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mailx(1)			 User Commands			      mailx(1)

NAME
       mailx - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [	-f
	[file |	+folder] ] [-T file] [-u user]

       mailx  [-BdFintUv~]  [-b	bcc] [-c cc] [-h number] [-r address] [-s sub-
       ject] recipient...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

       /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       The mail	utilities listed above provide a comfortable,  flexible	 envi-
       ronment for sending and receiving mail messages electronically.

       When  reading  mail,  the mail utilities	provide	commands to facilitate
       saving, deleting, and responding	to messages. When  sending  mail,  the
       mail  utilities	allow editing, reviewing and other modification	of the
       message as it is	entered.

       Incoming	mail is	stored in a standard file for each  user,  called  the
       mailbox	for that user. When the	mail utilities are called to read mes-
       sages, the mailbox is the default place to find them. As	 messages  are
       read,  they are marked to be moved to a secondary file for storage, un-
       less specific action is taken, so that the messages need	 not  be  seen
       again.This secondary file is called the mbox and	is normally located in
       the user's HOME directory (see MBOX in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for	a  de-
       scription of this file).	Messages can be	saved in other secondary files
       named by	the user. Messages remain in a secondary file  until  forcibly
       removed.

       The  user  can access a secondary file by using the -f option. Messages
       in the secondary	file can then be read or otherwise processed using the
       same  Commands  as in the primary mailbox. This gives rise within these
       pages to	the notion of a	current	mailbox.

OPTIONS
       On the command line options start with a	dash (-). Any other  arguments
       are  taken to be	destinations (recipients). If no recipients are	speci-
       fied, mailx attempts to read messages from the mailbox.

       -B	       Do not buffer standard input or standard	output.

       -b bcc	       Set the blind carbon copy list to bcc.  bcc  should  be
		       enclosed	in quotes if it	contains more than one name.

       -c cc	       Set  the	 carbon	copy list to cc. cc should be enclosed
		       in quotes if it contains	more than one name.

       -d	       Turn on debugging output. (Neither particularly	inter-
		       esting nor recommended.)

       -e	       Test for	the presence of	mail. mailx prints nothing and
		       exits with a successful return code if there is mail to
		       read.

       -F	       Record  the message in a	file named after the first re-
		       cipient.	Overrides the record variable, if set (see In-
		       ternal Variables).

       -f [file]       Read  messages from file	instead	of mailbox. If no file
		       is specified, the mbox is used.

       -f [ +folder]   Use the file folder in the folder  directory  (same  as
		       the  folder  command).  The  name  of this directory is
		       listed in the folder variable.

       -H	       Print header summary only.

       -h number       The number of network "hops" made so far. This is  pro-
		       vided  for  network software to avoid infinite delivery
		       loops. This option and its argument are passed  to  the
		       delivery	program.

       -I	       Include	the newsgroup and article-id header lines when
		       printing	mail messages.	This option  requires  the  -f
		       option to be specified.

       -i	       Ignore  interrupts.  See	 also ignore in	Internal Vari-
		       ables.

       -N	       Do not print initial header summary.

       -n	       Do not initialize from the system default  mailx.rc  or
		       Mail.rc file.  See USAGE.

       -r address      Use address as the return address when invoking the de-
		       livery program. All tilde commands are  disabled.  This
		       option  and its argument	is passed to the delivery pro-
		       gram.

       -s subject      Set the Subject header field to subject.	subject	should
		       be  enclosed  in	 quotes	 if it contains	embedded white
		       space.

       -T file	       Message-id and article-id header	lines are recorded  in
		       file  after  the	message	is read. This option also sets
		       the -I option.

       -t	       Scan the	input for To:, Cc:, and	Bcc: fields.  Any  re-
		       cipients	on the command line will be ignored.

       -U	       Convert	UUCP-style  addresses  to  internet standards.
		       Overrides the conv environment variable.

       -u user	       Read user's mailbox. This is only effective  if	user's
		       mailbox is not read protected.

       -V	       Print the mailx version number and exit.

       -v	       Pass the	-v flag	to sendmail(1M).

       -~	       Interpret  tilde	escapes	in the input even if not read-
		       ing from	a tty.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       recipient       Addressee of message.

USAGE
   Starting Mail
       At   startup   time,   mailx   executes	 the   system	startup	  file
       /etc/mail/mailx.rc. If invoked as mail or Mail, the system startup file
       /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

       The system startup file sets  up	 initial  display  options  and	 alias
       lists  and  assigns  values to some internal variables. These variables
       are flags and valued parameters which are set and cleared using the set
       and unset commands. See Internal	Variables.

       With  the  following  exceptions,  regular  commands  are  legal	inside
       startup files: !, Copy, edit, followup, Followup, hold, mail, preserve,
       reply,  Reply,  shell,  and visual. An error in the startup file	causes
       the remaining lines in the file to be ignored.

       After executing the system startup file,	 the  mail  utilities  execute
       the  optional personal startup file $HOME/.mailrc, wherein the user can
       override	the values of the internal variables  as  set  by  the	system
       startup file.

       If  the -n option is specified, however,	the mail utilities do not exe-
       cute the	system startup file.

