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MAN(1)                  FreeBSD General Commands Manual                 MAN(1)

     man - format and display the on-line manual pages

     man [-adfhkotw] [-m arch[:machine]] [-p string] [-M path] [-P pager]
         [-S list] [section] name ...

     The man utility formats and displays the on-line manual pages.  This
     version knows about the MANPATH and PAGER environment variables, so you
     can have your own set(s) of personal man pages and choose whatever
     program you like to display the formatted pages.  If section is
     specified, man only looks in that section of the manual.  You may also
     specify the order to search the sections for entries and which
     preprocessors to run on the source files via command line options or
     environment variables.  If enabled by the system administrator, formatted
     man pages will also be compressed with the ``/usr/bin/gzip -c'' command
     to save space.

     The options are as follows:

     -M path         Specify an alternate manpath.  By default, man uses
                     manpath(1) (which is built into the man binary) to
                     determine the path to search.  This option overrides the
                     MANPATH environment variable.

     -P pager        Specify which pager to use.  By default, man uses ``more
                     -s''.  This option overrides the PAGER environment

     -S list         List is a colon separated list of manual sections to
                     search.  This option overrides the MANSECT environment

     -a              By default, man will exit after displaying the first
                     manual page it finds.  Using this option forces man to
                     display all the manual pages that match name, not just
                     the first.

     -d              Do not actually display the man pages, but do print gobs
                     of debugging information.

     -f              Equivalent to whatis.

     -h              Print a help message and exit.

     -k              Equivalent to apropos.

     -m arch[:machine]
                     As some manual pages are intended only for specific
                     architectures and machine types, man searches any
                     subdirectories, with the same name as the current machine
                     type and architecture, in every directory which it
                     searches.  Machine specific areas are checked before
                     architecture specific areas, and architecture specific
                     areas are checked before general areas.  For example, for
                     ``i386:pc98'', the following subdirectories will be
                     searched for section 8 manpages, in order: man8/pc98,
                     man8/i386, and man8.

                     The current machine type may be overridden using this
                     option or by setting the environment variable MACHINE to
                     the name of a specific machine.  The current architecture
                     may be overridden using this option or by setting the
                     environment variable MACHINE_ARCH to the name of a
                     specific architecture.  This option overrides the MACHINE
                     and MACHINE_ARCH environment variables.  A machine
                     component, if omitted, defaults to arch.

     -o              Look for original, non-localized manpages only.

                     By default, man searches for a localized manpage in a set
                     of locale subdirectories of each manpath(1) component.

                     Locale name is taken from the first of three environment
                     variables with a nonempty value: LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, or
                     LANG, in the specified order.

                     If the value could not be determined, or is not a valid
                     locale name, then only non-localized manpage will be
                     looked up.

                     Otherwise, man will search in the following
                     subdirectories, in the order of precedence:


                     For example, for the ``de_DE.ISO8859-1'' locale, man will
                     search in the following subdirectories of the
                     /usr/share/man manpath component:


                     Finally, if the search of localized manpage fails, it
                     will be looked up in the default /usr/share/man

     -p string       Specify the sequence of preprocessors to run before
                     nroff(1) or troff(1).  Not all installations will have a
                     full set of preprocessors.  Some of the preprocessors and
                     the letters used to designate them are: eqn (e), grap
                     (g), pic (p), tbl (t), vgrind (v), refer (r).  This
                     option overrides the MANROFFSEQ environment variable.

     -t              Use ``/usr/bin/groff -S -man'' to format the manual page,
                     passing the output to stdout.  The default output format
                     of groff(1) is Postscript, but see the manual page of
                     groff(1) for ways to pick an alternate format.

                     Depending on the selected format and the availability of
                     printing devices, the output may need to be passed
                     through some filter or another before being printed.

     -w              Do not actually display the man pages, but do print the
                     location(s) of the files that would be formatted or

                       These variables specify the preferred language for
                       manual pages.  (See the -o option above.)

     MACHINE           If MACHINE is set, its value is used to override the
                       current machine type when searching machine specific

     MACHINE_ARCH      If MACHINE_ARCH is set, its value is used to override
                       the current architecture when searching architecture
                       specific subdirectories.

     MANPATH           If MANPATH is set, its value is used as the path to
                       search for manual pages.

     MANROFFSEQ        If MANROFFSEQ is set, its value is used to determine
                       the set of preprocessors run before running nroff(1) or
                       troff(1).  By default, pages are passed through the
                       table preprocessor (tbl(1)) before nroff(1).

     MANSECT           If MANSECT is set, its value is used to determine which
                       manual sections to search.

     PAGER             If PAGER is set, its value is used as the name of the
                       program to use to display the man page.  By default,
                       ``more -s'' is used.

     Normally, to look at the relevant manpage information for ``getopt'', one
     would use:

           man getopt

     However, when referring to a specific section of the manual, such as
     getopt(3), one would use:

           man 3 getopt

     apropos(1), groff(1), manpath(1), more(1), whatis(1), man(7), mdoc(7)

     The -t option only works if the troff(1)-like program is installed.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        December 3, 2005        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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