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mailx(1)			 User Commands			      mailx(1)

NAME
       mailx, mail - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [	-f
	[file |	+folder] ] [-T file] [-u user]

       mailx  [-BdFintUv~]  [-b	bcc] [-c cc] [-h number] [-r address] [-s sub-
       ject] recipient...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

       /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       The mail	utilities listed above provide a comfortable,  flexible	 envi-
       ronment for sending and receiving mail messages electronically.

       When  reading  mail,  the mail utilities	provide	commands to facilitate
       saving, deleting, and responding	to messages. When  sending  mail,  the
       mail  utilities	allow editing, reviewing and other modification	of the
       message as it is	entered.

       Incoming	mail is	stored in a standard file for each  user,  called  the
       mailbox	for that user. When the	mail utilities are called to read mes-
       sages, the mailbox is the default place to find them. As	 messages  are
       read,  they are marked to be moved to a secondary file for storage, un-
       less specific action is taken, so that the messages need	 not  be  seen
       again.This secondary file is called the mbox and	is normally located in
       the user's HOME directory (see MBOX in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for	a  de-
       scription of this file).	Messages can be	saved in other secondary files
       named by	the user. Messages remain in a secondary file  until  forcibly
       removed.

       The  user  can access a secondary file by using the -f option. Messages
       in the secondary	file can then be read or otherwise processed using the
       same  Commands  as in the primary mailbox. This gives rise within these
       pages to	the notion of a	current	mailbox.

OPTIONS
       On the command line options start with a	dash (-). Any other  arguments
       are  taken to be	destinations (recipients). If no recipients are	speci-
       fied, mailx attempts to read messages from the mailbox.

       -B    Do	not buffer standard input or standard output.

       -b bcc
	     Set the blind carbon copy list to bcc. bcc	should be enclosed  in
	     quotes if it contains more	than one name.

       -c cc Set  the  carbon copy list	to cc. cc should be enclosed in	quotes
	     if	it contains more than one name.

       -d    Turn on debugging output. (Neither	particularly  interesting  nor
	     recommended.)

       -e    Test  for	the  presence  of mail.	mailx prints nothing and exits
	     with a successful return code if there is mail to read.

       -F    Record the	message	in a file named	 after	the  first  recipient.
	     Overrides the record variable, if set (see	Internal Variables).

       -f [file]
	     Read  messages from file instead of mailbox. If no	file is	speci-
	     fied, the mbox is used.

       -f [ +folder]
	     Use the file folder in the	folder directory (same as  the	folder
	     command).	The  name  of  this  directory is listed in the	folder
	     variable.

       -H    Print header summary only.

       -h number
	     The number	of network "hops" made so far. This  is	 provided  for
	     network  software	to  avoid infinite delivery loops. This	option
	     and its argument are passed to the	delivery program.

       -I    Include the newsgroup and article-id header lines	when  printing
	     mail  messages.   This option requires the	-f option to be	speci-
	     fied.

       -i    Ignore interrupts.	See also ignore	in Internal Variables.

       -N    Do	not print initial header summary.

       -n    Do	not initialize from the	system	default	 mailx.rc  or  Mail.rc
	     file.  See	USAGE.

       -r address
	     Use address as the	return address when invoking the delivery pro-
	     gram. All tilde commands are disabled. This option	and its	 argu-
	     ment is passed to the delivery program.

       -s subject
	     Set  the  Subject	header field to	subject. subject should	be en-
	     closed in quotes if it contains embedded white space.

       -T file
	     Message-id	and article-id header lines are	recorded in file after
	     the message is read. This option also sets	the -I option.

       -t    Scan  the	input for To:, Cc:, and	Bcc: fields. Any recipients on
	     the command line will be ignored.

       -U    Convert UUCP-style	addresses to  internet	standards.   Overrides
	     the conv environment variable.

       -u user
	     Read  user's mailbox. This	is only	effective if user's mailbox is
	     not read protected.

       -V    Print the mailx version number and	exit.

       -v    Pass the -v flag to sendmail(1M).

       -~    Interpret tilde escapes in	the input even if not reading  from  a
	     tty.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       recipient
	     Addressee of message.

USAGE
   Starting Mail
       At   startup   time,   mailx   executes	 the   system	startup	  file
       /etc/mail/mailx.rc. If invoked as mail or Mail, the system startup file
       /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

       The  system  startup  file  sets	  up initial display options and alias
       lists and assigns values	to some	internal  variables.  These  variables
       are flags and valued parameters which are set and cleared using the set
       and unset commands. See Internal	Variables.

       With the	 following  exceptions,	 regular  commands  are	 legal	inside
       startup files: !, Copy, edit, followup, Followup, hold, mail, preserve,
       reply, Reply, shell, and	visual.	An error in the	 startup  file	causes
       the remaining lines in the file to be ignored.

       After  executing	 the  system startup file,  the	mail utilities execute
       the optional personal startup file $HOME/.mailrc, wherein the user  can
       override	 the  values  of  the  internal	variables as set by the	system
       startup file.

       If the -n option	is specified, however, the mail	utilities do not  exe-
       cute the	system startup file.