       Many system administrators include the commands

       set appenddeadletter
       unset replyall
       unset pipeignore

       in the system startup files (to be compatible with past Solaris	behav-
       ior),  but  this	does not meet standards	requirements for mailx.	To get
       standard	behavior for mailx, users should use the -n option or  include
       the following commands in a personal startup file:

       unset appenddeadletter
       set replyall
       set pipeignore

       When  reading  mail,  the  mail utilities are in	command	mode. A	header
       summary of the first several  messages  is  displayed,  followed	 by  a
       prompt  indicating  the mail utilities can accept regular commands (see
       Commands	below).	When sending mail, the mail  utilities	are  in	 input
       mode.  If  no  subject is specified on the command line,	and the	asksub
       variable	is set,	a prompt for the subject is printed.

       As the message is typed,	the mail utilities read	the message and	 store
       it  in  a  temporary  file. Commands may	be entered by beginning	a line
       with the	tilde (~) escape character followed by a single	command	letter
       and  optional  arguments. See Tilde Escapes for a summary of these com-
       mands.

   Reading Mail
       Each message is assigned	a sequential number, and there is at any  time
       the notion of a current message,	marked by a right angle	bracket	(>) in
       the header summary. Many	commands take an  optional  list  of  messages
       (message-list)  to  operate  on.	 In most cases,	the current message is
       set to the highest-numbered message in the list after  the  command  is
       finished	executing.

       The  default for	message-list is	the current message. A message-list is
       a list of message identifiers separated by spaces, which	may include:

       n	       Message number n.

       .	       The current message.

       ^	       The first undeleted message.

       $	       The last	message.

       *	       All messages.

       +	       The next	undeleted message.

       -	       The previous undeleted message.

       n-m	       An inclusive range of message numbers.

       user	       All messages from user.

       /string	       All messages with string	in the Subject line (case  ig-
		       nored).

       :c	       All messages of type c, where c is one of:

		       d	deleted	messages

		       n	new messages

		       o	old messages

		       r	read messages

		       u	unread messages

		       Notice  that  the  context  of  the  command determines
		       whether this type of message specification makes	sense.

       Other arguments are usually arbitrary strings whose  usage  depends  on
       the command involved. Filenames,	where expected,	are expanded using the
       normal shell conventions	(see sh(1)). Special characters	are recognized
       by certain commands and are documented with the commands	below.

   Sending Mail
       Recipients  listed  on  the  command  line may be of three types: login
       names, shell commands, or alias groups. Login names may be any  network
       address,	including mixed	network	addressing. If mail is found to	be un-
       deliverable, an attempt is made to return it to the  sender's  mailbox.
       If  the recipient name begins with a pipe symbol	( | ), the rest	of the
       name is taken to	be a shell command to pipe the message	through.  This
       provides	 an  automatic interface with any program that reads the stan-
       dard input, such	as lp(1) for recording outgoing	mail on	 paper.	 Alias
       groups are set by the alias command (see	Commands below)	or in a	system
       startup file (for example, $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are lists of recipi-
       ents of any type.

   Forwarding Mail
       To  forward  a specific message,	include	it in a	message	to the desired
       recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See Tilde Escapes below. To
       forward mail automatically, add a comma-separated list of addresses for
       additional recipients to	the .forward file in your home directory. This
       is different from the format of the alias command, which	takes a	space-
       separated list instead. Note: Forwarding	addresses must	be  valid,  or
       the messages will "bounce." You cannot, for instance, reroute your mail
       to a new	host by	forwarding it to your new address if  it  is  not  yet
       listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Commands
       Regular commands	are of the form

       [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments	]

       In  input  mode,	 commands  are	recognized  by	the  escape character,
       tilde(~), and lines not treated as commands are taken as	input for  the
       message.	 If  no	command	is specified in	command	mode, next is assumed.
       The following is	a complete list	of mailx commands:

       !shell-command

	   Escape to the shell.	See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       # comment

	   NULL	command	(comment). Useful in mailrc files.

       =

	   Print the current message number.

       ?

	   Prints a summary of commands.

       alias alias name	...
       group alias name	...

	   Declare an alias for	the given names.  The  names  are  substituted
	   when	 alias is used as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file. With
	   no arguments, the command displays the list of defined aliases.

       alternates name ...

	   Declare a list of alternate names for your login.  When  responding
	   to  a  message, these names are removed from	the list of recipients
	   for the response. With no arguments,	print the current list of  al-
	   ternate names. See also allnet in Internal Variables.

       cd [directory]
       chdir [directory]

	   Change directory. If	directory is not specified, $HOME is used.

       copy [file]
       copy [message-list] file

	   Copy	 messages  to  the file	without	marking	the messages as	saved.
	   Otherwise equivalent	to the save command.

       Copy [message-list]

	   Save	the specified messages in a file whose name  is	 derived  from
	   the author of the message to	be saved, without marking the messages
	   as saved. Otherwise equivalent to the Save command.

       delete [message-list]

	   Delete messages from	the mailbox. If	autoprint  is  set,  the  next
	   message  after  the last one	deleted	is printed (see	Internal Vari-
	   ables).

       discard [header-field...]
       ignore [header-field...]

