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makefiles(4L)		    GMD	FOKUS FILE FORMATS		 makefiles(4L)

NAME
       makefiles - users guide for compiling projects on different platforms

SYNOPSIS
       make [target]
       gmake [target]
       smake [target]

       Target may be one of:

       .help	 to get	a list of possible targets and a short description.

       all	 to make the default targets

       install	 to  make  and	install	 the default targets (see INS_BASE and
		 INS_KBASE to learn how	to modify the installation path).

       ibins	 to make and install a target in SRCROOT/bins

       depend	 to re-make dependency rules for all default  targets.	 Note:
		 All  dependency  files	 will automatically remade on the next
		 run of	make before they are included.

       clean	 to remove core	files and all intermediate object files.

       clobber	 to remove the targets from clean, all	dependency  files  and
		 all final targets

       distclean to  remove  the  targets  from	clean and clobber and all made
		 files for all architectures.

       tags	 to make vi(1) compatible tags

       TAGS	 to make emacs(1) compatible tags

       config	 reserved for future use.

       rmtarget	 to remove the default target

       relink	 to remove the default target and remake it immediately.  This
		 can be	used to	change .e.g LD_RUN_PATH	in the executable.

DESCRIPTION
       Makefiles  is  a	 set  of  rules	 that  allows  compiling of structured
       projects	with small and uniformly structured makefiles.	All rules  are
       located	in  a  central directory.  Compiling the projects on different
       platforms can be	done simultaneously without the	need to	modify any  of
       the makefiles that are located in the projects directories.

       Makefiles is a set of high level	portability tools superior to autoconf
       and easier to use.

       Three make programs are supported: Sunpro make, GNU make	and smake.

       BSDmake could be	supported if it	supports pattern matching  rules  cor-
       rectly.

       The  main design	goal was to have a set of small	and easy to read make-
       files, each located in  the  project's  leaf  directory	and  therefore
       called leaf-makefile.

       Each  of	these leaf-makefiles, in fact contains no rule at all. It sim-
       ply defines some	macros for the make-program  and  includes  two	 files
       from  a central make rule depository.  The included files and the files
       that are	recursively included define the	rules that are needed to  com-
       pile the	project.

       Each leaf-makefile is formed in a really	simple way:

       o      It first defines two macros that define the relative location of
	      the project's root directory and the name	of the directory  that
	      contains the complete set	of of rules and	then includes the rule
	      file rules.top from the directory	that forms  the	 central  rule
	      depository.   You	only have to edit the macro SRCROOT to reflect
	      the relative location of the project's root directory.

       o      The next part of a leaf-makefile defines	macros	that  describe
	      the  target  and	the  source.  You can only have	one target per
	      leaf-makefile.  Of course, there may be many source files,  that
	      are needed to create that	target.	 If you	want to	make more than
	      one target in a specific directory, you have to  put  more  than
	      one  makefile  into that directory.  This	is the part of a make-
	      file that	describes a unique target.  Edit this part to  contain
	      all  source  files,  all	local include files and	all non	global
	      compile time flags that are needed for your target.  For a typi-
	      cal target this is as simple as filling in a form.

       o      Each leaf-makefile finally includes a file from the rules	direc-
	      tory that	contains rules for the appropriate type	of target that
	      is to be made from this leaf-makefile.

       The  makefile in	each directory has to be called	Makefile.  If you want
       to have more than one makefile in a specific  directory,	 you  have  to
       choose different	names for the other makefiles.

       There are rules for the following type of targets:

       commands		   The make rules for user level commands like cat, ls
			   etc.	are located in the file	rules.cmd

       drivers		   The make rules for device drivers  are  located  in
			   the file rules.drv

       libraries	   The make rules for non shared libraries are located
			   in the file rules.lib

       shared libraries	   The make rules for shared libraries are located  in
			   the file rules.shl

       localized files	   The	make  rules for	localized files	are located in
			   the file rules.loc

       nonlocalized files  The make rules for non localized files are  located
			   in the file rules.aux

       shell scripts	   The	make rules for shell scripts (a	variant	of lo-
			   calized files) are located in the file rules.scr

       manual pages	   The make rules for manual pages (a variant  of  lo-
			   calized files) are located in the file rules.man

       diverted	makefiles  The	make rules for projects	that need to have more
			   than	one makefile in	a specific directory  are  lo-
			   cated in the	file rules.mks It contains a rule that
			   diverts to the  listed  sub	makefiles.   Each  sub
			   makefile may	be of any type.

       directories	   The	make  rules for	sub directories	are located in
			   the file rules.dir

Macros/Variables Used In Rules
       The following is	a description of the most important macros used	within
       the  make  rules.  NOTE:	not all	of them	might be changed in a specific
       makefile.  Carefully read the description and change only those	macros
       that are	intended to be used to change the behavior of the compilation.

       ARCHDIR	    contains  the location where object	files and make targets
		    will   be	placed.	   A   typical	  name	  would	   be:
		    OBJ/sparc-sunos5-cc
		    Do not change this macro.