       Many system administrators include the commands

       set appenddeadletter
       unset replyall
       unset pipeignore

       in  the system startup files (to	be compatible with past	Solaris	behav-
       ior), but this does not meet standards requirements for mailx.  To  get
       standard	 behavior for mailx, users should use the -n option or include
       the following commands in a personal startup file:

       unset appenddeadletter
       set replyall
       set pipeignore

       When reading mail, the mail utilities are in  command  mode.  A	header
       summary	of  the	 first	several	 messages  is displayed, followed by a
       prompt indicating the mail utilities can	accept regular	commands  (see
       Commands	 below).  When	sending	 mail, the mail	utilities are in input
       mode. If	no subject is specified	on the command line,  and  the	asksub
       variable	is set,	a prompt for the subject is printed.

       As  the message is typed, the mail utilities read the message and store
       it in a temporary file. Commands	may be entered	by  beginning  a  line
       with the	tilde (~) escape character followed by a single	command	letter
       and optional arguments. See Tilde Escapes for a summary of  these  com-
       mands.

   Reading Mail
       Each  message is	assigned a sequential number, and there	is at any time
       the notion of a current message,	marked by a right angle	bracket	(>) in
       the  header  summary.  Many  commands take an optional list of messages
       (message-list) to operate on.  In most cases, the  current  message  is
       set  to	the  highest-numbered message in the list after	the command is
       finished	executing.

       The default for message-list is the current message. A message-list  is
       a list of message identifiers separated by spaces, which	may include:

       n     Message number n.

       .     The current message.

       ^     The first undeleted message.

       $     The last message.

       *     All messages.

       +     The next undeleted	message.

       -     The previous undeleted message.

       n-m   An	inclusive range	of message numbers.

       user  All messages from user.

       /string
	     All messages with string in the Subject line (case	ignored).

       :c    All messages of type c, where c is	one of:

	      d	    deleted messages

	      n	    new	messages

	      o	    old	messages

	      r	    read messages

	      u	    unread messages

	      Notice  that  the	context	of the command determines whether this
	      type of message specification makes sense.

       Other arguments are usually arbitrary strings whose  usage  depends  on
       the command involved. Filenames,	where expected,	are expanded using the
       normal shell conventions	(see sh(1)).  Special  characters  are	recog-
       nized by	certain	commands and are documented with the commands below.

   Sending Mail
       Recipients  listed  on  the  command  line may be of three types: login
       names, shell commands, or alias groups. Login names may be any  network
       address,	including mixed	network	addressing. If mail is found to	be un-
       deliverable, an attempt is made to return it to the  sender's  mailbox.
       If  the recipient name begins with a pipe symbol	( | ), the rest	of the
       name is taken to	be a shell command to pipe the message	through.  This
       provides	 an  automatic interface with any program that reads the stan-
       dard input, such	as lp(1) for recording outgoing	mail on	 paper.	 Alias
       groups are set by the alias command (see	Commands below)	or in a	system
       startup file (for example, $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are lists of recipi-
       ents of any type.

   Forwarding Mail
       To  forward  a specific message,	include	it in a	message	to the desired
       recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See Tilde Escapes below. To
       forward mail automatically, add a comma-separated list of addresses for
       additional recipients to	the .forward file in your home directory. This
       is different from the format of the alias command, which	takes a	space-
       separated list instead. Note: Forwarding	addresses must	be  valid,  or
       the messages will "bounce." You cannot, for instance, reroute your mail
       to a new	host by	forwarding it to your new address if  it  is  not  yet
       listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Commands
       Regular commands	are of the form

       [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments	]

       In  input  mode,	 commands  are	recognized  by	the  escape character,
       tilde(~), and lines not treated as commands are taken as	input for  the
       message.	 If  no	command	is specified in	command	mode, next is assumed.
       The following is	a complete list	of mailx commands:

       !shell-command
	     Escape to the shell. See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       # comment
	     NULL command (comment). Useful in mailrc files.

       =     Print the current message number.

       ?     Prints a summary of commands.

       alias alias name	...

       group alias name	...
	     Declare an	alias for the given names. The names  are  substituted
	     when  alias  is  used  as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file.
	     With no arguments,	the  command  displays	the  list  of  defined
	     aliases.

       alternates name ...
	     Declare a list of alternate names for your	login. When responding
	     to	a message, these names are removed from	the list of recipients
	     for  the  response.  With no arguments, print the current list of
	     alternate names. See also allnet in Internal Variables.

       cd [directory]

       chdir [directory]
	     Change directory. If directory is not specified, $HOME is used.

       copy [file]

       copy [message-list] file
	     Copy messages to the file without marking the messages as	saved.
	     Otherwise equivalent to the save command.