	   Suppress printing of	the specified header  fields  when  displaying
	   messages  on	 the  screen.  Examples	of header fields to ignore are
	   Status and Received.	The fields are included	when  the  message  is
	   saved,  unless  the	alwaysignore  variable is set. The More, Page,
	   Print, and Type commands override this command.  If	no  header  is
	   specified,  the  current  list  of  header  fields being ignored is
	   printed. See	also the undiscard and unignore	commands.

       dp [message-list]
       dt [message-list]

	   Delete the specified	messages from the mailbox and print  the  next
	   message  after the last one deleted.	Roughly	equivalent to a	delete
	   command followed by a print command.

       echo string ...

	   Echo	the given strings (like	echo(1)).

       edit [message-list]

	   Edit	the given messages. Each message is placed in a	temporary file
	   and	the program named by the EDITOR	variable is invoked to edit it
	   (see	ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).	Default	editor is ed(1).

       exit
       xit

	   Exit	from mailx, without changing  the  mailbox.  No	 messages  are
	   saved in the	mbox (see also quit).

       field [message-list] header-file

	   Display the value of	the header field in the	specified message.

       file [file]
       folder [file]

	   Quit	 from  the  current file of messages and read in the specified
	   file. Several special characters are	recognized when	used  as  file
	   names:

	   %	    the	current	mailbox.

	   %user    the	mailbox	for user.

	   #	    the	previous mail file.

	   &	    the	current	mbox.

	   +file    The	 named	file  in  the  folder directory	(listed	in the
		    folder variable).

	   With	no arguments, print the	name of	the current mail file, and the
	   number of messages and characters it	contains.

       folders

	   Print  the  names  of  the files in the directory set by the	folder
	   variable (see Internal Variables).

       Followup	[message]

	   Respond to a	message, recording the response	in a file  whose  name
	   is  derived	from  the  author of the message. Overrides the	record
	   variable, if	set. If	the replyall variable is set, the  actions  of
	   Followup  and  followup  are	reversed. See also the followup, Save,
	   and Copy commands and outfolder  in	Internal  Variables,  and  the
	   Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       followup	[message-list]

	   Respond  to the first message in the	message-list, sending the mes-
	   sage	to the author of each message in the message-list. The subject
	   line	 is  taken from	the first message and the response is recorded
	   in a	file whose name	is derived from	the author of the  first  mes-
	   sage.  If the replyall variable is set, the actions of followup and
	   Followup are	reversed. See also the Followup, Save, and  Copy  com-
	   mands  and  outfolder  in Internal Variables, and the Starting Mail
	   section in USAGE above.

       from [message-list]

	   Print the header summary for	the specified messages.	If no messages
	   are specified, print	the header summary for the current message.

       group alias name	...
       alias alias name	...

	   Declare  an	alias  for  the	given names. The names are substituted
	   when	alias is used as a recipient. Useful in	the mailrc file.

       headers [message]

	   Print the page of headers which includes the	message	specified. The
	   screen  variable  sets the number of	headers	per page (see Internal
	   Variables). See also	the z command.

       help

	   Print a summary of commands.

       hold [message-list]
       preserve	[message-list]

	   Hold	the specified messages in the mailbox.

       if s | r	| t
       mail-commands

       else
       mail-commands

       endif

	   Conditional execution, where	s executes following mail-commands, up
	   to  an  else	or endif, if the program is in send mode, r causes the
	   mail-commands to be executed	only in	receive	mode, and t causes the
	   mail-commands to be executed	only if	mailx is being run from	a ter-
	   minal. Useful in the	mailrc file.

       inc

	   Incorporate messages	that arrive while you are reading  the	system
	   mailbox. The	new messages are added to the message list in the cur-
	   rent	mail session. This command does	not commit changes made	during
	   the session,	and prior messages are not renumbered.

       ignore [header-field ...]
       discard [header-field ...]

	   Suppress  printing  of  the specified header	fields when displaying
	   messages on the screen. Examples of header  fields  to  ignore  are
	   Status  and	Cc. All	fields are included when the message is	saved.
	   The More, Page, Print and Type commands override this  command.  If
	   no header is	specified, the current list of header fields being ig-
	   nored is printed. See also the undiscard and	unignore commands.

       list

	   Print all commands available. No explanation	is given.

       load

	   [message] file The specified	message	is replaced by the message  in
	   the named file. file	should contain a single	mail message including
	   mail	headers	(as saved by the save command).

       mail recipient ...

	   Mail	a message to the specified recipients.

       Mail recipient

	   Mail	a message to the specified recipients, and record it in	a file
	   whose name is derived from the author of the	message. Overrides the
	   record variable, if set. See	also the Save and  Copy	 commands  and
	   outfolder in	Internal Variables.

       mbox [message-list]

	   Arrange  for	the given messages to end up in	the standard mbox save
	   file	when mailx terminates normally.	See MBOX in ENVIRONMENT	 VARI-
	   ABLES  for  a  description of this file. See	also the exit and quit
	   commands.

       more [message-list]
       page [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages. If crt	is set,	 the  messages	longer
	   than	 the  number  of lines specified by the	crt variable are paged
	   through the command specified by the	PAGER  variable.  The  default
	   command  is	pg(1) or if the	bsdcompat variable is set, the default
	   is more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the print  and  type
	   commands.