       ASFLAGS	    The	flags that are used with the assembler.
		    Do not change this macro.

       ASMFILES	    a  list  of	 assembler  source files, to be	specified in a
		    leaf makefile.

       ASOPTS	    The	internal macro that contains the flags for the	assem-
		    bler.   Change this	macro if you want to change the	behav-
		    ior.  Use: ASOPTS= value If	you want to override  the  de-
		    fault value. If you	want to	override the default assembler
		    flags from the command line	call: make 'ASOPTS=value' Use:
		    ASOPTS  +=	value  If you want to add flags	to the default
		    value from within a	makefile.

       ASOPTX	    may	be used	if you want to	add  flags  to	the  assembler
		    flags from the command line. Use: make 'ASOPTX=value'

       C_ARCH	    this macro contains	the c-compiler architecture name.
		    Do not change this macro.

       CCOM	    This macro may be used from	the command line to use	a dif-
		    ferent c-compiler than the default.	 Use: make  'CCOM=gcc'
		    to use gcc for the next run.  Note:	The value of CCOM must
		    not	necessarily be identical to the	real name  of  the  c-
		    compiler.  It refers to a filename which contains the def-
		    inition for	that c-compiler. This hint applies as well  to
		    all	 other	macros	that  deal with	the name of the	c-com-
		    piler.  The	only macro, that contains the real  invocation
		    name  of  the c-compiler, is CC.  CC is set	inside the ma-
		    chine dependent configuration file in  the	central	 rules
		    depository and must	not be changed elsewhere.

       CFILES	    a  list of C source	files, to be specified in a leaf make-
		    file.

       CFLAGS	    The	flags that are used with the c-compiler.  Do  not  use
		    flags  that	 belong	 to the	c-preprocessor in the COPTOPT,
		    COPTS and COPTX macros.
		    Do not change this macro.

       CLEAN_FILES  A list of files ( besides the object files ) that will  be
		    removed with make clean.
		    Do not change this macro.

       CLEAN_FILEX  this  macro	 may  be  used to define additional files that
		    should be removed with make	clean.

       CLOBBER_FILEX
		    this macro may be used to  define  additional  files  that
		    should be removed with make	clobber.

       COPTOPT	    The	c-compiler optimization	flag. This flag	is intended to
		    be overridden either from a	makefile or from command line.

       COPTS	    The	internal macro that contains the flags for the	c-com-
		    piler.  Change this	macro if you want to change the	behav-
		    ior.  Use: COPTS= value If you want	to  override  the  de-
		    fault  value.  If  you want	to override the	default	c-com-
		    piler flags	from the command line call: make 'COPTS=value'
		    Use:  COPTS	 +=  value If you want to add flags to the de-
		    fault value	from within a makefile.

       COPTX	    may	be used	if you want to add  flags  to  the  c-compiler
		    flags from the command line. Use: make 'COPTX=value'

       CPPFLAGS	    The	 flags	that  are  used	with the c-preprocessor.  This
		    macro as well as: CPPOPTS and CPPOPTX are also  used  when
		    compiling  c-programs.   They should contain only the fol-
		    lowing flags: -Dname=value	,  -Uname  ,  -Idirectory  and
		    -Ydirectory.
		    Do not change this macro.

       CPPOPTS	    The	 internal macro	that contains the flags	for the	c-pre-
		    processor.	Change this macro if you want  to  change  the
		    behavior.  Use: CPPOPTS= value If you want to override the
		    default value. If you want to override the default	c-pre-
		    processor  flags  from  the	 command  line call: make 'CP-
		    POPTS=value' Use: CPPOPTS += value	If  you	 want  to  add
		    flags to the default value from within a makefile.

       CPPOPTX	    may	be used	if you want to add flags to the	c-preprocessor
		    flags from the command line. Use: make 'CPPOPTX=value'

       CURDIR	    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory that  is
		    currently processed.
		    Do not change this macro.

       CWARNOPTS    This  macro	 may  be set in	$(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/De-
		    faults or $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH) to
		    overwrite the default c-compiler warn options.

       CWOPTS	    This  macro	is set inside the machine dependent configura-
		    tion file in the central rules depository and must not  be
		    changed elsewhere.	It contains the	flags that set the de-
		    fault warning level	for the	c-compiler.

       DEFINSGRP    this macro may be set in the projects defaults file	to set
		    up the default group id for	installation

       DEFINSMODE   this macro may be set in the projects defaults file	to set
		    up the default file	permission for installation

       DEFINSUSR    this macro may be set in the projects defaults file	to set
		    up the default user	id for installation

       DEFUMASK	    this macro may be set in the projects defaults file	to set
		    up the default umask value for creating sub	directories

       DEFAULTSDIR  this macro may be set from command line or from the	 shell
		    environment	 if  the  user wants to	use a different	set of
		    Defaults files that	is not located in  the	directory  DE-
		    FAULTS  in the source root directory.  This	may be used to
		    hold two or	more set of defaults that differ e.g.  in  the
		    installation path or the C-compiler.

