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MAKE(1)                 FreeBSD General Commands Manual                MAKE(1)

     make - maintain program dependencies

     make [-ABPSXeiknpqrstv] [-C directory] [-D variable] [-d flags]
          [-E variable] [-f makefile] [-I directory] [-j max_jobs]
          [-m directory] [-V variable] [-x warning_options] [variable=value]
          [target ...]

     The make utility is a program designed to simplify the maintenance of
     other programs.  Its input is a list of specifications describing
     dependency relationships between the generation of files and programs.

     First of all, the initial list of specifications will be read from the
     system makefile,, unless inhibited with the -r option.  The
     standard as shipped with FreeBSD also handles make.conf(5), the
     default path to which can be altered via the make variable __MAKE_CONF.

     Then the first of BSDmakefile, makefile, and Makefile that can be found
     in the current directory, object directory (see .OBJDIR), or search path
     (see the -I option) will be read for the main list of dependency
     specifications.  A different makefile or list of them can be supplied via
     the -f option(s).  Finally, if the file .depend can be found in any of
     the aforesaid locations, it will also be read (see mkdep(1)).

     When make searches for a makefile, its name takes precedence over its
     location.  For instance, BSDmakefile in the object directory will be
     favored over Makefile in the current directory.

     The options are as follows:

     -A      Make archive errors non-fatal, causing make to just skip the
             remainder or all of the archive and continue after printing a

     -B      Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell per
             command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
             dependency line in sequence.  This is turned on by default unless
             -j is used.

     -C directory
             Change to directory before reading the makefiles or doing
             anything else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is
             interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is
             equivalent to -C /etc.

     -D variable
             Define variable to be 1, in the global context.

     -d flags
             Turn on debugging, and specify which portions of make are to
             print debugging information.  Argument flags is one or more of
             the following:

             A       Print all possible debugging information; equivalent to
                     specifying all of the debugging flags.

             a       Print debugging information about archive searching and

             c       Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

             d       Print debugging information about directory searching and

             f       Print debugging information about the execution of for

             g1      Print the input graph before making anything.

             g2      Print the input graph after making everything, or before
                     exiting on error.

             j       Print debugging information about running multiple

             l       Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
                     they are prefixed by @ or other "quiet" flags.  Also
                     known as "loud" behavior.

             m       Print debugging information about making targets,
                     including modification dates.

             s       Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

             t       Print debugging information about target list

             v       Print debugging information about variable assignment.

     -E variable
             Specify a variable whose environment value (if any) will override
             macro assignments within makefiles.

     -e      Specify that environment values override macro assignments within
             makefiles for all variables.

     -f makefile
             Specify a makefile to read instead of the default one.  If
             makefile is not an absolute pathname, make will search for it as
             described above.  In case makefile is `-', standard input is
             read.  Multiple -f options can be supplied, and the makefiles
             will be read in that order.  Unlike the other command-line
             options, -f is neither stored in .MAKEFLAGS nor pushed down to
             sub-makes via MAKEFLAGS.  See below for more details on these

     -I directory
             Specify a directory in which to search for makefiles and included
             makefiles.  Multiple -I options can be specified to form a search
             path.  The system makefile directory (or directories, see the -m
             option) is automatically appended at the tail of this path.

     -i      Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.
             Equivalent to specifying `-' before each command line in the

     -j max_jobs
             Specify the maximum number of jobs that make may have running at
             any one time.  Turns compatibility mode off, unless the -B flag
             is also specified.

     -k      Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only on
             those targets that do not depend on the target whose creation
             caused the error.

     -m directory
             Specify a directory in which to search for the system makefile
             and makefiles included via the <...> style.  Multiple -m options
             can be specified to form a search path.  This path will override
             the default system include path, /usr/share/mk.  The system
             include path will always be appended to the search path used for
             "..."-style inclusions and makefile searches (see the -I option).

     -n      Display the commands that would have been executed, but do not
             actually execute them.