       Copy [message-list]
	     Save  the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from
	     the author	of the message to be saved, without marking  the  mes-
	     sages as saved. Otherwise equivalent to the Save command.

       delete [message-list]
	     Delete  messages  from the	mailbox. If autoprint is set, the next
	     message after the last one	deleted	is printed (see	Internal Vari-
	     ables).

       discard [header-field...]

       ignore [header-field...]
	     Suppress  printing	of the specified header	fields when displaying
	     messages on the screen. Examples of header	fields to  ignore  are
	     Status  and Received. The fields are included when	the message is
	     saved, unless the alwaysignore variable is	set. The  More,	 Page,
	     Print,  and  Type commands	override this command. If no header is
	     specified,	the current list of header  fields  being  ignored  is
	     printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.

       dp [message-list]

       dt [message-list]
	     Delete the	specified messages from	the mailbox and	print the next
	     message after the last one	 deleted.   Roughly  equivalent	 to  a
	     delete command followed by	a print	command.

       echo string ...
	     Echo the given strings (like echo(1)).

       edit [message-list]
	     Edit  the	given  messages. Each message is placed	in a temporary
	     file and the program named	by the EDITOR variable is  invoked  to
	     edit it (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES). Default editor is ed(1).

       exit

       xit   Exit  from	 mailx,	 without changing the mailbox. No messages are
	     saved in the mbox (see also quit).

       field [message-list] header-file
	     Display the value of the header field in the specified message.

       file [file]

       folder [file]
	     Quit from the current file	of messages and	read in	the  specified
	     file. Several special characters are recognized when used as file
	     names:

	      %	    the	current	mailbox.

	      %user the	mailbox	for user.

	      #	    the	previous mail file.

	      &	    the	current	mbox.

	      +file The	named file in the  folder  directory  (listed  in  the
		    folder variable).

	      With  no arguments, print	the name of the	current	mail file, and
	      the number of messages and characters it contains.

       folders
	     Print the names of	the files in the directory set by  the	folder
	     variable (see Internal Variables).

       Followup	[message]
	     Respond to	a message, recording the response in a file whose name
	     is	derived	from the author	of the message.	Overrides  the	record
	     variable, if set. If the replyall variable	is set,	the actions of
	     Followup and followup are reversed. See also the followup,	 Save,
	     and  Copy	commands  and outfolder	in Internal Variables, and the
	     Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       followup	[message-list]
	     Respond to	the first message in  the  message-list,  sending  the
	     message  to  the  author of each message in the message-list. The
	     subject line is taken from	the first message and the response  is
	     recorded  in  a file whose	name is	derived	from the author	of the
	     first message. If the replyall variable is	set,  the  actions  of
	     followup  and Followup are	reversed. See also the Followup, Save,
	     and Copy commands and outfolder in	Internal  Variables,  and  the
	     Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       from [message-list]
	     Print  the	 header	summary	for the	specified messages. If no mes-
	     sages are specified, print	the header  summary  for  the  current
	     message.

       group alias name	...

       alias alias name	...
	     Declare  an  alias	for the	given names. The names are substituted
	     when alias	is used	as a recipient.	Useful in the mailrc file.

       headers [message]
	     Print the page of headers which includes the  message  specified.
	     The  screen variable sets the number of headers per page (see In-
	     ternal Variables).	See also the z command.

       help  Print a summary of	commands.

       hold [message-list]

       preserve	[message-list ]
	     Hold the specified	messages in the	mailbox.

       if s | r	| t

       mail-commands

       else

       mail-commands

       endif Conditional execution, where s executes following	mail-commands,
	     up	 to an else or endif, if the program is	in send	mode, r	causes
	     the mail-commands to be executed only  in	receive	 mode,	and  t
	     causes  the  mail-commands	 to be executed	only if	mailx is being
	     run from a	terminal. Useful in the	mailrc file.

       inc   Incorporate messages that arrive while you	are reading the	system
	     mailbox.  The  new	 messages are added to the message list	in the
	     current mail session. This	command	does not commit	 changes  made
	     during the	session, and prior messages are	not renumbered.

       ignore [header-field ...]

       discard [header-field ...]
	     Suppress  printing	of the specified header	fields when displaying
	     messages on the screen. Examples of header	fields to  ignore  are
	     Status and	Cc. All	fields are included when the message is	saved.
	     The More, Page, Print and Type commands  override	this  command.
	     If	 no header is specified, the current list of header fields be-
	     ing ignored is printed. See also the undiscard and	unignore  com-
	     mands.

       list  Print all commands	available. No explanation is given.

       load  [message]	file  The specified message is replaced	by the message
	     in	the named file.	file should contain a single mail message  in-
	     cluding mail headers (as saved by the save	command).

       mail recipient ...
	     Mail a message to the specified recipients.

       Mail recipient
	     Mail  a  message  to the specified	recipients, and	record it in a
	     file whose	name is	derived	from the author	of the message.	 Over-
	     rides  the	 record	 variable,  if set. See	also the Save and Copy
	     commands and outfolder in Internal	Variables.

       mbox [message-list]
	     Arrange for the given messages to end up  in  the	standard  mbox
	     save file when mailx terminates normally. See MBOX	in ENVIRONMENT
	     VARIABLES for a description of this file. See also	the  exit  and
	     quit commands.

       more [message-list]

       page [message-list]
	     Print  the	specified messages. If crt is set, the messages	longer
	     than the number of	lines specified	by the crt variable are	 paged
	     through  the command specified by the PAGER variable. The default
	     command is	pg(1) or if the	bsdcompat variable is set, the default
	     is	more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the	print and type
	     commands.