       DEFAULTSROOT this macro may be set in a leaf makefile, if that makefile
		    wants to use a Defaults file that is not located in	 $(DE-
		    FAULTSDIR) in the source root.  This may be	used, if a sub
		    tree in a big project needs	a different setup.

       DEFLTSDIR    This is an internally used macro that is  set  from	 $(DE-
		    FAULTSDIR) or from the internal defaults.
		    Do not change this macro.

       DEFLTSROOT   This  is  an  internally used macro	that is	set from $(DE-
		    FAULTSROOT)	or from	the internal defaults.
		    Do not change this macro.

       DEFCCOM	    the	default	name of	the c-compiler.	This is	usually	set in
		    the	 file $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults or $(DEFLTS-
		    ROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

       DEFINCDIRS   a list of directories that are searched by default in  ad-
		    dition to the system include directories. If this macro is
		    not	set, $(SRCROOT)/include	is used.

       DIRNAME	    this macro needs to	be set in the makefile that is located
		    in	the  $(SRCROOT)	directory.  The	value should be	either
		    set	to the name of the directory where the makefile	is lo-
		    cated  or  to SRCROOT.  The	value of this macro is updated
		    automatically to follow the	directory hierarchy.   Do  not
		    change  this macro in a make file other than the make file
		    in the source root.

       DIRS	    this macro needs to	be set in a makefile that  is  located
		    in	a  directory  that contains diversion directories.  It
		    must contain a list	of directory names  where  the	diver-
		    sions go to	e.g.  DIRS= libfoo libbar libgarbage.

       HFILES	    for	 normal	 operation,  makefiles will automatically find
		    which include files	are needed for compilation.   However,
		    if	you  want  to create a tag file	that includes tags for
		    definitions	that occur within include  files,  you	should
		    set	 HFILES	 to be a list of include files containing such
		    definitions.

       INCDIRS	    this macro will normally be	a copy from  DEFINCDIRS.   You
		    may	 however  specify a different value in a leaf makefile
		    or from command line. This	will  overwrite	 the  defaults
		    value.

       INS_BASE	    this  macro	 has  to  be  specified	 in the	file $(DEFLTS-
		    ROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults	  or   $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTS-
		    DIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).  It must contain the path name of
		    the	root for installing general targets  of	 the  project.
		    See	INSDIR.

       INS_KBASE    this  macro	 has  to  be  specified	 in the	file $(DEFLTS-
		    ROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults	  or   $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTS-
		    DIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).  It must contain the path name of
		    the	root for installing kernel modules from	 the  project.
		    See	INSDIR.

       INSDIR	    this  macro	 has to	be specified in	the leaf makefile.  It
		    must contain the path name	of  a  directory  relative  to
		    INS_BASE  or INS_KBASE.  The target	will be	installed into
		    $(INS_BASE)/$(INSDIR) .

       INSGRP	    this macro may be set in a leaf makefile  to  set  up  the
		    group id for installation

       INSMODE	    this  macro	 may  be  set in a leaf	makefile to set	up the
		    file permission for	installation

       INSUSR	    this macro may be set in a leaf makefile  to  set  up  the
		    user id for	installation

       K_ARCH	    this  macro	 contains  the kernel/machine architecture for
		    the	target machine (e.g.  sun3 sun4c sun4m sun4u  9000-725
		    aviion).  It is set	to the output of uname -m converted to
		    lower case.
		    Do not change this macro.

       KARCH	    this macro contains	the  kernel/machine  architecture  for
		    the	 target	machine	(e.g.  sun3 sun4c sun4m	sun4u 9000-725
		    aviion).  It is set	to the output of uname -m converted to
		    lower case.
		    Do	not  change  this  macro unless	you want to do a cross
		    compilation.

       LDFLAGS	    The	flags that are used with the linker.
		    Do not change this macro.

       LDLIBS	    The	internal macro that holds the libraries	that are  used
		    while linking the target.
		    Do not change this macro.

       LDOPTS	    The	internal macro that contains the flags for the linker.
		    Change this	macro if you  want  to	change	the  behavior.
		    Use:  LDOPTS=  value  If  you want to override the default
		    value. If you want to override the	default	 linker	 flags
		    from  the  command	line  call:  make  'LDOPTS=value' Use:
		    LDOPTS += value If you want	to add flags  to  the  default
		    value from within a	makefile.

       LDOPTX	    may	 be  used if you want to add flags to the linker flags
		    from the command line. Use:	make 'LDOPTX=value'

       LDPATH	    the	default	library	search path for	the linker.   This  is
		    usually  set  in  the  file	$(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/De-
		    faults or $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).

       LIB_KVM	    a predefined macro that contains the operating system  de-
		    pendent  name of a library that is needed by programs that
		    read/write kernel virtual memory.  Add $(LIB_KVM) to  your
		    list of libraries (e.g.  LIBS= -lintl $(LIB_KVM)), if your
		    target uses	kvm.

       LIB_MATH	    a predefined macro that contains the operating system  de-
		    pendent  name of a library that is needed by programs that
		    use	routines of the	math library.  Add $(LIB_MATH) to your
		    list  of  libraries	 (e.g.	 LIBS= -lintl $(LIB_MATH)), if
		    your target	uses math subroutines.