     -P      Collate the output of a given job and display it only when the
             job finishes, instead of mixing the output of parallel jobs
             together.  This option has no effect unless -j is used too.

     -p      Only print the input graph, not executing any commands.  The
             output is the same as -d g1.  When combined with -f /dev/null,
             only the builtin rules of make are displayed.

     -Q      Be extra quiet.  For multi-job makes, this will cause file
             banners not to be generated.

     -q      Do not execute any commands, but exit 0 if the specified targets
             are up-to-date and 1, otherwise.

     -r      Do not process the system makefile.

     -S      Stop processing when an error is encountered.  Default behaviour.
             This is needed to negate the -k option during recursive builds.

     -s      Do not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent to
             specifying `@' before each command line in the makefile.

     -t      Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
             create it or update its modification time to make it appear up-

     -V variable
             Print make's idea of the value of variable, in the global
             context.  Do not build any targets.  Multiple instances of this
             option may be specified; the variables will be printed one per
             line, with a blank line for each null or undefined variable.

     -v      Be extra verbose.  Print any extra information.

     -X      When using the -V option to print the values of variables, do not
             recursively expand the values.

             Set the value of the variable variable to value.

     -x warning_options
             Specify extended warning options.  This option may be specified
             several times.  A warning_option can be prefixed with ``no'' in
             which case the warning is switched off.  The currently available
             options are:

                     Warn if anything except blanks and comments follows an
                     .endif or .else directive.

             See also the .WARN special target.

     There are seven different types of lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops, and comments.

     In general, lines may be continued from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (`\').  The trailing newline character and initial
     whitespace on the following line are compressed into a single space.

     Dependency lines consist of one or more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship where the targets ``depend''
     on the sources and are usually created from them.  The exact relationship
     between the target and the source is determined by the operator that
     separates them.  The three operators are as follows:

     :     A target is considered out-of-date if its modification time is less
           than those of any of its sources.  Sources for a target accumulate
           over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target is
           removed if make is interrupted.

     !     Targets are always re-created, but not until all sources have been
           examined and re-created as necessary.  Sources for a target
           accumulate over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The
           target is removed if make is interrupted.

     ::    If no sources are specified, the target is always re-created.
           Otherwise, a target is considered out-of-date if any of its sources
           has been modified more recently than the target.  Sources for a
           target do not accumulate over dependency lines when this operator
           is used.  The target will not be removed if make is interrupted.

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard expressions `?', `*',
     `[]' and `{}'.  The expressions `?', `*' and `[]' may only be used as
     part of the final component of the target or source, and must be used to
     describe existing files.  The expression `{}' need not necessarily be
     used to describe existing files.  Expansion is in directory order, not
     alphabetically as done in the shell.

     Each target may have associated with it a series of shell commands,
     normally used to create the target.  Each of the commands in this script
     must be preceded by a tab.  While any target may appear on a dependency
     line, only one of these dependencies may be followed by a creation
     script, unless the `::' operator is used.

     If the first characters of the command line are `@', `-', and/or `+', the
     command is treated specially.  A `@' causes the command not to be echoed
     before it is executed.  A `-' causes any non-zero exit status of the
     command line to be ignored.  A `+' causes the command to be executed even
     if -n is specified on the command line.

     Variables in make are much like variables in the shell, and, by
     tradition, consist of all upper-case letters.  The five operators that
     can be used to assign values to variables are as follows:

     =       Assign the value to the variable.  Any previous value is

     +=      Append the value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=      Assign the value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=      Assign with expansion, i.e., expand the value before assigning it
             to the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the
             variable is referenced.

     !=      Expand the value and pass it to the shell for execution and
             assign the result to the variable.  Any newlines in the result
             are replaced with spaces.

     Any whitespace before the assigned value is removed; if the value is
     being appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents
     of the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable name with either curly
     braces (`{}') or parentheses (`()') and preceding it with a dollar sign
     (`$').  If the variable name contains only a single letter, the
     surrounding braces or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is
     not recommended.