       More [message-list]

       Page [message-list]
	     Print the specified messages on the screen, including all	header
	     fields.  Overrides	 suppression  of fields	by the ignore command.
	     Same as the Print and Type	commands.

       new [message-list]

       New [message-list]

       unread [message-list]

       Unread
	     [message-list] Take a message list	and mark each message  as  not
	     having been read.

       next [message]
	     Go	 to  the next message matching message.	If message is not sup-
	     plied, this command finds the next	message	that was  not  deleted
	     or	 saved.	 A message-list	may be specified, but in this case the
	     first valid message in the	list is	the only  one  used.  This  is
	     useful  for  jumping  to  the  next message from a	specific user,
	     since the name would be taken as a	command	in the	absence	 of  a
	     real  command. See	the discussion of message-list above for a de-
	     scription of possible message specifications.

       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]

       | [message-list]	[shell-command]
	     Pipe the message through the given	shell-command. The message  is
	     treated  as  if it	were read. If no arguments are given, the cur-
	     rent message is piped through the command specified by the	 value
	     of	 the  cmd  variable.  If the page variable is set, a form feed
	     character is inserted after  each	message	 (see  Internal	 Vari-
	     ables).

       preserve	[message-list]

       hold [message-list]
	     Preserve the specified messages in	the mailbox.

       print [message-list]

       type [message-list]
	     Print  the	specified messages. If crt is set, the messages	longer
	     than the number of	lines specified	by the crt variable are	 paged
	     through  the command specified by the PAGER variable. The default
	     command is	pg(1) or if the	bsdcompat variable is set, the default
	     is	 more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the more and page
	     commands.

       Print [message-list]

       Type [message-list]
	     Print the specified messages on the screen, including all	header
	     fields.  Overrides	 suppression  of fields	by the ignore command.
	     Same as the More and Page commands.

       put [file]

       put [message-list] file
	     Save the specified	message	in the given file. Use the  same  con-
	     ventions  as  the	print  command for which header	fields are ig-
	     nored.

       Put [file]

       Put [message-list] file
	     Save the specified	message	in the given file. Overrides  suppres-
	     sion of fields by the ignore command.

       quit  Exit  from	mailx, storing messages	that were read in mbox and un-
	     read messages in the mailbox. Messages that have been  explicitly
	     saved in a	file are deleted unless	the keepsave variable is set.

       reply [message-list]

       respond [message-list]

       replysender [message-list]
	     Send  a  response	to  the	author of each message in the message-
	     list. The subject line is	taken  from  the  first	 message.   If
	     record  is	 set  to  a file, a copy of the	reply is added to that
	     file. If the replyall variable is set, the	actions	 of  Reply/Re-
	     spond  and	reply/respond are reversed. The	replysender command is
	     not affected by the replyall variable, but	sends each reply  only
	     to	 the  sender of	each message. See the Starting Mail section in
	     USAGE above.

       Reply [message]

       Respond [message]

       replyall	[message]
	     Reply to the specified message, including all other recipients of
	     that message.  If the variable record is set to a file, a copy of
	     the reply added to	that file. If the replyall  variable  is  set,
	     the  actions of Reply/Respond and reply/respond are reversed. The
	     replyall command is not affected by the  replyall	variable,  but
	     always  sends the reply to	all recipients of the message. See the
	     Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       retain
	     Add the list of header fields named to the	 retained  list.  Only
	     the  header  fields in the	retain list are	shown on your terminal
	     when you print a message. All other header	fields are suppressed.
	     The  set of retained fields specified by the retain command over-
	     rides any list of ignored fields specified	by the ignore command.
	     The Type and Print	commands can be	used to	print a	message	in its
	     entirety. If retain is executed with no arguments,	it  lists  the
	     current set of retained fields.

       Save [message-list]
	     Save  the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from
	     the author	of the first message. The name of the file is taken to
	     be	 the  author's	name with all network addressing stripped off.
	     See also the Copy,	followup, and Followup commands	and  outfolder
	     in	Internal Variables.

       save [file]

       save [message-list] file
	     Save  the	specified messages in the given	file. The file is cre-
	     ated if it	does not exist.	The file defaults to mbox. The message
	     is	deleted	from the mailbox when mailx terminates unless keepsave
	     is	set (see also Internal Variables and the exit  and  quit  com-
	     mands).

       set

       set variable

       set variable=string

       set variable =number
	     Define  a	variable.  To assign a value to	variable, separate the
	     variable name from	the value by an	`=' (there must	 be  no	 space
	     before or after the `='). A variable may be given a null, string,
	     or	numeric	value. To embed	SPACE characters within	a  value,  en-
	     close it in quotes.

