than three arguments
       -   TH with more	than five arguments
       -   Bd, Bk, or Bl with invalid arguments
     The excess	arguments are ignored.

   Unsupported features
     input too large
     (mdoc, man) Currently, mandoc cannot handle input files larger than its
     arbitrary size limit of 2^31 bytes	(2 Gigabytes).	Since useful manuals
     are always	small, this is not a problem in	practice.  Parsing is aborted
     as	soon as	the condition is detected.

     unsupported control character
     (roff) An ASCII control character supported by other roff(7) implementa-
     tions but not by mandoc was found in an input file.  It is	replaced by a
     question mark.

     unsupported roff request
     (roff) An input file contains a roff(7) request supported by GNU troff or
     Heirloom troff but	not by mandoc, and it is likely	that this will cause
     information loss or considerable misformatting.

     eqn delim option in tbl
     (eqn, tbl)	The options line of a table defines equation delimiters.  Any
     equation source code contained in the table will be printed unformatted.

     unsupported table layout modifier
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains an `m'	modifier.  The modi-
     fier is discarded.

     ignoring macro in table
     (tbl, mdoc, man) A	table contains an invocation of	an mdoc(7) or man(7)
     macro or of an undefined macro.  The macro	is ignored, and	its arguments
     are handled as if they were a text	line.

     apropos(1), man(1), eqn(7), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7),

     The mandoc	utility	was written by Kristaps	Dzonsons <> and
     is	maintained by Ingo Schwarze <>.

FreeBSD	11.1		      September	20, 2017		  FreeBSD 11.1


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