       LIB_SOCKET   a predefined macro that contains the operating system  de-
		    pendent  name of a library that is needed by programs that
		    use	socket calls.  Add $(LIB_SOCKET) to your list  of  li-
		    braries (e.g.  LIBS= -lintl	$(LIB_SOCKET)),	if your	target
		    uses sockets. Note:	this should (for portability  reasons)
		    even  be  done  on systems that don't require a socket li-
		    brary because they have the	socket interface inside	libc.

       LIBS_PATH    this macro contains	the path to a  directory  where	 those
		    libraries  are located, that have been build during	a make
		    run	inside the current project.
		    Do not change this macro.

       M_ARCH	    this macro contains	the machine architecture for the  tar-
		    get	machine	(e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22 i86pc i586 9000-725 avi-
		    ion).  It is set to	the output of arch converted to	 lower
		    case.   On	systems,  where	M_ARCH is not available, it is
		    set	to the content of K_ARCH.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MK_FILES	    makefiles that divert into sub makes within	the  same  di-
		    rectory  must  set MK_FILES	to be a	list of	makefile names
		    for	the sub	makes.	Makefile names for  sub	 makes	should
		    have  a  name that is build	by adding .mk to the base name
		    of the target that is defined inside  the  specific	 make-
		    file.

       MAKEPROG	    Set	this macro to the name of your make program if it does
		    not	support	the macro MAKE_NAME.  The make	program	 smake
		    is	able  to  identify  itself.  If	you want to use	a make
		    program that is not	able to	identify itself	and it's  name
		    is not make, set MAKEPROG to the name of the make program.
		    Currently only gmake is supported as alternate  value  for
		    MAKEPROG.	If you want to use an unsupported make program
		    you	have to	check if it supports the needed	 features  for
		    makefiles.	 You  must  write your own rule	files for that
		    make program.  If you want to use  gmake,  you  should  do
		    setenv  MAKEPROG  gmake  before  you  start	gmake or use a
		    shell script that does this	job for	you.

       MAKE	    This macro is set up by the	make program.  It  contains  a
		    path  name that is sufficient to recursively call the same
		    make program again (either that last path component	or the
		    full path name of the make program).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKEFLAGS    This macro is set up by the	make program.  It contains the
		    command line flags,	make is	called with.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_ARCH    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 processor  architecture  of  the target machine (e.g.
		    mc68020, sparc, pentium).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_BRAND   This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 brand	of  the	 target	 machine  (e.g.	 Sun_Microsys-
		    tems(e.g. ).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_HOST    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	host name of the target	machine	(e.g. duffy, sherwood,
		    ghost).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_MACH    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 kernel	architecture of	the target machine (e.g. sun3,
		    sun4c, sun4m, sun4u).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_MODEL   This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 model name of the target machine (e.g.	SUNW,SPARCsta-
		    tion-20).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_M_ARCH  This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	machine	architecture of	the target machine (e.g. sun3,
		    sun4).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_NAME    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 official  name	of the make program (e.g. make,	smake,
		    gmake).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OS	    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 operating  system  name  of  the target machine (e.g.
		    sunos, linux, dgux).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSDEFS  This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    operating  system  specific	defines	for the	compiler (e.g.
		    -D__SVR4).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSREL   This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 operating  system  release name of the	target machine
		    (e.g. 5.5, 4.1.1).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_OSVERSION
		    This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	 operating  system version of the target machine (e.g.
		    generic).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MAKE_SERIAL  This macro is currently set	up by smake only.  It contains
		    the	serial number of the target machine (e.g. 1920098175).
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANDIR	    all	 makefiles for manual pages must set this macro	to the
		    path name relative to INS_BASE where the manual page  root
		    dir	 for  the project should be.  Possible values for eng-
		    lish manual	pages are man or  share/man,  possible	values
		    for	german manual pages are	man/de or share/man/de.

       MANFILE	    makefiles  for  manual pages set this macro	to the name of
		    the	troff source file for the manual page

       MANSECT	    makefiles for manual pages set this	 macro	to  the	 macro
		    name  that	contains the real section name for this	manual
		    page. This is necessary because bsd	based system have dif-
		    ferent naming conventions than system V based systems. See
		    below for a	valid list of manual section macros.

       MANSECT_ADMIN
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for  ad-
		    ministrative commands and maintenance procedures.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_CMD  This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for gen-
		    eral user commands.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DEMOS
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for demo
		    commands.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DEVICE
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for user
		    level device interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_DRIVER
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for ker-
		    nel	level device driver interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_FILEFORM
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for file
		    formats.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_GAMES
		    This macro contains	the name  of  the  sub	directory  for
		    games.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_HDR  This  macro	 contains  the	name  of the sub directory for
		    header files.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_LIB  This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for  li-
		    brary function interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_MACROS
		    This  macro	 contains  the	name  of the sub directory for
		    troff macros.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_NETWORK
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for user
		    level network interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSECT_SYSCALL
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for sys-
		    tem	call interfaces.  Do not change	this macro.