       More [message-list]
       Page [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages on the screen, including all	header
	   fields. Overrides suppression of fields by the ignore command. Same
	   as the Print	and Type commands.

       new [message-list]
       New [message-list]
       unread [message-list]
       Unread

	   [message-list]  Take	 a  message  list and mark each	message	as not
	   having been read.

       next [message]

	   Go to the next message matching message. If	message	 is  not  sup-
	   plied,  this	command	finds the next message that was	not deleted or
	   saved. A message-list may be	specified, but in this case the	 first
	   valid  message in the list is the only one used. This is useful for
	   jumping to the next message from a specific user,  since  the  name
	   would  be  taken as a command in the	absence	of a real command. See
	   the discussion of message-list above	for a description of  possible
	   message specifications.

       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
       | [message-list]	[shell-command]

	   Pipe	 the  message  through the given shell-command.	The message is
	   treated as if it were read. If no arguments are given, the  current
	   message  is piped through the command specified by the value	of the
	   cmd variable. If the	page variable is set, a	form feed character is
	   inserted after each message (see Internal Variables).

       preserve	[message-list]
       hold [message-list]

	   Preserve the	specified messages in the mailbox.

       print [message-list]
       type [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages. If crt is set, the messages	longer
	   than	the number of lines specified by the crt  variable  are	 paged
	   through  the	 command  specified by the PAGER variable. The default
	   command is pg(1) or if the bsdcompat	variable is set,  the  default
	   is  more(1).	 See  ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the more and page
	   commands.

       Print [message-list]
       Type [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages	on the screen,	including  all	header
	   fields.  Overrides  suppression  of	fields	by the ignore command.
	   Same	as the More and	Page commands.

       put [file]
       put [message-list] file

	   Save	the specified message in the given file. Use the same  conven-
	   tions as the	print command for which	header fields are ignored.

       Put [file]
       Put [message-list] file

	   Save	the specified message in the given file. Overrides suppression
	   of fields by	the ignore command.

       quit

	   Exit	from mailx, storing messages that were read in mbox and	unread
	   messages  in	 the mailbox. Messages that have been explicitly saved
	   in a	file are deleted unless	the keepsave variable is set.

       reply [message-list]
       respond [message-list]
       replysender [message-list]

	   Send	a response to the author of each message in the	 message-list.
	   The subject line is taken from the first message.  If record	is set
	   to a	file, a	copy of	the reply is added to that file.  If  the  re-
	   plyall  variable is set, the	actions	of Reply/Respond and reply/re-
	   spond are reversed. The replysender command is not affected by  the
	   replyall  variable, but sends each reply only to the	sender of each
	   message. See	the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       Reply [message]
       Respond [message]
       replyall	[message]

	   Reply to the	specified message, including all other	recipients  of
	   that	 message.   If the variable record is set to a file, a copy of
	   the reply added to that file. If the	replyall variable is set,  the
	   actions  of	Reply/Respond  and reply/respond are reversed. The re-
	   plyall command is not affected by the replyall variable, but	always
	   sends  the reply to all recipients of the message. See the Starting
	   Mail	section	in USAGE above.

       retain

	   Add the list	of header fields named to the retained list. Only  the
	   header  fields  in  the retain list are shown on your terminal when
	   you print a message.	All other header fields	are  suppressed.   The
	   set	of  retained  fields specified by the retain command overrides
	   any list of ignored fields specified	by  the	 ignore	 command.  The
	   Type	 and  Print commands can be used to print a message in its en-
	   tirety. If retain is	executed with no arguments, it lists the  cur-
	   rent	set of retained	fields.

       Save [message-list]

	   Save	 the  specified	 messages in a file whose name is derived from
	   the author of the first message. The	name of	the file is  taken  to
	   be  the author's name with all network addressing stripped off. See
	   also	the Copy, followup, and	Followup commands and outfolder	in In-
	   ternal Variables.

       save [file]
       save [message-list] file

	   Save	 the specified messages	in the given file. The file is created
	   if it does not exist. The file defaults to  mbox.  The  message  is
	   deleted  from  the mailbox when mailx terminates unless keepsave is
	   set (see also Internal Variables and	the exit and quit commands).

       set
       set variable
       set variable=string
       set variable=number

	   Define a variable. To assign	a  value  to  variable,	 separate  the
	   variable  name from the value by an `=' (there must be no space be-
	   fore	or after the `='). A variable may be given a null, string,  or
	   numeric value. To embed SPACE characters within a value, enclose it
	   in quotes.

	   With	no arguments, set displays all defined variables and any  val-
	   ues	they  might  have. See Internal	Variables for a	description of
	   all predefined mail variables.

       shell

	   Invoke an interactive shell.	See also SHELL	in  ENVIRONMENT	 VARI-
	   ABLES.

       size [message-list]

	   Print the size in characters	of the specified messages.

       source file

	   Read	commands from the given	file and return	to command mode.

       top [message-list]

	   Print  the top few lines of the specified messages. If the toplines
	   variable is set, it is taken	as the number of lines to  print  (see
	   Internal Variables).	The default is 5.

       touch [message-list]

	   Touch the specified messages. If any	message	in message-list	is not
	   specifically	saved in a file, it is placed in the mbox, or the file
	   specified  in  the  MBOX environment	variable, upon normal termina-
	   tion. See exit and quit.