     Variable substitution occurs at two distinct times, depending on where
     the variable is being used.  Variables in dependency lines are expanded
     as the line is read.  Variables in shell commands are expanded when the
     shell command is executed.

     The four different classes of variables (in order of increasing
     precedence) are:

     Environment variables
             Variables defined as part of make's environment.

     Global variables
             Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
             Variables defined as part of the command line and variables
             obtained from the MAKEFLAGS environment variable or the
             .MAKEFLAGS target.

     Local variables
             Variables that are defined specific to a certain target.

     If the name of an environment variable appears in a makefile on the left-
     hand side of an assignment, a global variable with the same name is
     created, and the latter shadows the former as per their relative
     precedences.  The environment is not changed in this case, and the change
     is not exported to programs executed by make.  However, a command-line
     variable actually replaces the environment variable of the same name if
     the latter exists, which is visible to child programs.

     There are seven local variables in make:

     .ALLSRC   The list of all sources for this target; also known as `_'.

     .ARCHIVE  The name of the archive file; also known as `!'.

     .IMPSRC   The name/path of the source from which the target is to be
               transformed (the ``implied'' source); also known as `_'.

     .MEMBER   The name of the archive member; also known as `%'.

     .OODATE   The list of sources for this target that were deemed out-of-
               date; also known as `?'.

     .PREFIX   The file prefix of the file, containing only the file portion,
               no suffix or preceding directory components; also known as `*'.

     .TARGET   The name of the target; also known as `@'.

     The shorter forms `@', `!', `_', `%', `?', `_', and `*' are permitted for
     backward compatibility and are not recommended.  The six variables `@F',
     `@D', `_F', `_D', `*F', and `*D' are permitted for compatibility with
     AT&T System V UNIX makefiles and are not recommended.

     Four of the local variables may be used in sources on dependency lines
     because they expand to the proper value for each target on the line.
     These variables are .TARGET, .PREFIX, .ARCHIVE, and .MEMBER.

     In addition, make sets or knows about the following internal variables or
     environment variables:

     $                   A single dollar sign `$', i.e. `$$' expands to a
                         single dollar sign.

     MAKE                The name that make was executed with (argv[0]).

     .CURDIR             A path to the directory where make was executed.  The
                         make utility sets .CURDIR to the canonical path given
                         by getcwd(3).

     .OBJDIR             A path to the directory where the targets are built.
                         At startup, make searches for an alternate directory
                         to place target files.  It will attempt to change
                         into this special directory and will search this
                         directory for makefiles not found in the current
                         directory.  The following directories are tried in

                         1.   ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/`pwd`
                         2.   ${MAKEOBJDIR}
                         3.   obj.${MACHINE}
                         4.   obj
                         5.   /usr/obj/`pwd`

                         The first directory that make successfully changes
                         into is used.  If either MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX or
                         MAKEOBJDIR is set in the environment but make is
                         unable to change into the corresponding directory,
                         then the current directory is used without checking
                         the remainder of the list.  If they are undefined and
                         make is unable to change into any of the remaining
                         three directories, then the current directory is
                         used.  Note, that MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX and MAKEOBJDIR
                         must be environment variables and should not be set
                         on make's command line.

                         The make utility sets .OBJDIR to the canonical path
                         given by getcwd(3).

     .MAKEFILE_LIST      As make reads various makefiles, including the
                         default files and any obtained from the command line
                         and .include and .sinclude directives, their names
                         will be automatically appended to the .MAKEFILE_LIST
                         variable.  They are added right before make begins to
                         parse them, so that the name of the current makefile
                         is the last word in this variable.

     MAKEFLAGS           The environment variable MAKEFLAGS may initially
                         contain anything that may be specified on make's
                         command line, including -f option(s).  After
                         processing, its contents are stored in the .MAKEFLAGS
                         global variable, although any -f options are omitted.
                         Then all options and variable assignments specified
                         on make's command line, except for -f, are appended
                         to the .MAKEFLAGS variable.

