Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
MALLOC(9)	       FreeBSD Kernel Developer's Manual	     MALLOC(9)

NAME
     malloc, mallocarray, free -- kernel memory	allocator

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/malloc.h>

     void *
     malloc(size_t size, int type, int flags);

     void *
     mallocarray(size_t	nmemb, size_t size, int	type, int flags);

     void
     free(void *addr, int type,	size_t size);

DESCRIPTION
     The malloc() function allocates uninitialized memory in kernel address
     space for an object whose size is specified by size.

     The mallocarray() function	is the same as malloc(), but allocates space
     for an array of nmemb objects and checks for arithmetic overflow.

     The free()	function releases memory at address addr that was previously
     allocated by malloc() or mallocarray() for	re-use.	 The same object size
     originally	provided to malloc() should be specified by size, because
     free() will operate faster	knowing	this.  If tracking the size is diffi-
     cult, specify size	as 0.  If addr is a null pointer, no action occurs.

     The flags argument	affects	the operational	characteristics	of malloc()
     and mallocarray() as follows:

	   M_WAITOK
		If memory is currently unavailable, malloc() may call sleep to
		wait for resources to be released by other processes.

	   M_NOWAIT
		Causes malloc()	to return NULL if the request cannot be	imme-
		diately	fulfilled due to resource shortage.

	   M_CANFAIL
		In the M_WAITOK	case, if not enough memory is available, re-
		turn NULL instead of calling panic(9).	If mallocarray() de-
		tects an overflow or malloc() detects an excessive allocation,
		return NULL instead of calling panic(9).

	   M_ZERO
		Causes allocated memory	to be zeroed.

     One of M_NOWAIT or	M_WAITOK must be specified via the flags argument.

     The type argument broadly identifies the kernel subsystem for which the
     allocated memory was needed, and is commonly used to maintain statistics
     about kernel memory usage.	 These statistics can be examined using
     vmstat(8) or systat(1) if either of the kernel options(4) KMEMSTATS or
     DEBUG are enabled.

     The following types are currently defined:

	   M_FREE	   Should be on	free list.
	   M_DEVBUF	   Device driver memory.
	   M_PCB	   Protocol control blocks.
	   M_RTABLE	   Routing tables.
	   M_IFADDR	   Interface addresses.
	   M_SOOPTS	   Socket options.
	   M_SYSCTL	   Sysctl persistent buffers.
	   M_COUNTERS	   Per-CPU Counters for	use via	counters_alloc(9).
	   M_IOCTLOPS	   Ioctl data buffers.
	   M_IOV	   Large IOVs.
	   M_MOUNT	   VFS mount structs.
	   M_NFSREQ	   NFS request headers.
	   M_NFSMNT	   NFS mount structures.
	   M_VNODE	   Dynamically allocated vnodes.
	   M_CACHE	   Dynamically allocated cache entries.
	   M_DQUOT	   UFS quota entries.
	   M_UFSMNT	   UFS mount structures.
	   M_SHM	   SVID	compatible shared memory segments.
	   M_VMMAP	   VM map structures.
	   M_SEM	   SVID	compatible semaphores.
	   M_DIRHASH	   UFS directory hash structures.
	   M_ACPI	   ACPI	structures.
	   M_VMPMAP	   VM pmap data.
	   M_FILE	   Open	file structures.
	   M_FILEDESC	   Open	file descriptor	tables.
	   M_SIGIO	   Sigio structures.
	   M_PROC	   Proc	structures.
	   M_SUBPROC	   Proc	sub-structures.
	   M_VCLUSTER	   Cluster for VFS.
	   M_MFSNODE	   MFS vnode private part.
	   M_NETADDR	   Export host address structures.
	   M_NFSSVC	   NFS server structures.
	   M_NFSD	   NFS server daemon structures.
	   M_IPMOPTS	   Internet multicast options.
	   M_IPMADDR	   Internet multicast addresses.
	   M_IFMADDR	   Link-level multicast	addresses.
	   M_MRTABLE	   Multicast routing tables.
	   M_ISOFSMNT	   ISOFS mount structures.
	   M_ISOFSNODE	   ISOFS vnode private part.
	   M_MSDOSFSMNT	   MSDOS FS mount structures.
	   M_MSDOSFSFAT	   MSDOS FS FAT	tables.
	   M_MSDOSFSNODE   MSDOS FS vnode private part.
	   M_TTYS	   Allocated tty structures.
	   M_EXEC	   Argument lists & other mem used by exec.
	   M_MISCFSMNT	   Miscellaneous FS mount structures.
	   M_FUSEFS	   FUSE	FS mount structures.
	   M_PFKEY	   Pfkey data.
	   M_TDB	   Transforms database.
	   M_XDATA	   IPsec data.
	   M_PAGEDEP	   File	page dependencies.
	   M_INODEDEP	   Inode dependencies.
	   M_NEWBLK	   New block allocation.
	   M_INDIRDEP	   Indirect block dependencies.
	   M_VMSWAP	   VM swap structures.
	   M_UVMAMAP	   UVM amap and	related.
	   M_UVMAOBJ	   UVM aobj and	related.
	   M_USB	   USB general.
	   M_USBDEV	   USB device driver.
	   M_USBHC	   USB host controller.
	   M_WITNESS	   witness(4) memory.
	   M_MEMDESC	   Memory range.
	   M_CRYPTO_DATA   crypto(9) data buffers.
	   M_CREDENTIALS   ipsec(4) related credentials.
	   M_EMULDATA	   Per process emulation data.
	   M_IP6OPT	   IPv6	options.
	   M_IP6NDP	   IPv6	neighbour discovery structures.
	   M_TEMP	   Miscellaneous temporary data	buffers.
	   M_NTFSMNT	   NTFS	mount structures.
	   M_NTFSNTNODE	   NTFS	ntnode information.
	   M_NTFSFNODE	   NTFS	fnode information.
	   M_NTFSDIR	   NTFS	directory buffers.
	   M_NTFSNTHASH	   NTFS	ntnode hash tables.
	   M_NTFSNTVATTR   NTFS	file attribute information.
	   M_NTFSRDATA	   NTFS	resident data.
	   M_NTFSDECOMP	   NTFS	decompression temporary	storage.
	   M_NTFSRUN	   NTFS	vrun storage.
	   M_KEVENT	   kqueue(2) data structures.
	   M_SYNCACHE	   SYN cache hash array.
	   M_UDFMOUNT	   UDF mount structures.
	   M_UDFFENTRY	   UDF file entries.
	   M_UDFFID	   UDF file ID.
	   M_AGP	   AGP memory.
	   M_DRM	   Direct Rendering Manager.

CONTEXT
     malloc() and mallocarray()	can be called during autoconf, from process
     context, or from interrupt	context	if M_NOWAIT is passed via flags.  They
     can't be called from interrupt context if M_WAITOK	is passed via flags.

     free() can	be called during autoconf, from	process	context, or from in-
     terrupt context.

RETURN VALUES
     malloc() and mallocarray()	return a kernel	virtual	address	that is	suit-
     ably aligned for storage of any type of object.

DIAGNOSTICS
     A kernel compiled with the	DIAGNOSTIC configuration option	attempts to
     detect memory corruption caused by	such things as writing outside the al-
     located area and unbalanced calls to malloc() or mallocarray(), and
     free().  Failing consistency checks will cause a panic or a system	con-
     sole message:

	   +o   panic: "malloc: bogus type"
	   +o   panic: "malloc: out of space in kmem_map"
	   +o   panic: "malloc: allocation too large"
	   +o   panic: "malloc: wrong bucket"
	   +o   panic: "malloc: lost data"
	   +o   panic: "mallocarray: overflow"
	   +o   panic: "free: unaligned addr"
	   +o   panic: "free: duplicated	free"
	   +o   panic: "free: multiple frees"
	   +o   panic: "free: non-malloced addr"
	   +o   panic: "free: size too large"
	   +o   panic: "free: size too small"
	   +o   panic: "kmeminit: minbucket too small/struct freelist too big"
	   +o   "multiply freed item <addr>"
	   +o   "Data modified on freelist: <data object	description>"

SEE ALSO
     systat(1),	vmstat(8)

FreeBSD	13.0		       February	7, 2019			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CONTEXT | RETURN VALUES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=malloc&sektion=9&manpath=OpenBSD+6.9>

home | help