       MANSECT_TABLES
		    This macro contains	the name of the	sub directory for  ta-
		    bles.  Do not change this macro.

       MANSTYLE	    This  macro	 contains  the	name  that is used to find the
		    right ordering  conventions	 for  manual  pages.   Do  not
		    change this	macro.

       MANSUFFIX    makefiles  for  manual  pages  set this macro to the macro
		    name that contains the real	suffix for this	 manual	 page.
		    This  is necessary because bsd based system	have different
		    naming conventions than system V based systems. See	 below
		    for	a valid	list of	manual suffix macros.

       MANSUFF_ADMIN
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix for	admin-
		    istrative commands and maintenance procedures.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_CMD  This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix  for  gen-
		    eral user commands.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DEMOS
		    This  macro	 contains the name of the file suffix for demo
		    commands.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DEVICE
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix  for  user
		    level device interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_DRIVER
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix for	kernel
		    level device driver	interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_FILEFORM
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix  for  file
		    formats.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_GAMES
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix for	games.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_HDR  This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix for	header
		    files.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_LIB  This macro contains	the name of the	file  suffix  for  li-
		    brary function interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_MACROS
		    This  macro	contains the name of the file suffix for troff
		    macros.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_NETWORK
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix  for  user
		    level network interfaces.
		    Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_SYSCALL
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file suffix for	system
		    call interfaces.  Do not change this macro.

       MANSUFF_TABLES
		    This macro contains	the name of the	file  suffix  for  ta-
		    bles.  Do not change this macro.

       MARCH	    this  macro	contains the machine architecture for the tar-
		    get	machine	(e.g.  sun3 sun4 ip22 i86pc i586 9000-725 avi-
		    ion).   It is set to the output of arch converted to lower
		    case.  On systems, where M_ARCH is not  available,	it  is
		    set	to the content of K_ARCH.
		    Do	not  change  this  macro unless	you want to do a cross
		    compilation.

       O_ARCH	    this macro contains	the name of the	operating system  con-
		    verted  to lower case.  It is usually the output of: uname
		    -s.	 It may	contain	a modified  name  if  the  compilation
		    rules for different	version	of the operating system	differ
		    (e.g.  on SunOS and	Solaris, the official operation	system
		    name in both cases is SunOS).
		    Do not change this macro.

       OARCH	    this  macro	 contains the object architecture that is used
		    for	architecture dependent sub directories.	 It is set to:
		    $(PARCH)-$(O_ARCH)-$(C_ARCH).
		    Do not change this macro.

       OARCHDIR	    this   macro   contains  the  concatenation	 of  OBJ/  and
		    $(OARCH).
		    Do not change this macro.

       OFILES	    this macro contains	the list of objects that are  the  the
		    dependency	list  for  the target.	It is constructed from
		    the	list of	assembler source files,	c  source  files,  lex
		    source files and yacc source files.
		    Do not change this macro.

       OINCSDIR	    this  macro	contains the concatenation of $(SRCROOT)/incs/
		    and	$(OARCH).  It is the location where include files that
		    are	 made within a make run	and subject to global use will
		    be placed.
		    Do not change this macro.

       OLIBSDIR	    this macro contains	the concatenation of  $(SRCROOT)/libs/
		    and	$(OARCH).  It is the location where libraries that are
		    made within	a make run will	be placed.
		    Do not change this macro.

       OSDEFS	    this macro contains	operating system specific c-preproces-
		    sor	definitions.
		    Do not change this macro.

       OSNAME	    the	 unmodified  name of the operating system converted to
		    lower case.	 See O_ARCH.
		    Do not change this macro.

       OSREL	    the	release	of the operating system.
		    Do not change this macro.

       P_ARCH	    this macro contains	the  processor	architecture  for  the
		    target  machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200 sparc pentium).  It
		    is set to the output of uname -p converted to lower	 case.
		    On	systems,  where	 P_ARCH	is not available, it is	set to
		    the	content	of K_ARCH.
		    Do not change this macro.

       PARCH	    this macro contains	the  processor	architecture  for  the
		    target  machine (e.g.  mc68020 mc88200 sparc pentium).  It
		    is set to the output of uname -p converted to lower	 case.
		    On	systems,  where	 P_ARCH	is not available, it is	set to
		    the	content	of K_ARCH.
		    Do not change this macro unless you	want  to  do  a	 cross
		    compilation.

       RULESDIR	    the	 value of this macro must be set before	the rules file
		    $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top is included.  If you  want
		    to	test  the  behavior of a modified version of the make-
		    files in RULESDIR, put a copy into an alternate directory,
		    modify  one	 or  more files	in it and then use make	with a
		    different value of RULESDIR, that points to	the  alternate
		    directory.