                         Whenever make executes a program, it sets MAKEFLAGS
                         in the program's environment to the current value of
                         the .MAKEFLAGS global variable.  Thus, if MAKEFLAGS
                         in make's environment contains any -f options, they
                         will not be pushed down to child programs
                         automatically.  The make utility effectively filters
                         out -f options from the environment and command line
                         although it passes the rest of its options down to
                         sub-makes via MAKEFLAGS by default.

                         When passing macro definitions and flag arguments in
                         the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, space and tab
                         characters are quoted by preceding them with a
                         backslash.  When reading the MAKEFLAGS variable from
                         the environment, all sequences of a backslash and one
                         of space or tab are replaced just with their second
                         character without causing a word break.  Any other
                         occurrences of a backslash are retained.  Groups of
                         unquoted space, tab and newline characters cause word

     .MAKEFLAGS          Initially, this global variable contains make's
                         current run-time options from the environment and
                         command line as described above, under MAKEFLAGS.  By
                         modifying the contents of the .MAKEFLAGS global
                         variable, the makefile can alter the contents of the
                         MAKEFLAGS environment variable made available for all
                         programs which make executes.  This includes adding
                         -f option(s).  The current value of .MAKEFLAGS is
                         just copied verbatim to MAKEFLAGS in the environment
                         of child programs.

                         Note that any options entered to .MAKEFLAGS neither
                         affect the current instance of make nor show up in
                         its own copy of MAKEFLAGS instantly.  However, they
                         do show up in the MAKEFLAGS environment variable of
                         programs executed by make.  On the other hand, a
                         direct assignment to MAKEFLAGS neither affects the
                         current instance of make nor is passed down to make's
                         children.  Compare with the .MAKEFLAGS special target

     MFLAGS              This variable is provided for backward compatibility
                         and contains all the options from the MAKEFLAGS
                         environment variable plus any options specified on
                         make's command line.

     .MAKE.PID           The process-id of make.

     .MAKE.PPID          The parent process-id of make.

     .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX    If make is run with -j -v then output for each target
                         is prefixed with a token `--- target ---' the first
                         part of which can be controlled via .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX.
                         For example:
                         would produce tokens like `---make[1234] target ---'
                         would produce tokens like `---pid[56789],ppid[1234]
                         target ---' making it easier to track the degree of
                         parallelism being achieved.

     .TARGETS            List of targets make is currently building.

     .INCLUDES           See .INCLUDES special target.

     .LIBS               See .LIBS special target.

     MACHINE             Name of the machine architecture make is running on,
                         obtained from the MACHINE environment variable, or
                         through uname(3) if not defined.

     MACHINE_ARCH        Name of the machine architecture make was compiled
                         for, defined at compilation time.

     VPATH               Makefiles may assign a colon-delimited list of
                         directories to VPATH.  These directories will be
                         searched for source files by make after it has
                         finished parsing all input makefiles.

     Variable expansion may be modified to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a ``word'' is whitespace-delimited sequence of
     characters).  The general format of a variable expansion is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon and one of the following special
     characters.  The colon may be escaped with a backslash (`\').

                 Modify each word of the value, substituting every match of
                 the extended regular expression pattern (see re_format(7))
                 with the ed(1)-style replacement string.  Normally, the first
                 occurrence of the pattern in each word of the value is
                 changed.  The `1' modifier causes the substitution to apply
                 to at most one word; the `g' modifier causes the substitution
                 to apply to as many instances of the search pattern as occur
                 in the word or words it is found in.  Note that `1' and `g'
                 are orthogonal; the former specifies whether multiple words
                 are potentially affected, the latter whether multiple
                 substitutions can potentially occur within each affected

     E           Replaces each word in the variable with its suffix.

     H           Replaces each word in the variable with everything but the
                 last component.

     L           Converts variable to lower-case letters.

     Mpattern    Select only those words that match the rest of the modifier.
                 The standard shell wildcard characters (`*', `?', and `[]')
                 may be used.  The wildcard characters may be escaped with a
                 backslash (`\').