       Type [message-list]
       Print [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages	on the screen,	including  all	header
	   fields. Overrides suppression of fields by the ignore command.

       type [message-list]
       print [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages. If crt is set, the messages	longer
	   than	the number of lines specified by the crt  variable  are	 paged
	   through  the	 command  specified by the PAGER variable. The default
	   command is pg(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       unalias [alias] ...
       ungroup [alias] ...

	   Remove the definitions of the specified aliases.

       undelete	[message-list]

	   Restore the specified deleted messages. Will	only restore  messages
	   deleted  in the current mail	session. If autoprint is set, the last
	   message of those restored is	printed	(see Internal Variables).

       undiscard [header-field...]
       unignore	[header-field...]

	   Remove the specified	header fields from the list being ignored.  If
	   no  header fields are specified, all	header fields are removed from
	   the list being ignored.

       unretain	[header-field...]

	   Remove the specified	header fields from the list being retained. If
	   no  header fields are specified, all	header fields are removed from
	   the list being retained.

       unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.

       unset variable...

	   Erase the specified variables. If the variable  was	imported  from
	   the environment (that is, an	environment variable or	exported shell
	   variable), it cannot	be unset from within mailx.

       version

	   Print the current version and release date of the mailx utility.

       visual [message-list]

	   Edit	the given messages with	a  screen  editor.  Each  messages  is
	   placed  in  a  temporary  file  and the program named by the	VISUAL
	   variable is invoked to edit it (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).	Notice
	   that	the default visual editor is vi.

       write [message-list] file

	   Write  the  given  messages on the specified	file, minus the	header
	   and trailing	blank line. Otherwise equivalent to the	save command.

       xit
       exit

	   Exit	from mailx, without changing  the  mailbox.  No	 messages  are
	   saved in the	mbox (see also quit).

       z[+|-]

	   Scroll  the header display forward or backward one screen-full. The
	   number of headers displayed is set by the screen variable (see  In-
	   ternal Variables).

   Tilde Escapes
       The  following tilde escape commands can	be used	when composing mail to
       send. These may be entered only from input mode,	by  beginning  a  line
       with  the  tilde	escape character (~). See escape in Internal Variables
       for changing this special character. The	escape character  can  be  en-
       tered as	text by	typing it twice.

       ~!shell-command	       Escape to the shell. If present,	run shell-com-
			       mand.

       ~.		       Simulate	end of file (terminate message input).

       ~:mail-command	       Perform the command-level request.  Valid  only
       ~_mail-command	       when sending a message while reading mail.

       ~?		       Print a summary of tilde	escapes.

       ~A		       Insert  the autograph string Sign into the mes-
			       sage (see Internal Variables).

       ~a		       Insert the autograph string sign	into the  mes-
			       sage (see Internal Variables).

       ~b name ...	       Add  the	 names	to the blind carbon copy (Bcc)
			       list. This is like the carbon copy  (Cc)	 list,
			       except  that  the names in the Bcc list are not
			       shown in	the header of the mail message.

       ~c name ...	       Add the names to	the carbon copy	(Cc) list.

       ~d		       Read in the dead-letter file. See DEAD in ENVI-
			       RONMENT	VARIABLES  for	a  description of this
			       file.

       ~e		       Invoke the editor on the	partial	 message.  See
			       also EDITOR in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       ~f [message-list]       Forward	the  specified message,	or the current
			       message being read. Valid only when  sending  a
			       message	while  reading	mail. The messages are
			       inserted	into the  message  without  alteration
			       (as opposed to the ~m escape).

       ~F [message-list]       Forward	the  specified message,	or the current
			       message	being  read,  including	  all	header
			       fields.	Overrides the suppression of fields by
			       the ignore command.

       ~h		       Prompt for Subject line and  To,	 Cc,  and  Bcc
			       lists.  If  the field is	displayed with an ini-
			       tial value, it may be edited as if you had just
			       typed it.

       ~i variable	       Insert the value	of the named variable into the
			       text of the message. For	example, ~A is equiva-
			       lent  to	 `~i  Sign.' Environment variables set
			       and exported in the shell are  also  accessible
			       by ~i.

       ~m [message-list]       Insert the listed messages, or the current mes-
			       sage being read into  the  letter.  Valid  only
			       when  sending a message while reading mail. The
			       text of the message is shifted  to  the	right,
			       and  the	 string	 contained in the indentprefix
			       variable	is inserted as the leftmost characters
			       of each line. If	indentprefix is	not set, a TAB
			       character is inserted into each line.

       ~M [message-list]       Insert the listed messages, or the current mes-
			       sage  being  read, including the	header fields,
			       into the	letter.	Valid only when	sending	a mes-
			       sage  while  reading mail. The text of the mes-
			       sage is shifted to the right,  and  the	string
			       contained  in  the indentprefix variable	is in-
			       serted as the leftmost characters of each line.
			       If  indentprefix	is not set, a TAB character is
			       inserted	into each line.	Overrides the suppres-
			       sion of fields by the ignore command.

       ~p		       Print the message being entered.

       ~q		       Quit  from  input  mode by simulating an	inter-
			       rupt. If	the body of the	message	is  not	 null,
			       the  partial  message  is saved in dead-letter.
			       See DEAD	in ENVIRONMENT	VARIABLES  for	a  de-
			       scription of this file.