	     With  no  arguments,  set	displays all defined variables and any
	     values they might have. See Internal Variables for	a  description
	     of	all predefined mail variables.

       shell Invoke  an	interactive shell. See also SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARI-
	     ABLES.

       size [message-list]
	     Print the size in characters of the specified messages.

       source file
	     Read commands from	the given file and return to command mode.

       top [message-list]
	     Print the top  few	 lines	of  the	 specified  messages.  If  the
	     toplines  variable	 is set, it is taken as	the number of lines to
	     print (see	Internal Variables). The default is 5.

       touch [message-list]
	     Touch the specified messages. If any message in  message-list  is
	     not  specifically	saved  in a file, it is	placed in the mbox, or
	     the file specified	in the MBOX environment	variable, upon	normal
	     termination. See exit and quit.

       Type [message-list]

       Print [message-list]
	     Print  the	specified messages on the screen, including all	header
	     fields. Overrides suppression of fields by	the ignore command.

       type [message-list]

       print [message-list]
	     Print the specified messages. If crt is set, the messages	longer
	     than  the number of lines specified by the	crt variable are paged
	     through the command specified by the PAGER	variable. The  default
	     command is	pg(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       unalias [alias] ...

       ungroup [alias] ...
	     Remove the	definitions of the specified aliases.

       undelete	[message-list]
	     Restore  the  specified  deleted messages.	Will only restore mes-
	     sages deleted in the current mail session.	If autoprint  is  set,
	     the last message of those restored	is printed (see	Internal Vari-
	     ables).

       undiscard [header-field...]

       unignore	[header-field...]
	     Remove the	specified header fields	from the list  being  ignored.
	     If	 no header fields are specified, all header fields are removed
	     from the list being ignored.

       unretain	[header-field...]
	     Remove the	specified header fields	from the list being  retained.
	     If	 no header fields are specified, all header fields are removed
	     from the list being retained.

       unread [message-list]

       Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.

       unset variable...
	     Erase the specified variables. If the variable was	imported  from
	     the  environment  (that  is,  an environment variable or exported
	     shell variable), it cannot	be unset from within mailx.

       version
	     Print the current version and release date	of the mailx utility.

       visual [message-list]
	     Edit the given messages with a screen editor.  Each  messages  is
	     placed  in	 a  temporary file and the program named by the	VISUAL
	     variable is invoked to edit it (see ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES).  No-
	     tice that the default visual editor is vi.

       write [message-list] file
	     Write  the	given messages on the specified	file, minus the	header
	     and trailing blank	line. Otherwise	equivalent to  the  save  com-
	     mand.

       xit

       exit  Exit  from	 mailx,	 without changing the mailbox. No messages are
	     saved in the mbox (see also quit).

       z[+|-]
	     Scroll the	header display forward or  backward  one  screen-full.
	     The  number  of  headers  displayed is set	by the screen variable
	     (see Internal Variables).

   Tilde Escapes
       The following tilde escape commands can be used when composing mail  to
       send.  These  may  be entered only from input mode, by beginning	a line
       with the	tilde escape character (~). See	escape in  Internal  Variables
       for  changing  this  special character. The escape character can	be en-
       tered as	text by	typing it twice.

       ~!shell-command
	     Escape to the shell. If present, run shell-command.

       ~.    Simulate end of file (terminate message input).

       ~:mail-command

       ~_mail-command
	     Perform the command-level request.	Valid only when	sending	a mes-
	     sage while	reading	mail.

       ~?    Print a summary of	tilde escapes.

       ~A    Insert  the  autograph string Sign	into the message (see Internal
	     Variables).

       ~a    Insert the	autograph string sign into the message	(see  Internal
	     Variables).

       ~b name ...
	     Add  the  names to	the blind carbon copy (Bcc) list. This is like
	     the carbon	copy (Cc) list,	except that the	names in the Bcc  list
	     are not shown in the header of the	mail message.

       ~c name ...
	     Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.

       ~d    Read  in  the dead-letter file. See DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
	     for a description of this file.

       ~e    Invoke the	editor on the partial message. See also	EDITOR in  EN-
	     VIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       ~f [message-list]
	     Forward the specified message, or the current message being read.
	     Valid only	when sending a message while reading  mail.  The  mes-
	     sages  are	 inserted  into	the message without alteration (as op-
	     posed to the ~m escape).

       ~F [message-list]
	     Forward the specified message, or the current message being read,
	     including	all header fields. Overrides the suppression of	fields
	     by	the ignore command.

       ~h    Prompt for	Subject	line and To, Cc, and Bcc lists.	If  the	 field
	     is	 displayed  with  an initial value, it may be edited as	if you
	     had just typed it.

       ~i variable
	     Insert the	value of the named variable into the text of the  mes-
	     sage.  For	 example,  ~A  is equivalent to	`~i Sign.' Environment
	     variables set and exported	in the shell are  also	accessible  by
	     ~i.

       ~m [message-list]
	     Insert  the  listed  messages,  or	the current message being read
	     into the letter. Valid only when sending a	message	while  reading
	     mail.  The	 text  of the message is shifted to the	right, and the
	     string contained in the indentprefix variable is inserted as  the
	     leftmost  characters  of each line. If indentprefix is not	set, a
	     TAB character is inserted into each line.