     Npattern    This is identical to M, but selects all words which do not
                 match the rest of the modifier.

     O           Order every word in the variable alphabetically.

     Q           Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, so that it
                 can be passed safely through recursive invocations of make.

     R           Replaces each word in the variable with everything but its

                 Modify the first occurrence of old_string in each word of the
                 variable's value, replacing it with new_string.  If a `g' is
                 appended to the last slash of the pattern, all occurrences in
                 each word are replaced.  If old_string begins with a caret
                 (`^'), old_string is anchored at the beginning of each word.
                 If old_string ends with a dollar sign (`$'), it is anchored
                 at the end of each word.  Inside new_string, an ampersand
                 (`&') is replaced by old_string.  Any character may be used
                 as a delimiter for the parts of the modifier string.  The
                 anchoring, ampersand, and delimiter characters may be escaped
                 with a backslash (`\').

                 Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
                 old_string and new_string with the single exception that a
                 backslash is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar sign
                 (`$'), not a preceding dollar sign as is usual.

                 This is the AT&T System V UNIX style variable substitution.
                 It must be the last modifier specified.  If old_string or
                 new_string do not contain the pattern matching character %
                 then it is assumed that they are anchored at the end of each
                 word, so only suffixes or entire words may be replaced.
                 Otherwise % is the substring of old_string to be replaced in

     T           Replaces each word in the variable with its last component.

     U           Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     u           Remove adjacent duplicate words (like uniq(1)).

     Directives, conditionals, and for loops reminiscent of the C programming
     language are provided in make.  All such structures are identified by a
     line beginning with a single dot (`.') character.  The following
     directives are supported:

     .include _file_

     .include "file"
             Include the specified makefile.  Variables between the angle
             brackets or double quotes are expanded to form the file name.  If
             angle brackets are used, the included makefile is expected to be
             in the system makefile directory.  If double quotes are used, the
             including makefile's directory and any directories specified
             using the -I option are searched before the system makefile

     .sinclude _file_

     .sinclude "file"
             Like .include, but silently ignored if the file cannot be found
             and opened.

     .undef variable
             Un-define the specified global variable.  Only global variables
             may be un-defined.

     .error message
             Terminate processing of the makefile immediately.  The filename
             of the makefile, the line on which the error was encountered and
             the specified message are printed to the standard error output
             and make terminates with exit code 1.  Variables in the message
             are expanded.

     .warning message
             Emit a warning message.  The filename of the makefile, the line
             on which the warning was encountered, and the specified message
             are printed to the standard error output.  Variables in the
             message are expanded.

     Conditionals are used to determine which parts of the Makefile to
     process.  They are used similarly to the conditionals supported by the C
     pre-processor.  The following conditionals are supported:

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
             Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
             Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
             Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
             Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
             Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!]expression [operator expression ...]
             A combination of .else followed by .if.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
             A combination of .else followed by .ifdef.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
             A combination of .else followed by .ifndef.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
             A combination of .else followed by .ifmake.

     .elifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
             A combination of .else followed by .ifnmake.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the following:

     ||     logical OR

     &&     Logical AND; of higher precedence than `||'.

     As in C, make will only evaluate a conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator `!' may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is of higher precedence than `&&'.

     The value of expression may be any of the following:

     defined     Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
                 the variable has been defined.

     make        Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
                 the target was specified as part of make's command line or
                 was declared the default target (either implicitly or
                 explicitly, see .MAIN) before the line containing the

     empty       Takes a variable, with possible modifiers, and evaluates to
                 true if the expansion of the variable would result in an
                 empty string.

     exists      Takes a file name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
                 file exists.  The file is searched for on the system search
                 path (see .PATH).

     target      Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
                 the target has been defined.

     An expression may also be a numeric or string comparison: in this case,
     the left-hand side must be a variable expansion, whereas the right-hand
     side can be a constant or a variable expansion.  Variable expansion is
     performed on both sides, after which the resulting values are compared.
     A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if it is preceded by 0x, otherwise
     it is decimal; octal numbers are not supported.