       ~R		       Mark message for	return receipt.

       ~r file		       Read in the specified file. If the argument be-
       ~< file		       gins with an exclamation	point (!), the rest of
       ~< ! shell-command      the  string is taken as an arbitrary shell com-
			       mand and	is executed, with the standard	output
			       inserted	into the message.

       ~s string ...	       Set the subject line to string.

       ~t name ...	       Add the given names to the To list.

       ~v		       Invoke a	preferred screen editor	on the partial
			       message.	The default visual  editor  is	vi(1).
			       See also	VISUAL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       ~w file		       Write  the message into the given file, without
			       the header.

       ~x		       Exit as with ~q except the message is not saved
			       in dead-letter.

       ~| shell-command	       Pipe  the body of the message through the given
			       shell-command. If the shell-command  returns  a
			       successful  exit	status,	the output of the com-
			       mand replaces the message.

   Internal Variables
       The following variables are internal variables. They  may  be  imported
       from  the  execution  environment  or  set using	the set	command	at any
       time. The unset command may be used to erase variables.

       allnet		       All network names whose last  component	(login
			       name)  match  are  treated  as  identical. This
			       causes the message-list message	specifications
			       to  behave  similarly. Disabled by default. See
			       also the	alternates command and the  metoo  and
			       fuzzymatch variables.

       alwaysignore	       Ignore  header  fields  with ignore everywhere,
			       not just	during	print  or  type.  Affects  the
			       save,  Save,  copy,  Copy, top, pipe, and write
			       commands, and the ~m and	~f tilde escapes.  En-
			       abled by	default.

       append		       Upon termination, append	messages to the	end of
			       the mbox	file instead of	prepending  them.  Al-
			       though  disabled	 by  default, append is	set in
			       the system startup  file	 (which	 can  be  sup-
			       pressed with the	-n command line	option).

       appenddeadletter	       Append to the deadletter	file rather than over-
			       write it. Although disabled  by	 default,  ap-
			       penddeadletter  is frequently set in the	system
			       startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE	above.

       askbcc		       Prompt for the Bcc list after  the  Subject  is
			       entered	if  it is not specified	on the command
			       line with the -b	option.	Disabled by default.

       askcc		       Prompt for the Cc list after the	Subject	is en-
			       tered  if  it  is  not specified	on the command
			       line with the -c	option.	Disabled by default.

       asksub		       Prompt for subject if it	is  not	 specified  on
			       the command line	with the -s option. Enabled by
			       default.

       autoinc		       Automatically incorporate new messages into the
			       current session as they arrive. This has	an af-
			       fect similar to issuing the inc	command	 every
			       time  the command prompt	is displayed. Disabled
			       by default, but autoinc is set in  the  default
			       system  startup	file  for mailx; it is not set
			       for /usr/ucb/mail or /usr/ucb/Mail.

       autoprint	       Enable automatic	 printing  of  messages	 after
			       delete  and  undelete commands. Disabled	by de-
			       fault.

       bang		       Enable the special-casing of exclamation	points
			       (!)  in shell escape command lines as in	vi(1).
			       Disabled	by default.

       bsdcompat	       Set automatically if mailx is invoked  as  mail
			       or  Mail. Causes	mailx to use /etc/mail/Mail.rc
			       as the system startup file. Changes the default
			       pager to	more(1).

       cmd=shell-command       Set  the	 default command for the pipe command.
			       No default value.

       conv=conversion	       Convert uucp addresses to the specified address
			       style, which can	be either:

			       internet	       This  requires  a mail delivery
					       program	 conforming   to   the
					       RFC822  standard	for electronic
					       mail addressing.

			       optimize	       Remove loops  in	 uucp(1C)  ad-
					       dress  paths  (typically	gener-
					       ated by the reply command).  No
					       rerouting  is  performed;  mail
					       has no knowledge	of UUCP	routes
					       or connections.

			       Conversion  is  disabled	 by  default. See also
			       sendmail(1M) and	the -U command-line option.

       crt[=number]	       Pipe messages having  more  than	 number	 lines
			       through	the  command specified by the value of
			       the PAGER variable ( pg(1) or  more(1)  by  de-
			       fault). If number is not	specified, the current
			       window size is used. Disabled by	default.

       debug		       Enable verbose diagnostics for debugging.  Mes-
			       sages are not delivered.	Disabled by default.

       dot		       Take  a period on a line	by itself, or EOF dur-
			       ing input from a	terminal as end-of-file.  Dis-
			       abled  by default, but dot is set in the	system
			       startup file (which can be suppressed with  the
			       -n command line option).

       fcc		       By  default,  mailx will	treat any address con-
			       taining a slash	("/")  character  as  a	 local
			       "send  to  file"	address. By unsetting this op-
			       tion, this behavior is disabled.	Enabled	by de-
			       fault.

       flipr		       Reverse the effect of the followup/Followup and
			       reply/Reply command pairs.  If both  flipr  and
			       replyall	 are  set, the effect is as if neither
			       was set.

       from		       Extract the author listed in the	header summary
			       from  the From: header instead of the UNIX From
			       line. Enabled by	default.