       RUNPATH	    is	evaluated  on systems, where LD_RUN_PATH is supported.
		    It contains	the default library search  path  for  dynamic
		    linked  targets  on	 runtime.   This  search  path will be
		    stored inside the target.  This is usually set in the file
		    $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DEFLTSDIR)/Defaults	or $(DEFLTSROOT)/$(DE-
		    FLTSDIR)/Defaults.$(O_ARCH).  Note that older systems will
		    use	LD_LIBRARY_PATH	for this purpose too.

       SCRFILE	    this  macro	 must  be  set	in  a  leaf makefile for shell
		    scripts to define the source for that script file.

       SRCFILE	    this macro must be set in a	leaf  makefile	for  localized
		    files to define the	source for that	file.

       SRCROOT	    this macro contains	the relative position to the project's
		    source root	directory.  The	value of this  macro  must  be
		    set	 before	the rules file $(SRCROOT)/$(RULESDIR/rules.top
		    is included.  SRCROOT should be set	to ../..  if  the  ap-
		    propriate  leaf  makefile  is located two directory	levels
		    below the source route.

       SUBARCHDIR   may	be set to put the object files and the target  into  a
		    different  directory  than	usual.	SUBARCHDIR will	modify
		    the	value of ARCHDIR.  If you want to make a  target  that
		    is	compiled  for  dbx  you	 may  use:  make COPTX=-g SUB-
		    ARCHDIR=-dbx.

       TARGET	    all	makefiles, that	are not	referring to  library  targets
		    or sub makes / sub dir makes, must define TARGET to	be the
		    output file	name of	the final link operation.

       TARGETLIB    all	makefiles that are used	to make	libraries must	define
		    TARGETLIB  to  be  the central part	of the target library.
		    If you want	to make	e.g.  libfoo  define  TARGETLIB=  foo.
		    This  is needed to allow operating systems to have differ-
		    ent	naming conventions for libraries.  If you are making a
		    non	 shared	 library,  the example above would result in a
		    filename: libfoo.a for the real target.

       TARGETMAN    this macro must be set in a	leaf makefile for manual pages
		    to	define the base	name for that manual page (not includ-
		    ing	the suffix).

       XMK_FILE	    makefiles that want	to install  manual  pages  should  set
		    XMK_FILE  to Makefile.man to avoid having to install a di-
		    version make file.	The make file found in	XMK_FILE  will
		    be	processed  only	 if make is called with	the target in-
		    stall.

GETTING	STARTED
       To set up a new project,	first copy the RULES and TEMPLATES directories
       and all its content into	the project's root directory.

       Then  copy a top	level makefile,	a Defaults file	and a Targetdirs.arch-
       name file into the project's root directory.

       Then create the following directories: cmd, lib,	include.

       Now start creating target directories e.g below	cmd  and  lib.	 Don't
       forget to create	a makefile and an appropriate Targetdirs.archname file
       on each node directory.

EXAMPLES
       If you want to set up a private copy of parts of	a project, you	should
       choose  a  directory  inside  your  directory tree that will become the
       shadow projects source root  directory.	 Then  create  symbolic	 links
       named  RULES  and TEMPLATES to the real source root.  If	you don't want
       to modify the global include files, create a symbolic link to  the  in-
       clude  directory	 too, else copy	the include directory and its content.
       copy the	top level makefile, the	Defaults file and the Targetdirs.arch-
       name file.

       Finally	copy  the desired sub tree together with all makefiles and the
       Targetdirs.archname files that are located  in  the  directories	 above
       your part of the	project	that you want to have separately.

FILES
       .../RULES/*
       .../DEFAULTS/*
       .../TARGETS/*
       .../TEMPLATES/*

SEE ALSO
       makerules(4), make(1), gmake(1),	smake(1).

       If you want to know, how	to add new rules or how	to add support for new
       operating systems or compilers look into	makerules(4).

DIAGNOSTICS
       Diagnostic messages depend on the make program.	Have a look at the ap-
       propriate man page.

NOTES
       The  scope  of this manual is only the usage of leaf makefiles.	If you
       want to make changes to the make	rules have a look at makerules(4).

       makefiles can be	used with Sunpro make, Gnu make	and  smake.   Although
       Gnu make	runs on	many platforms,	it has no useful debug output.

       Use  Sunpro make	or smake if you	have problems with a makefile.	Sunpro
       make and	smake, both have a -D flag, that allows	you to watch the make-
       files  after  the first expansion. Use this option, if you are in doubt
       if your makefile	gets expanded the right	way and	if the right rules are
       included.   There is also a -d option that gives	debugging output while
       make is running.	If you want more output, use -dd, -ddd and so on.

       Smake has an option -xM that shows you the include dependency for  make
       rules.

       The  following  is a list of all	macros that are	used in	makefiles.  Do
       not use them unless their meaning has been explained before.

