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man(1)			    General Commands Manual			man(1)

       man - format and	display	the on-line manual pages
       manpath - determine user's search path for man pages

       man  [-acdfFhkKtwW]  [--path]  [-m system] [-p string] [-C config_file]
       [-M pathlist] [-P pager]	[-S section_list] [section] name ...

       man formats and displays	the on-line manual pages.  If you specify sec-
       tion,  man  only	looks in that section of the manual.  name is normally
       the name	of the manual page, which is typically the name	of a  command,
       function,  or file.  However, if	name contains a	slash (/) then man in-
       terprets	it as a	file specification, so that you	can do man ./foo.5  or
       even man	/cd/foo/bar.1.gz.

       See  below  for	a  description	of where man looks for the manual page

       -C  config_file
	      Specify  the  configuration  file	 to  use;   the	  default   is
	      /etc/man.config.	(See man.conf(5).)

       -M  path
	      Specify  the list	of directories to search for man pages.	 Sepa-
	      rate the directories with	colons.	 An empty list is the same  as
	      not specifying -M	at all.	 See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       -P  pager
	      Specify  which pager to use.  This option	overrides the MANPAGER
	      environment variable, which in turn overrides  the  PAGER	 vari-
	      able.  By	default, man uses /usr/bin/less	-isr.

       -S  section_list
	      List  is	a  colon  separated list of manual sections to search.
	      This option overrides the	MANSECT	environment variable.

       -a     By default, man will exit	after displaying the first manual page
	      it  finds.  Using	this option forces man to display all the man-
	      ual pages	that match name, not just the first.

       -c     Reformat the source man page, even when an up-to-date  cat  page
	      exists.	This  can  be meaningful if the	cat page was formatted
	      for a screen with	a different number of columns, or if the  pre-
	      formatted	page is	corrupted.

       -d     Don't  actually  display the man pages, but do print gobs	of de-
	      bugging information.

       -D     Both display and print debugging info.

       -f     Equivalent to whatis.

       -F or --preformat
	      Format only - do not display.

       -h     Print a one-line help message and	exit.

       -k     Equivalent to apropos.

       -K     Search for the specified string in  *all*	 man  pages.  Warning:
	      this  is	probably  very	slow!  It  helps to specify a section.
	      (Just to give a rough idea, on my	machine	 this  takes  about  a
	      minute per 500 man pages.)

       -m  system
	      Specify  an  alternate  set  of man pages	to search based	on the
	      system name given.

       -p  string
	      Specify the sequence of preprocessors to	run  before  nroff  or
	      troff.  Not all installations will have a	full set of preproces-
	      sors.  Some of the preprocessors and the letters used to	desig-
	      nate  them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p), tbl (t), vgrind (v),
	      refer (r).  This option  overrides  the  MANROFFSEQ  environment

       -t     Use /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc to format	the manual page, pass-
	      ing the output to	stdout.	 The output from  /usr/bin/groff  -Tps
	      -mandoc may need to be passed through some filter	or another be-
	      fore being printed.

       -w or --path
	      Don't actually display the man pages, but	 do  print  the	 loca-
	      tion(s) of the files that	would be formatted or displayed. If no
	      argument is given: display (on stdout) the list  of  directories
	      that  is	searched by man	for man	pages. If manpath is a link to
	      man, then	"manpath" is equivalent	to "man	--path".

       -W     Like -w, but print file names one	per line,  without  additional
	      information.   This is useful in shell commands like man -aW man
	      |	xargs ls -l

       Man will	try to save the	formatted man pages, in	order to save  format-
       ting time the next time these pages are needed.	Traditionally, format-
       ted versions of pages in	DIR/manX are saved in DIR/catX,	but other map-
       pings  from man dir to cat dir can be specified in /etc/man.config.  No
       cat pages are saved when	the required cat directory does	not exist.  No
       cat pages are saved when	they are formatted for a line length different
       from 80.	 No cat	pages are saved	when man.conf contains	the  line  NO-

       It is possible to make man suid to a user man. Then, if a cat directory
       has owner man and mode 0755 (only writable by man), and the  cat	 files
       have  owner  man	 and  mode  0644 or 0444 (only writable	by man,	or not
       writable	at all), no ordinary user can change  the  cat	pages  or  put
       other  files  in	the cat	directory. If man is not made suid, then a cat
       directory should	have mode 0777 if all users should be  able  to	 leave
       cat pages there.

       The option -c forces reformatting a page, even if a recent cat page ex-

       man uses	a sophisticated	method of finding manual page files, based  on
       the  invocation	options	and environment	variables, the /etc/man.config
       configuration file, and some built in conventions and heuristics.