       fuzzymatch	       The from	command	searches for messages from the
			       indicated  sender.  By default, the full	sender
			       address must be specified. By setting this  op-
			       tion,  only  a sub-string of the	sender address
			       need be specified. Disabled by default.

       escape=c		       Substitute c for	the ~ escape character.	 Takes
			       effect with next	message	sent.

       folder=directory	       The  directory  for saving standard mail	files.
			       User-specified file names beginning with	a plus
			       (+)  are	 expanded  by  preceding the file name
			       with this directory name	 to  obtain  the  real
			       file  name.  If directory does not start	with a
			       slash (/), $HOME	is prepended to	it.  There  is
			       no  default  for	the folder variable.  See also
			       outfolder below.

       header		       Enable printing of the header summary when  en-
			       tering mailx. Enabled by	default.

       hold		       Preserve	 all  messages	that  are  read	in the
			       mailbox instead of putting them in the standard
			       mbox save file. Disabled	by default.

       ignore		       Ignore	interrupts  while  entering  messages.
			       Handy for noisy dial-up lines. Disabled by  de-
			       fault.

       ignoreeof	       Ignore  end-of-file during message input. Input
			       must be terminated by a period (.) on a line by
			       itself  or  by  the  ~.	command.  See also dot
			       above. Disabled by default.

       indentprefix=string     When indentprefix is set,  string  is  used  to
			       mark indented lines from	messages included with
			       ~m. The default is a TAB	character.

       keep		       When the	mailbox	is empty, truncate it to  zero
			       length  instead of removing it. Disabled	by de-
			       fault.

       iprompt=string	       The specified prompt string is displayed	before
			       each  line on input is requested	when sending a
			       message.

       keepsave		       Keep messages that have	been  saved  in	 other
			       files  in the mailbox instead of	deleting them.
			       Disabled	by default.

       makeremote	       When replying to	all recipients of  a  message,
			       if  an address does not include a machine name,
			       it is assumed to	be relative to the  sender  of
			       the  message.  Normally not needed when dealing
			       with hosts that support RFC822.

       metoo		       If your login appears as	a  recipient,  do  not
			       delete it from the list.	Disabled by default.

       mustbang		       Force all mail addresses	to be in bang format.

       onehop		       When  responding	 to  a message that was	origi-
			       nally sent to several recipients, the other re-
			       cipient	addresses  are	normally  forced to be
			       relative	to the	originating  author's  machine
			       for the response. This flag disables alteration
			       of the recipients' addresses,  improving	 effi-
			       ciency in a network where all machines can send
			       directly	to all other machines  (that  is,  one
			       hop away). Disabled by default.

       outfolder	       Locate  the  files used to record outgoing mes-
			       sages in	the directory specified	by the	folder
			       variable	unless the path	name is	absolute. Dis-
			       abled by	default.  See  folder  above  and  the
			       Save, Copy, followup, and Followup commands.

       page		       Used  with  the	pipe  command to insert	a form
			       feed after each message sent through the	 pipe.
			       Disabled	by default.

       pipeignore	       Omit ignored header when	outputting to the pipe
			       command.	  Although   disabled	by    default,
			       pipeignore  is  frequently  set	in  the	system
			       startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE	above.

       postmark		       Your "real name"	to be  included	 in  the  From
			       line  of	messages you send.  By default this is
			       derived	from  the  comment   field   in	  your
			       passwd(4) file entry.

       prompt=string	       Set  the	command	mode prompt to string. Default
			       is "? ",	unless the bsdcompat variable is  set,
			       then the	default	is "&".

       quiet		       Refrain	from  printing the opening message and
			       version when entering mailx.  Disabled  by  de-
			       fault.

       record=file	       Record  all  outgoing mail in file. Disabled by
			       default.	See also outfolder above.

       replyall		       Reverse the effect of the reply and  Reply  and
			       followup	and Followup commands. Although	set by
			       default,	 replayall is frequently unset in  the
			       system  startup	file.  See  flipr and Starting
			       Mail in USAGE above.

       returnaddr=string       The default sender address is that of the  cur-
			       rent user. This variable	can be used to set the
			       sender address to any arbitrary value. Set with
			       caution.

       save		       Enable saving of	messages in dead-letter	on in-
			       terrupt or delivery error. See DEAD for	a  de-
			       scription of this file. Enabled by default.

       screen=number	       Sets  the  number  of lines in a	screen-full of
			       headers for the headers command.	number must be
			       a positive number.

			       The  default  is	 set according to baud rate or
			       window size. With a baud	rate less  than	 1200,
			       number  defaults	 to 5, if baud rate is exactly
			       1200, it	defaults to 10.	If you are in  a  win-
			       dow, number defaults to the default window size
			       minus 4.	Otherwise, the default is 20.

       sendmail=shell-command  Alternate  command  for	delivering   messages.
			       Note:  In  addition to the expected list	of re-
			       cipients, mail also passes the -i and -m, flags
			       to  the	command. Since these flags are not ap-
			       propriate to other commands, you	 may  have  to
			       use  a  shell  script that strips them from the
			       arguments list before invoking the desired com-
			       mand.  Default is /usr/bin/rmail.

       sendwait		       Wait for	background mailer to finish before re-
			       turning.	Disabled by default.

       showname		       Causes the message header display to  show  the
			       sender's	real name (if known) rather than their
			       mail address. Disabled by default, but showname
			       is set in the /etc/mail/mailx.rc	system startup
			       file for	mailx.

       showto		       When displaying the header summary and the mes-
			       sage  is	 from  you, print the recipient's name
			       instead of the author's name.

       sign=string	       The variable inserted into the text of  a  mes-
			       sage  when the ~a (autograph) command is	given.
			       No default (see also ~i in Tilde	Escapes).