     String comparison can only use the `==' or `!=' operators, whereas
     numeric values (both integer and floating point) can also be compared
     using the `>', `>=', `<' and `<=' operators.

     If no relational operator (and right-hand value) are given, an implicit
     `!= 0' is used.  However be very careful in using this feature especially
     when the left-hand side variable expansion returns a string.

     When make is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it
     encounters a word it does not recognize, either the ``make'' or
     ``defined'' expression is applied to it, depending on the form of the
     conditional.  If the form is .if, .ifdef or .ifndef, the ``defined''
     expression is applied.  Similarly, if the form is .ifmake or .ifnmake,
     the ``make'' expression is applied.

     If the conditional evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile
     continues as before.  If it evaluates to false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a .else or .endif is found.

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax of a for loop is:

     .for variable in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split into words.  The
     iteration variable is successively set to each word, and substituted in
     the make-rules inside the body of the for loop.

     Comments begin with a hash (`#') character, anywhere but in a shell
     command line, and continue to the end of the line.

     .IGNORE     Ignore any errors from the commands associated with this
                 target, exactly as if they all were preceded by a dash (`-').

     .MAKE       Execute the commands associated with this target even if the
                 -n or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark
                 recursive make's.

     .NOTMAIN    Normally make selects the first target it encounters as the
                 default target to be built if no target was specified.  This
                 source prevents this target from being selected.

     .OPTIONAL   If a target is marked with this attribute and make cannot
                 figure out how to create it, it will ignore this fact and
                 assume the file is not needed or already exists.

     .PRECIOUS   When make is interrupted, it removes any partially made
                 targets.  This source prevents the target from being removed.

     .SILENT     Do not echo any of the commands associated with this target,
                 exactly as if they all were preceded by an at sign (`@').

     .USE        Turn the target into make's version of a macro.  When the
                 target is used as a source for another target, the other
                 target acquires the commands, sources, and attributes (except
                 for .USE) of the source.  If the target already has commands,
                 the .USE target's commands are appended to them.

     .WAIT       If special .WAIT source appears in a dependency line, the
                 sources that precede it are made before the sources that
                 succeed it in the line.  Loops are not being detected and
                 targets that form loops will be silently ignored.

     Special targets may not be included with other targets, i.e., they must
     be the only target specified.

     .BEGIN      Any command lines attached to this target are executed before
                 anything else is done.

     .DEFAULT    This is sort of a .USE rule for any target (that was used
                 only as a source) that make cannot figure out any other way
                 to create.  Only the shell script is used.  The .IMPSRC
                 variable of a target that inherits .DEFAULT's commands is set
                 to the target's own name.

     .END        Any command lines attached to this target are executed after
                 everything else is done.

     .IGNORE     Mark each of the sources with the .IGNORE attribute.  If no
                 sources are specified, this is the equivalent of specifying
                 the -i option.

     .INCLUDES   A list of suffixes that indicate files that can be included
                 in a source file.  The suffix must have already been declared
                 with .SUFFIXES; any suffix so declared will have the
                 directories on its search path (see .PATH) placed in the
                 .INCLUDES special variable, each preceded by a -I flag.

     .INTERRUPT  If make is interrupted, the commands for this target will be

     .LIBS       This does for libraries what .INCLUDES does for include
                 files, except that the flag used is -L.

     .MAIN       If no target is specified when make is invoked, this target
                 will be built.  This is always set, either explicitly, or
                 implicitly when make selects the default target, to give the
                 user a way to refer to the default target on the command

                 Enable the ``Remaking Makefiles'' functionality, as explained
                 in the REMAKING MAKEFILES section below.

     .MAKEFLAGS  This target provides a way to specify flags for make when the
                 makefile is used.  The flags are as if typed to the shell,
                 though the -f option will have no effect.  Flags (except for
                 -f) and variable assignments specified as the source for this
                 target are also appended to the .MAKEFLAGS internal variable.
                 Please note the difference between this target and the
                 .MAKEFLAGS internal variable: specifying an option or
                 variable assignment as the source for this target will affect
                 both the current makefile and all processes that make

     .MFLAGS     Same as above, for backward compatibility.