       First of	all, when the name argument to man contains a slash  (/),  man
       assumes	it  is	a file specification itself, and there is no searching

       But in the normal case where name doesn't contain a slash, man searches
       a variety of directories	for a file that	could be a manual page for the
       topic named.

       If you specify the -M pathlist option, pathlist	is  a  colon-separated
       list of the directories that man	searches.

       If  you	don't specify -M but set the MANPATH environment variable, the
       value of	that  variable	is  the	 list  of  the	directories  that  man

       If  you don't specify an	explicit path list with	-M or MANPATH, man de-
       velops its own path list	based on the  contents	of  the	 configuration
       file /etc/man.config.  The MANPATH statements in	the configuration file
       identify	particular directories to include in the search	path.

       Furthermore, the	MANPATH_MAP statements add to the search path  depend-
       ing  on your command search path	(i.e. your PATH	environment variable).
       For each	directory that may be in  the  command	search	path,  a  MAN-
       PATH_MAP	 statement  specifies  a directory that	should be added	to the
       search path for manual page files.  man looks at	the PATH variable  and
       adds the	corresponding directories to the manual	page file search path.
       Thus, with the proper use of MANPATH_MAP, when you  issue  the  command
       man  xyz,  you  get a manual page for the program that would run	if you
       issued the command xyz.

       In addition, for	each directory in the command search path (we'll  call
       it  a  "command	directory")  for  which	 you do	not have a MANPATH_MAP
       statement, man automatically looks for a	manual page directory "nearby"
       namely as a subdirectory	in the command directory itself	or in the par-
       ent directory of	the command directory.

       You can disable the automatic "nearby" searches by  including  a	 NOAU-
       TOPATH statement	in /etc/man.config.

       In  each	 directory in the search path as described above, man searches
       for a file named	topic.section, with an optional	suffix on the  section
       number  and  possibly  a	compression suffix.  If	it doesn't find	such a
       file, it	then looks in any subdirectories named manN or catN where N is
       the  manual section number.  If the file	is in a	catN subdirectory, man
       assumes it is a formatted manual	page file (cat page).  Otherwise,  man
       assumes it is unformatted.  In either case, if the filename has a known
       compression suffix (like	.gz), man assumes it is	gzipped.

       If you want to see where	(or if)	man would find the manual page	for  a
       particular topic, use the --path	(-w) option.

	      If  MANPATH is set, man uses it as the path to search for	manual
	      page files.  It overrides	the configuration file and  the	 auto-
	      matic  search  path,  but	is overridden by the -M	invocation op-

       MANPL  If MANPL is set, its value is used as the	display	 page  length.
	      Otherwise, the entire man	page will occupy one (long) page.

	      If  MANROFFSEQ is	set, its value is used to determine the	set of
	      preprocessors run	before running nroff or	 troff.	  By  default,
	      pages are	passed through the tbl preprocessor before nroff.

	      If  MANSECT  is set, its value is	used to	determine which	manual
	      sections to search.

	      If MANWIDTH is set, its value is	used  as  the  width  manpages
	      should  be displayed.  Otherwise the pages may be	displayed over
	      the whole	width of your screen.

	      If MANPAGER is set, its value is used as the name	of the program
	      to  use to display the man page.	If not,	then PAGER is used. If
	      that has no value	either,	/usr/bin/less -isr is used.

       LANG   If LANG is set, its value	defines	the name of  the  subdirectory
	      where  man first looks for man pages. Thus, the command `LANG=dk
	      man 1 foo' will cause man	to  look  for  the  foo	 man  page  in
	      .../dk/man1/foo.1,  and  if  it cannot find such a file, then in
	      .../man1/foo.1, where ...	is a directory on the search path.

	      The environment variables	NLSPATH	and LC_MESSAGES	(or LANG  when
	      the  latter  does	not exist) play	a role in locating the message
	      catalog.	(But the English messages are  compiled	 in,  and  for
	      English no catalog is required.)	Note that programs like	col(1)
	      called by	man also use e.g. LC_CTYPE.

       PATH   PATH helps determine the search path for manual page files.  See

       SYSTEM SYSTEM is	used to	get the	default	alternate system name (for use
	      with the -m option).

       apropos(1), whatis(1), less(1), groff(1), man.config(5).

       The -t option only works	if a troff-like	program	is installed.
       If you see blinking  \255  or  <AD>  instead  of	 hyphens,  put	`LESS-
       CHARSET=latin1' in your environment.

       If you add the line

	 (global-set-key  [(f1)]  (lambda () (interactive) (manual-entry (cur-

       to your .emacs file, then hitting F1 will give you the man page for the
       library call at the current cursor position.

       To  get	a plain	text version of	a man page, without backspaces and un-
       derscores, try

	 # man foo | col -b > foo.mantxt

			       September 2, 1995			man(1)


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