			       `

       Sign=string	       The variable inserted into the text of  a  mes-
			       sage  when the ~A command is given.  No default
			       (see also ~i in Tilde Escapes).

       toplines=number	       The number of lines of header to	print with the
			       top command. Default is 5.

       verbose		       Invoke sendmail(1M) with	the -v flag.

       translate	       The  name  of  a	 program to translate mail ad-
			       dresses.	The program receives mail addresses as
			       arguments.  The	program	produces, on the stan-
			       dard output,  lines  containing	the  following
			       data, in	this order:

				 o  the	postmark for the sender	(see the post-
				    mark variable)

				 o  translated mail addresses, one  per	 line,
				    corresponding  to the program's arguments.
				    Each translated address will  replace  the
				    corresponding  address in the mail message
				    being sent.

				 o  a line containing only "y" or "n".	if the
				    line  contains  "y"	the user will be asked
				    to confirm	that  the  message  should  be
				    sent.

			       The  translate program will be invoked for each
			       mail message to be sent.	If the	program	 exits
			       with  a	non-zero exit status, or fails to pro-
			       duce enough output, the message is not sent.

   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5)	for the	description of the behavior of mailx when  en-
       countering files	greater	than or	equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of  mailx:  HOME,  LANG,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_TIME,
       LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

       DEAD	       The  name  of the file in which to save partial letters
		       in   case   of	untimely   interrupt.	 Default    is
		       $HOME/dead.letter.

       EDITOR	       The command to run when the edit	or ~e command is used.
		       Default is ed(1).

       LISTER	       The command (and	options) to use	when listing the  con-
		       tents of	the folder directory. The default is ls(1).

       MAIL	       The  name  of the initial mailbox file to read (in lieu
		       of  the	standard  system  mailbox).  The  default   is
		       /var/mail/username .

       MAILRC	       The   name   of	 the   startup	 file.	  Default   is
		       $HOME/.mailrc.

       MAILX_HEAD      The specified string is included	at  the	 beginning  of
		       the body	of each	message	that is	sent.

       MAILX_TAIL      The specified string is included	at the end of the body
		       of each message that is sent.

       MBOX	       The name	of the file to save messages which  have  been
		       read. The exit command overrides	this function, as does
		       saving the message explicitly in	another	file.  Default
		       is $HOME/mbox.

       PAGER	       The  command  to	use as a filter	for paginating output.
		       This can	also be	used to	 specify  the  options	to  be
		       used.   Default	is pg(1), or if	the bsdcompat variable
		       is set, the default is  more(1).	  See  Internal	 Vari-
		       ables.

       SHELL	       The name	of a preferred command interpreter. Default is
		       sh(1).

       VISUAL	       The name	of a  preferred	 screen	 editor.   Default  is
		       vi(1).

EXIT STATUS
       When  the  -e  option  is  specified, the following exit	values are re-
       turned:

       0	Mail was found.

       >0	Mail was not found or an error occurred.

       Otherwise, the following	exit values are	returned:

       0	Successful completion. Notice that this	 status	 implies  that
		all messages were sent,	but it gives no	assurances that	any of
		them were actually delivered.

       >0	An error occurred

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc				personal startup file

       $HOME/mbox			       secondary storage file

       $HOME/.Maillock			       lock file to  prevent  multiple
					       writers of system mailbox

       /etc/mail/mailx.rc		       optional	 system	 startup  file
					       for mailx only

       /etc/mail/Mail.rc		       BSD  compatibility  system-wide
					       startup	file for /usr/ucb/mail
					       and /usr/ucb/Mail

       /tmp/R[emqsx]*			       temporary files

       /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*	       help message files

       /var/mail/*			       post office directory

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       biff(1B),  echo(1),  ed(1),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),   mail(1),
       mail(1B),  mailcompat(1), more(1), pg(1), sh(1),	uucp(1C), vacation(1),
       vi(1),  newaliases(1M),	sendmail(1M),	aliases(4),   passwd(4),   at-
       tributes(5), environ(5),	largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Where  shell-command  is	 shown	as valid, arguments are	not always al-
       lowed. Experimentation is recommended.

       Internal	variables imported from	the execution  environment  cannot  be
       unset.

       The  full  internet addressing is not fully supported by	mailx. The new
       standards need some time	to settle down.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.	 Try resending
       the errant reply	with onehop set.

       mailx  does not lock your record	file. So, if you use a record file and
       send two	or more	messages simultaneously, lines from the	 messages  may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The  format  for	the alias command is a space-separated list of recipi-
       ents, while  the	 format	 for  an  alias	 in  either  the  .forward  or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

       To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when your mail	server
       is running Solaris 2.x, first execute the mailcompat(1) program.

SunOS 5.10			  19 Sep 2001			      mailx(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | USAGE | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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