                 Disable parallel mode.

                 Same as above, for compatibility with other pmake variants.

     .ORDER      The named targets are made in sequence.

     .PATH       The sources are directories which are to be searched for
                 files not found in the current directory.  If no sources are
                 specified, any previously specified directories are deleted.
                 Where possible, use of .PATH is preferred over use of the
                 VPATH variable.

                 The sources are directories which are to be searched for
                 suffixed files not found in the current directory.  The make
                 utility first searches the suffixed search path, before
                 reverting to the default path if the file is not found there.
                 This form is required for .LIBS and .INCLUDES to work.

     .PHONY      Apply the .PHONY attribute to any specified sources.  Targets
                 with this attribute are always considered to be out of date.

     .POSIX      Adjust make's behavior to match the applicable POSIX
                 specifications.  (Note this disables the ``Remaking
                 Makefiles'' feature.)

     .PRECIOUS   Apply the .PRECIOUS attribute to any specified sources.  If
                 no sources are specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is applied
                 to every target in the file.

     .SHELL      Select another shell.  The sources of this target have the
                 format key=value.  The key is one of:

                 path           Specify the path to the new shell.

                 name           Specify the name of the new shell.  This may
                                be either one of the three builtin shells (see
                                below) or any other name.

                 quiet          Specify the shell command to turn echoing off.

                 echo           Specify the shell command to turn echoing on.

                 filter         Usually shells print the echo off command
                                before turning echoing off.  This is the exact
                                string that will be printed by the shell and
                                is used to filter the shell output to remove
                                the echo off command.

                 echoFlag       The shell option that turns echoing on.

                 errFlag        The shell option to turn on error checking.
                                If error checking is on, the shell should exit
                                if a command returns a non-zero status.

                 hasErrCtl      True if the shell has error control.

                 check          If hasErrCtl is true then this is the shell
                                command to turn error checking on.  If
                                hasErrCtl is false then this is a command
                                template to echo commands for which error
                                checking is disabled.  The template must
                                contain a `%s'.

                 ignore         If hasErrCtl is true, this is the shell
                                command to turn error checking off.  If
                                hasErrCtl is false, this is a command template
                                to execute a command so that errors are
                                ignored.  The template must contain a `%s'.

                 meta           This is a string of meta characters of the

                 builtins       This is a string holding all the shell's
                                builtin commands separated by blanks.  The
                                meta and builtins strings are used in compat
                                mode.  When a command line contains neither a
                                meta character nor starts with a shell
                                builtin, it is executed directly without
                                invoking a shell.  When one of these strings
                                (or both) is empty all commands are executed
                                through a shell.

                 unsetenv       If true, remove the ENV environment variable
                                before executing any command.  This is useful
                                for the Korn-shell (ksh).

                 Values that are strings must be surrounded by double quotes.
                 Boolean values are specified as `T' or `Y' (in either case)
                 to mean true.  Any other value is taken to mean false.

                 There are several uses of the .SHELL target:

                 +o   Selecting one of the builtin shells.  This is done by
                     just specifying the name of the shell with the name
                     keyword.  It is also possible to modify the parameters of
                     the builtin shell by just specifying other keywords
                     (except for path).

                 +o   Using another executable for one of the builtin shells.
                     This is done by specifying the path to the executable
                     with the path keyword.  If the last component is the same
                     as the name of the builtin shell, no name needs to be
                     specified; if it is different, the name must be given:

                           .SHELL: path="/usr/local/bin/sh"

                     selects the builtin shell ``sh'' but will execute it from
                     /usr/local/bin/sh.  Like in the previous case, it is
                     possible to modify parameters of the builtin shell by
                     just specifying them.

                 +o   Using an entirely different shell.  This is done by
                     specifying all keywords.