       ~M [message-list]
	     Insert the	listed messages, or the	current	 message  being	 read,
	     including	the  header  fields,  into the letter. Valid only when
	     sending a message while reading mail. The text of the message  is
	     shifted  to the right, and	the string contained in	the indentpre-
	     fix variable is inserted as the leftmost characters of each line.
	     If	indentprefix is	not set, a TAB character is inserted into each
	     line. Overrides the suppression of	fields by the ignore command.

       ~p    Print the message being entered.

       ~q    Quit from input mode by simulating	an interrupt. If the  body  of
	     the  message  is  not null, the partial message is	saved in dead-
	     letter. See DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for  a  description  of
	     this file.

       ~R    Mark message for return receipt.

       ~r file

       ~< file

       ~< ! shell-command
	     Read in the specified file. If the	argument begins	with an	excla-
	     mation point (!), the rest	of the string is taken as an arbitrary
	     shell  command and	is executed, with the standard output inserted
	     into the message.

       ~s string ...
	     Set the subject line to string.

       ~t name ...
	     Add the given names to the	To list.

       ~v    Invoke a preferred	screen editor on the partial message. The  de-
	     fault  visual  editor  is	vi(1).	See also VISUAL	in ENVIRONMENT
	     VARIABLES.

       ~w file
	     Write the message into the	given file, without the	header.

       ~x    Exit as with ~q except the	message	is not saved in	dead-letter.

       ~| shell-command
	     Pipe the body of the message through the given shell-command.  If
	     the shell-command returns a successful exit status, the output of
	     the command replaces the message.

   Internal Variables
       The following variables are internal variables. They  may  be  imported
       from  the  execution  environment  or  set using	the set	command	at any
       time. The unset command may be used to erase variables.

       allnet
	     All network names whose last component  (login  name)  match  are
	     treated as	identical. This	causes the message-list	message	speci-
	     fications to behave similarly. Disabled by	default. See also  the
	     alternates	command	and the	metoo and fuzzymatch variables.

       alwaysignore
	     Ignore  header  fields  with  ignore  everywhere, not just	during
	     print or type. Affects the	save, Save, copy, Copy,	top, pipe, and
	     write  commands,  and the ~m and ~f tilde escapes.	Enabled	by de-
	     fault.

       append
	     Upon termination, append messages to the end of the mbox file in-
	     stead of prepending them. Although	disabled by default, append is
	     set in the	system startup file (which can be suppressed with  the
	     -n	command	line option).

       appenddeadletter
	     Append  to	the deadletter file rather than	overwrite it. Although
	     disabled by  default, appenddeadletter is frequently set  in  the
	     system startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE above.

       askbcc
	     Prompt for	the Bcc	list after the Subject is entered if it	is not
	     specified on the command line with	the -b option. Disabled	by de-
	     fault.

       askcc Prompt  for the Cc	list after the Subject is entered if it	is not
	     specified on the command line with	the -c option. Disabled	by de-
	     fault.

       asksub
	     Prompt  for  subject  if  it is not specified on the command line
	     with the -s option. Enabled by default.

       autoinc
	     Automatically incorporate new messages into the  current  session
	     as	 they  arrive.	This  has an affect similar to issuing the inc
	     command every time	the command prompt is displayed.  Disabled  by
	     default,  but  autoinc  is	set in the default system startup file
	     for mailx;	it is not set for /usr/ucb/mail	or /usr/ucb/Mail.

       autoprint
	     Enable automatic printing of messages after delete	 and  undelete
	     commands. Disabled	by default.

       bang  Enable  the special-casing	of exclamation points (!) in shell es-
	     cape command lines	as in vi(1). Disabled by default.

       bsdcompat
	     Set automatically if mailx	is invoked as  mail  or	 Mail.	Causes
	     mailx  to	use  /etc/mail/Mail.rc	as  the	 system	 startup file.
	     Changes the default pager to more(1).

       cmd=shell-command
	     Set the default command for the pipe command.  No default value.

       conv=conversion
	     Convert uucp addresses to the specified address style, which  can
	     be	either:

	     internet
		   This	 requires  a  mail  delivery program conforming	to the
		   RFC822 standard for electronic mail addressing.

	     optimize
		   Remove loops	in uucp(1C) address paths (typically generated
		   by the reply	command).
		    No	rerouting  is performed; mail has no knowledge of UUCP
		   routes or connections.

	     Conversion	is disabled by default.	See also sendmail(1M) and  the
	     -U	command-line option.

       crt[=number]
	     Pipe  messages  having more than number lines through the command
	     specified by the value of the PAGER variable ( pg(1)  or  more(1)
	     by	 default). If number is	not specified, the current window size
	     is	used. Disabled by default.

       debug Enable verbose diagnostics	for debugging. Messages	are not	deliv-
	     ered. Disabled by default.

       dot   Take  a  period  on  a line by itself, or EOF during input	from a
	     terminal as end-of-file. Disabled by default, but dot is  set  in
	     the system	startup	file (which can	be suppressed with the -n com-
	     mand line option).

       fcc   By	default, mailx will treat any address containing a slash ("/")
	     character	as  a  local "send to file" address. By	unsetting this
	     option, this behavior is disabled.	Enabled	by default.