       -O_ARCH,	.OBJDIR, .SEARCHLIST, ALLTARGETS, AR, ARCH, ARCHDIR, ARCHDIRX,
       ARCH_DONE,  ARFLAGS,  AS,  ASFLAGS, ASMFILES, ASOPTS, ASOPTX, CC, CCOM,
       CCOM_DEF,   CFILES,   CFLAGS,   CHGRP,	CHMOD,	 CHOWN,	  CLEAN_FILES,
       CLEAN_FILEX,  CLOBBER_FILEX, COPTDYN, COPTGPROF,	COPTOPT, COPTS,	COPTX,
       CPP, CPPFLAGS, CPPOPTS,	CPPOPTX,  CTAGS,  CURDIR,  CWARNOPTS,  CWOPTS,
       C_ARCH,	DEFAULTSDIR,  DEFAULTSROOT,  DEFCCOM, DEFCCOM_DEF, DEFINCDIRS,
       DEFINCDIRS_DEF, DEFINSGRP, DEFINSMODE, DEFINSUSR,  DEFUMASK,  DEF_ROOT,
       DEP_DEP,	 DEP_FILE,  DEP_SUFFIX,	DIRNAME, DIRS, DYNLD, ETAGS, FLOAT_OP-
       TIONS, HFILES, HOSTNAME,	INCDIRS, INSDIR, INSGRP, INSGRP_DEF,  INSMODE,
       INSMODE_DEF,  INSTALL,  INSUSR, INSUSR_DEF, INS_BASE, INS_KBASE,	KARCH,
       KARCH_DEF, KDEFINES,  K_ARCH,  LD,  LDCC,  LDFLAGS,  LDLIBS,  LDOPTDYN,
       LDOPTS,	LDOPTX,	 LDPATH,  LIBS,	 LIBS_PATH,  LIBX,  LIB_KVM, LIB_MATH,
       LIB_PREFIX, LIB_SOCKET, LIB_SUFFIX,  LN,	 LNDYNLIB,  LOCALIZE,  LORDER,
       MAKE, MK_FILES, MAKEPROG, MAKE_ARCH, MAKE_HOST, MAKE_MACH, MAKE_M_ARCH,
       MAKE_NAME, MAKE_OS, MAKE_OSDEFS,	MAKE_OSREL, MANDIR, MANFILE,  MANSECT,
       MANSECT_ADMIN,	MANSECT_CMD,   MANSECT_DEMOS,	MANSECT_DEVICE,	  MAN-
       SECT_DRIVER, MANSECT_FILEFORM, MANSECT_GAMES, MANSECT_HDR, MANSECT_LIB,
       MANSECT_MACROS,	 MANSECT_NETWORK,   MANSECT_SYSCALL,   MANSECT_TABLES,
       MANSTYLE, MANSUFFIX, MANSUFF_ADMIN,  MANSUFF_CMD,  MANSUFF_DEMOS,  MAN-
       SUFF_DEVICE,   MANSUFF_DRIVER,  MANSUFF_FILEFORM,  MANSUFF_GAMES,  MAN-
       SUFF_HDR,   MANSUFF_LIB,	   MANSUFF_MACROS,    MANSUFF_NETWORK,	  MAN-
       SUFF_SYSCALL,   MANSUFF_TABLES,	MARCH,	MARCH_DEF,  MKDEP,  MKDEP_OUT,
       MKDIR, MV, M_ARCH, OARCH, OARCHDIR, OFILES, OINCSDIR, OLIBSDIR, OSDEFS,
       OSNAME,	OSREL,	O_ARCH,	 PALLDEP_FILE,	PARCH,	PARCH_DEF,  PASMFILES,
       PDEP_FILE, PLOFILES, POFILES, PTARGET, PTARGET_BASE, PYOFILES,  P_ARCH,
       RANLIB, RM, RMDEP, RMTARGET, RM_FORCE, RM_RECURS, RM_RF,	RULESDIR, RUN-
       PATH, SCRFILE, SHELL, SHL_SUFFIX, SRCFILE, SRCLIBS,  SRCROOT,  SUBARCH,
       SUBARCHDIR,  SYMLINK,  TAGS, TARGET, TARGETLIB, TARGETMAN, TARGET_BASE,
       TARGET_PATH,  TSORT,  UMASK,  UMASK_DEF,	 UMASK_VAL,  XARCH,   XK_ARCH,
       XMK_FILE,  XMAKEPROG,  XM_ARCH, XP_ARCH,	_CCOM, _DEFAULTSDIR, _DEFCCOM,
       _DEFINSGRP, _DEFINSMODE,	 _DEFINSUSR,  _DEFUMASK,  _DIRNAME,  _INCDIRS,
       _MAKEPROG,  _MARCH,  _M_ARCH,  _O_ARCH, _PARCH, _P_ARCH,	_UNIQ, __CCOM,
       __DEFAULTSDIR, __DEFCCOM, __DEFINSGRP, __DEFINSMODE, __DEFINSUSR, __DE-
       FUMASK,	__DIRNAME,  __INCDIRS, __MAKEPROG, __MARCH, __M_ARCH, __PARCH,
       __P_ARCH,

BUGS
Source Tree Hierarchy
       The following outline gives a quick tour	through	a typical source hier-
       archy:

       .../   root directory of	the source tree
	      Makefile
		     the top Makefile
	      Targetdirs
		     a file containing a list of directories that are needed
		     for that project.	If the system needs different target
		     lists depending on	the target system architecture , use
		     target specific files in .../TARGETS/
	      ...
       .../RULES/
	      the location of makefiles	(included rules)
	      rules.top
		     the mandatory include rules (needed to setup basic	rules)
	      rules.aux
		     rules needed to install a non localized auxiliary file
	      rules.cmd
		     rules needed to make an ordinary command (like /bin/sh)
	      rules.drv
		     rules needed to make a device driver
	      rules.lib
		     rules needed to make a standard (nonshared) library
	      rules.loc
		     rules needed to install a localized auxiliary file
	      rules.man
		     rules needed to install a localized manual	page
	      rules.scr
		     rules needed to install a localized shell script
	      rules.shl
		     rules needed to make a shared library
	      rules.mks
		     rules needed to make more than one	target in a specific
		     directory
	      rules.dir
		     rules needed to make targets that are located in sub
		     directories to the	current	directory
	      ...
       .../DEFAULTS/
	      default definitions for various target architectures are located
	      in this directory. Templates for some architectures can be found
	      in the .../TEMPLATES/ directory.
	      Defaults
		     default definitions for that source tree. System
		     dependent definitions are in .../DEFAULTS/Defaults.*
       .../TARGETS/
	      target list definitions for various target architectures are
	      located in this directory.
       .../TEMPLATES/
	      templates	that should be used inside the project (rename to
	      Makefile,	if it is the only makefile in that directory, rename
	      to target.mk, if there is	more than one target in	that
	      directory)
	      Defaults
		     Defaults file for the source root directory
	      Defaults.linux
		     Defaults file for linux.  This should be installed	in the
		     .../DEFAULTS/ directory.
	      Makefile.root
		     Makefile for the source root directory
	      Makefile.aux
		     Makefile for a non	localized auxiliary file
	      Makefile.cmd
		     Makefile for an ordinary command (like /bin/sh)
	      Makefile.lib
		     Makefile for a standard (nonshared) library
	      Makefile.loc
		     Makefile for a localized auxiliary	file
	      Makefile.man
		     Makefile for a localized manual page
	      Makefile_de.man
		     Makefile for a localized manual page in the german	locale
	      Makefile.scr
		     Makefile for a localized shell script
	      Makefile.shl
		     Makefile for a shared library
	      Makefile.drv
		     Makefile for a device driver
	      Makefile.mks
		     Makefile for more than one	target in a specific directory
	      Makefile.dir
		     Makefile for targets that are located in sub directories
		     to	the current directory
	      ...
       .../cmd/
	      source tree for normal commands
	      Makefile
		     the makefile for the cmd sub directory
	      Targetdirs.sun4m
		     a file containing a list of directories like myprog (see
		     below) that are needed for	that specific architecture.
	      myprog/
		     directory where the sources for a specific	command	are
		     located
		     Makefile
			    makefile for myprog
		     Makefile.man
			    makefile for the manual page of myprog
		     mprog.c
			    source for myprog
		     mprog.tr
			    troff source for the manual	page of	myprog
		     OBJ/   directory where system specific sub	directories
			    are	located
			    sparc-sunos5-cc/
				   directory for binaries that belong to a
				   specific system
			    ...
		     ...
	      ...
       .../lib/
	      directory	where the sources for a	libraries are located
	      Makefile
		     the makefile for the lib sub directory
	      Targetdirs.sun4m
		     a file containing a list of directories like libfoo (see
		     below) that are needed for	that specific architecture.
	      libfoo/
		     directory where all source	files for libfoo are located
	      ...
       .../kernel
	      directory	for kernel modules
	      Makefile
		     the makefile for the kernel sub directory
	      Targetdirs.sun4m
		     a file containing a list of directories like drv (see
		     below) that are needed for	that specific architecture.
	      drv/   directory where drivers are located
		     Makefile
			    the	makefile for the drv sub directory
		     Targetdirs.sun4m
			    a file containing a	list of	directories like mydrv
			    (see below)	that are needed	for that specific
			    architecture.
		     mydrv/ source for a specific driver
		     ...
	      ...
       .../include
	      directory	for global include files that are used in that project
       .../bins
	      directory	for binary programs that are created/needed while
	      compiling	the project
	      sparc-sunos5-cc/
		     directory for binaries that belong	to a specific system
	      ...
       .../libs
	      directory	for libraries that are created/needed while compiling
	      the project
	      sparc-sunos5-cc/
		     directory for libraries that belong to a specific system
	      ...
       .../incs
	      directory	for include files that are created/needed while
	      compiling	the project
	      sparc-sunos5-cc/
		     directory for include files that belong to	a specific
		     system
	      ...
       ...

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Mail bugs and suggestions to:

       joerg@schily.isdn.cs.tu-berlin.de      or     js@cs.tu-berlin.de	    or
       jes@fokus.gmd.de

Joerg Schilling		       14. February 1997		 makefiles(4L)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | Macros/Variables Used In Rules | GETTING STARTED | EXAMPLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | NOTES | BUGS | Source Tree Hierarchy | AUTHOR

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