                 The builtin shells are ``sh'', ``csh'' and ``ksh''.  Because
                 FreeBSD has no ksh in /bin, it is unwise to specify
                 name="ksh" without also specifying a path.

     .SILENT     Apply the .SILENT attribute to any specified sources.  If no
                 sources are specified, the .SILENT attribute is applied to
                 every command in the file.

     .SUFFIXES   Each source specifies a suffix to make.  If no sources are
                 specified, any previous specified suffices are deleted.

     .WARN       Each source specifies a warning flag as previously described
                 for the -x command line option.  Warning flags specified on
                 the command line take precedence over flags specified in the
                 makefile.  Also, command line warning flags are pushed to
                 sub-makes through the MAKEFLAGS environment variables so that
                 a warning flag specified on the command line will influence
                 all sub-makes.  Several flags can be specified on a single
                 .WARN target by seperating them with blanks.

     If the special target .MAKEFILEDEPS exists in the Makefile, make enables
     the ``Remaking Makefiles'' feature.  After reading Makefile and all the
     files that are included using .include or .sinclude directives (source
     Makefiles) make considers each source Makefile as a target and tries to
     rebuild it.  Both explicit and implicit rules are checked and all source
     Makefiles are updated if necessary. If any of the source Makefiles were
     rebuilt, make restarts from clean state.

     To prevent infinite loops the following source Makefile targets are

     +o   :: targets that have no prerequisites

     +o   !  targets

     +o   targets that have .PHONY or .EXEC attributes

     +o   targets without prerequisites and without commands

     When remaking a source Makefile options -t (touch target), -q (query
     mode), and -n (no exec) do not take effect, unless source Makefile is
     specified explicitly as a target in make command line.

     Additionally, system makefiles and .depend are not considered as
     Makefiles that can be rebuilt.

     The make utility uses the following environment variables, if they exist:

     .depend                     list of dependencies
     Makefile                    list of dependencies
     makefile                    list of dependencies
     obj                         object directory                      system makefile
     /usr/share/mk               default system makefile directory
     /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make  PMake tutorial
     /usr/obj                    default MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX directory.
     /etc/make.conf              default path to make.conf(5)

     List all included makefiles in order visited:

           make -V .MAKEFILE_LIST | tr \  \\n

     Older versions of make used MAKE instead of MAKEFLAGS.  This was removed
     for POSIX compatibility.  The internal variable MAKE is set to the same
     value as .MAKE; support for this may be removed in the future.

     Most of the more esoteric features of make should probably be avoided for
     greater compatibility.

     mkdep(1), make.conf(5)

     PMake - A Tutorial.  in /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make

     A make command appeared in PWB UNIX.

     The determination of .OBJDIR is contorted to the point of absurdity.

     In the presence of several .MAIN special targets, make silently ignores
     all but the first.

     .TARGETS is not set to the default target when make is invoked without a
     target name and no .MAIN special target exists.

     The evaluation of expression in a test is very simple-minded.  Currently,
     the only form that works is `.if ${VAR} op something' For instance, you
     should write tests as `.if ${VAR} == string' not the other way around,
     which would give you an error.

     For loops are expanded before tests, so a fragment such as:

           .for ARCH in ${SHARED_ARCHS}
           .if ${ARCH} == ${MACHINE}

     will not work, and should be rewritten as:

           .for ARCH in ${SHARED_ARCHS}
           .if ${MACHINE} == ${ARCH}

     The parsing code is broken with respect to handling a semicolon after a
     colon, so a fragment like this will fail:

           HDRS=   foo.h bar.h

           .for h in ${HDRS:S;^;${.CURDIR}/;}

     A trailing backslash in a variable value defined on the command line
     causes the delimiting space in the MAKEFLAGS environment variable to be
     preceded by that backslash.  That causes a submake to not treat that
     space as a word delimiter.  Fixing this requires a larger rewrite of the
     code handling command line macros and assignments to .MAKEFLAGS.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        December 29, 2008       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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