       flipr Reverse the effect	of the followup/Followup and reply/Reply  com-
	     mand pairs.  If both flipr	and replyall are set, the effect is as
	     if	neither	was set.

       from  Extract the author	listed in the header summary  from  the	 From:
	     header instead of the UNIX	From line. Enabled by default.

       fuzzymatch
	     The from command searches for messages from the indicated sender.
	     By	default, the full sender address must be specified. By setting
	     this  option,  only  a  sub-string	 of the	sender address need be
	     specified.	Disabled by default.

       escape=c
	     Substitute	c for the ~ escape character. Takes effect  with  next
	     message sent.

       folder=directory
	     The directory for saving standard mail files. User-specified file
	     names beginning with a plus (+) are  expanded  by	preceding  the
	     file  name	with this directory name to obtain the real file name.
	     If	directory does not start with a	slash (/), $HOME is  prepended
	     to	 it.   There  is  no default for the folder variable. See also
	     outfolder below.

       header
	     Enable printing of	the header summary when	 entering  mailx.  En-
	     abled by default.

       hold  Preserve  all  messages  that  are	read in	the mailbox instead of
	     putting them in the standard mbox save file. Disabled by default.

       ignore
	     Ignore interrupts while entering messages.	Handy for noisy	 dial-
	     up	lines. Disabled	by default.

       ignoreeof
	     Ignore end-of-file	during message input. Input must be terminated
	     by	a period (.) on	a line by itself or by	the  ~.	 command.  See
	     also dot above. Disabled by default.

       indentprefix=string
	     When  indentprefix	 is set, string	is used	to mark	indented lines
	     from messages included with ~m. The default is a TAB character.

       keep  When the mailbox is empty,	truncate it to zero length instead  of
	     removing it. Disabled by default.

       iprompt=string
	     The  specified prompt string is displayed before each line	on in-
	     put is requested when sending a message.

       keepsave
	     Keep messages that	have been saved	in other files in the  mailbox
	     instead of	deleting them. Disabled	by default.

       makeremote
	     When  replying to all recipients of a message, if an address does
	     not include a machine name, it is assumed to be relative  to  the
	     sender  of	 the  message.	Normally  not needed when dealing with
	     hosts that	support	RFC822.

       metoo If	your login appears as a	recipient, do not delete it  from  the
	     list. Disabled by default.

       mustbang
	     Force all mail addresses to be in bang format.

       onehop
	     When  responding to a message that	was originally sent to several
	     recipients, the other recipient addresses are normally forced  to
	     be	relative to the	originating author's machine for the response.
	     This flag disables	alteration of the recipients'  addresses,  im-
	     proving  efficiency  in a network where all machines can send di-
	     rectly to all other machines (that	is, one	hop away). Disabled by
	     default.

       outfolder
	     Locate  the  files	used to	record outgoing	messages in the	direc-
	     tory specified by the folder variable unless the path name	is ab-
	     solute. Disabled by default. See folder above and the Save, Copy,
	     followup, and Followup commands.

       page  Used with the pipe	command	to insert a form feed after each  mes-
	     sage sent through the pipe. Disabled by default.

       pipeignore
	     Omit ignored header when outputting to the	pipe command. Although
	     disabled by default,  pipeignore is frequently set	in the	system
	     startup file. See Starting	Mail in	USAGE above.

       postmark
	     Your  "real name" to be included in the From line of messages you
	     send.  By default this is derived from the	comment	field in  your
	     passwd(4) file entry.

       prompt=string
	     Set  the  command	mode prompt to string. Default is "? ",	unless
	     the bsdcompat variable is set, then the default is	"&".

       quiet Refrain from printing the opening message and version when	enter-
	     ing mailx.	Disabled by default.

       record=file
	     Record  all  outgoing mail	in file. Disabled by default. See also
	     outfolder above.

       replyall
	     Reverse the effect	of the reply and Reply and followup  and  Fol-
	     lowup commands. Although set by default,  replayall is frequently
	     unset in the system startup file. See flipr and Starting Mail  in
	     USAGE above.

       returnaddr=string
	     The  default  sender  address  is	that of	the current user. This
	     variable can be used to set the sender address to	any  arbitrary
	     value. Set	with caution.

       save  Enable saving of messages in dead-letter on interrupt or delivery
	     error. See	DEAD for a description of this file.  Enabled  by  de-
	     fault.

       screen=number
	     Sets  the	number	of  lines  in a	screen-full of headers for the
	     headers command. number must be a positive	number.

	     The default is set	according to baud rate or window size. With  a
	     baud  rate	 less than 1200, number	defaults to 5, if baud rate is
	     exactly 1200, it defaults to 10. If you are in a  window,	number
	     defaults  to  the default window size minus 4. Otherwise, the de-
	     fault is 20.

       sendmail=shell-command
	     Alternate command for delivering messages.	Note: In  addition  to
	     the  expected list	of recipients, mail also passes	the -i and -m,
	     flags to the command. Since these flags are  not  appropriate  to
	     other  commands,  you  may	have to	use a shell script that	strips
	     them from the arguments list before invoking the desired command.
	     Default is	/usr/bin/rmail.

       sendwait
	     Wait  for	background mailer to finish before returning. Disabled
	     by	default.

       showname
	     Causes the	message	header display to show the sender's real  name
	     (if  known)  rather than their mail address. Disabled by default,
	     but showname is set in the	/etc/mail/mailx.rc system startup file
	     for mailx.

       showto
	     When  displaying  the header summary and the message is from you,
	     print the recipient's name	instead	of the author's	name.

       sign=string
	     The variable inserted into	the text of a message when the ~a (au-
	     tograph)  command	is given. No default (see also ~i in Tilde Es-
	     capes).

	     `

       Sign=string
	     The variable inserted into	the text of a message when the ~A com-
	     mand is given.  No	default	(see also ~i in	Tilde Escapes).

       toplines=number
	     The  number of lines of header to print with the top command. De-
	     fault is 5.

       verbose
	     Invoke sendmail(1M) with the -v flag.

       translate
	     The name of a program to translate	mail  addresses.  The  program
	     receives  mail  addresses	as arguments. The program produces, on
	     the standard output, lines	containing the following data, in this
	     order:

		o  the postmark	for the	sender (see the	postmark variable)

		o  translated  mail  addresses,	one per	line, corresponding to
		   the program's arguments.  Each translated address will  re-
		   place  the  corresponding address in	the mail message being
		   sent.

		o  a line containing only "y" or "n".  if  the	line  contains
		   "y"	the  user  will	 be  asked to confirm that the message
		   should be sent.

	     The translate program will	be invoked for each mail message to be
	     sent.  If the program exits with a	non-zero exit status, or fails
	     to	produce	enough output, the message is not sent.

   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5)	for the	description of the behavior of mailx when  en-
       countering files	greater	than or	equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of  mailx:  HOME,  LANG,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_TIME,
       LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

       DEAD  The  name of the file in which to save partial letters in case of
	     untimely interrupt. Default is $HOME/dead.letter.

       EDITOR
	     The command to run	when the edit or ~e command is used.   Default
	     is	ed(1).

       LISTER
	     The command (and options) to use when listing the contents	of the
	     folder directory.	The default is ls(1).

       MAIL  The name of the initial mailbox file to  read  (in	 lieu  of  the
	     standard system mailbox).	The default is /var/mail/username.

       MAILRC
	     The name of the startup file.  Default is $HOME/.mailrc.

       MAILX_HEAD
	     The  specified string is included at the beginning	of the body of
	     each message that is sent.

       MAILX_TAIL
	     The specified string is included at the end of the	body  of  each
	     message that is sent.

       MBOX  The  name of the file to save messages which have been read.  The
	     exit command overrides this function, as does saving the  message
	     explicitly	in another file.  Default is $HOME/mbox.

       PAGER The  command  to  use as a	filter for paginating output. This can
	     also be used to specify the  options  to  be  used.   Default  is
	     pg(1),  or	 if  the  bsdcompat  variable  is  set,	the default is
	     more(1). See Internal Variables.

       SHELL The name of a preferred command interpreter.  Default is sh(1).

       VISUAL
	     The name of a preferred screen editor.  Default is	vi(1).

EXIT STATUS
       When the	-e option is specified,	the  following	exit  values  are  re-
       turned:

       0     Mail was found.

       >0    Mail was not found	or an error occurred.

       Otherwise, the following	exit values are	returned:

       0     Successful	 completion.  Notice that this status implies that all
	     messages were sent, but it	gives no assurances that any  of  them
	     were actually delivered.

       >0    An	error occurred

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc
	      personal startup file

       $HOME/mbox
	     secondary storage file

       $HOME/.Maillock
	     lock file to prevent multiple writers of system mailbox

       /etc/mail/mailx.rc
	     optional system startup file for mailx only

       /etc/mail/Mail.rc
	     BSD  compatibility	system-wide startup file for /usr/ucb/mail and
	     /usr/ucb/Mail

       /tmp/R[emqsx]*
	     temporary files

       /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*
	     help message files

       /var/mail/*
	     post office directory

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       biff(1B),  echo(1),  ed(1),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),   mail(1),
       mail(1B),  mailcompat(1), more(1), pg(1), sh(1),	uucp(1C), vacation(1),
       vi(1),  newaliases(1M),	sendmail(1M),	aliases(4),   passwd(4),   at-
       tributes(5), environ(5),	largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Where  shell-command  is	 shown	as valid, arguments are	not always al-
       lowed. Experimentation is recommended.

       Internal	variables imported from	the execution  environment  cannot  be
       unset.

       The  full  internet addressing is not fully supported by	mailx. The new
       standards need some time	to settle down.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.	 Try resending
       the errant reply	with onehop set.

       mailx  does not lock your record	file. So, if you use a record file and
       send two	or more	messages simultaneously, lines from the	 messages  may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The  format  for	the alias command is a space-separated list of recipi-
       ents, while  the	 format	 for  an  alias	 in  either  the  .forward  or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

       To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when your mail	server
       is running Solaris 2.x, first execute the mailcompat(1) program.

SunOS 5.9			  19 Sep 2001			      mailx(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | USAGE | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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