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MAIL(1)			    General Commands Manual		       MAIL(1)

NAME
       mail, Mail - read or send mail messages

SYNOPSIS
       Mail [ -deHinNUv	] [ -f [ filename | +folder ] ]	[ -T file ]
	    [ -u user ]

       Mail [ -dFinUv ]	[ -h number ] [	-r address ] [ -s subject ]
	    recipient ...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       mail  is	 a  comfortable,  flexible, interactive	program	for composing,
       sending and receiving electronic	 messages.   While  reading  messages,
       mail  provides  you with	commands to browse, display, save, delete, and
       respond to messages.  While sending mail, mail allows editing  and  re-
       viewing	of  messages  being  composed,	and the	inclusion of text from
       files or	other messages.

       Incoming	mail is	stored in the system mailbox for each user.  This is a
       file  named  after the user in /var/spool/mail.	mail normally looks in
       this file for incoming messages,	but you	can use	the  MAIL  environment
       variable	to have	it look	in a different file.  When you read a message,
       it is marked to be moved	to a secondary file for	 storage.   This  sec-
       ondary  file,  called  the mbox,	is normally the	file mbox in your home
       directory.  This	file can also be changed by setting the	MBOX  environ-
       ment variable.  Messages	remain in the mbox file	until deliberately re-
       moved.

OPTIONS
       If no recipient is specified, mail attempts to read messages  from  the
       system mailbox.

       -d	     Turn  on  debugging output.  (Neither particularly	inter-
		     esting nor	recommended.)

       -e	     Test for presence of mail.	 If there  is  no  mail,  mail
		     prints nothing and	exits (with a successful return	code).

       -F	     Record the	message	in a file named	after the first	recip-
		     ient.  Override the record	variable, if set.

       -H	     Print header summary only.

       -i	     Ignore interrupts (as with	the ignore variable).

       -n	     Do	not initialize from the	system default Mail.rc file.

       -N	     Do	not print initial header summary.

       -U	     Convert  uucp  style  addresses  to  Internet  standards.
		     Overrides the conv	environment variable.

       -v	     Pass the -v flag to sendmail(8).

       -f [filename] Read  messages  from  filename instead of system mailbox.
		     If	no filename is specified, the mbox is used.

       -f +folder    Use the file folder in the	folder directory (same as  the
		     folder command).  The name	of this	directory is listed in
		     the folder	variable.

       -h number     The number	of network "hops" made so far.	This  is  pro-
		     vided  for	 network  software  to avoid infinite delivery
		     loops.

       -r address    Pass address to network delivery software.	 All tilde (~)
		     commands are disabled.

       -s subject    Set the Subject header field to subject.

       -T file	     Print  the	 contents of the article-id fields of all mes-
		     sages that	were read or deleted on	file (for the  use  of
		     network news programs if available).

       -u user	     Read  user's  system  mailbox.  This is only effective if
		     user's system mailbox is not read protected.

USAGE
       Refer to	for tutorial information about mail.

   Starting Mail
       As  it  starts,	mail  reads   commands	 from	a   system-wide	  file
       (/usr/lib/Mail.rc)  to initialize certain variables, then it reads from
       a private start-up file called the .mailrc file	(it  is	 normally  the
       file  .mailrc in	your home directory, but can be	changed	by setting the
       MAILRC environment variable) for	your personal  commands	 and  variable
       settings.   Most	 mail  commands	 are legal inside start-up files.  The
       most common uses	for this file are to set up  initial  display  options
       and  alias lists.  The following	commands are not legal in the start-up
       file: !,	Copy, edit, followup, Followup,	hold, mail,  preserve,	reply,
       Reply,  replyall,  replysender,	shell,	and visual.  Any errors	in the
       start-up	file cause the remaining lines in that file to be ignored.

       You can use the mail command to send a message  directly	 by  including
       names  of recipients as arguments on the	command	line.  When no recipi-
       ents appear on the mail command line,  it  enters  command  mode,  from
       which you can read messages sent	to you.	 If you	list no	recipients and
       have no messages, mail prints the message: `No mail for	username'  and
       exits.

       When  in	 command  mode (while reading messages), you can send messages
       using the mail command.

   Sending Mail
       While you are composing a message to send, mail is in input  mode.   If
       no  subject is specified	as an argument to the command a	prompt for the
       subject is printed.  After entering the subject line, mail enters input
       mode to accept the text of your message to send.

       As you type in the message, mail	stores it in a temporary file.	To re-
       view or modify the message, enter the appropriate tilde escapes,	listed
       below, at the beginning of an input line.

       To indicate that	the message is ready to	send, type a dot (or EOF char-
       acter, normally CTRL-D )	on a line by itself.  mail submits the message
       to sendmail(8) for routing to each recipient.

       Recipients can be;

       o      local usernames

       o      Internet addresses of the	form:

		     name@domain

       o      uucp(1C) addresses of the	form:

		     [host!...host!]host!username

       _o      filenames	for which you have write permission

       o      alias groups

       If the name of the recipient begins with	a pipe symbol (|), the remain-
       der of the name is taken	 as  a	shell  command	to  pipe  the  message
       through.	  This	provides  an automatic interface with any program that
       reads the standard input, such as lpr(1)	to record outgoing mail	on pa-
       per.  An	alias group is the name	of a list of recipients	that is	set by
       the alias command, taken	from the host's	/etc/aliases  file,  or	 taken
       from  the  Network  Information	Service	 (NIS)	aliases	 domain.   See
       aliases(5) for more information about mail addresses and	aliases.

   Tilde Escapes
       The following tilde escape commands can be used when composing messages
       to  send.  Each must appear at the beginning of an input	line.  The es-
       cape character (~), can be changed by setting a new value for  the  es-
       cape  variable.	 The escape character can be entered as	text by	typing
       it twice.

       ~!  [shell-command]
	      Escape to	the shell.  If present,	run shell-command.

       ~.     Simulate EOF (terminate message input).

       ~: mail-command
       ~_ mail-command
	      Perform the indicated mail command.  Valid only when  sending  a
	      message while reading mail.

       ~?     Print a summary of tilde escapes.

       ~A     Insert the autograph string Sign into the	message.

       ~a     Insert the autograph string sign into the	message.

       ~b name ...
	      Add the names to the blind carbon	copy (Bcc) list.  This is like
	      the carbon copy (Cc) list, except	that the names in the Bcc list
	      are not shown in the header of the mail message.

       ~c name ...
	      Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.

       ~d     Read  in	the dead.letter	file.  The name	of this	file is	listed
	      in the variable DEAD.

       ~e     Invoke the editor	to edit	the message.  The name of  the	editor
	      is listed	in the EDITOR variable.	 The default editor is ex(1).

       ~f [message-list]
	      Forward  the listed messages, or the current message being read.
	      Valid only when sending a	message	while reading mail;  the  mes-
	      sages  are inserted without alteration (as opposed to the	~m es-
	      cape).

       ~h     Prompt for the message header lines: Subject, To,	Cc,  and  Bcc.
	      If  the  header  line  contains  text,  you can edit the text by
	      backspacing over it and retyping.

       ~i variable
	      Insert the value of the named variable into the message.

       ~m [message-list]
	      Insert text from the specified messages, or the current message,
	      into  the	letter.	 Valid only when sending a message while read-
	      ing mail;	the text the message is	shifted	to the right, and  the
	      string contained in the indentprefix variable is inserted	as the
	      leftmost characters of each line.	 If indentprefix is not	set, a
	      TAB character is inserted	into each line.

       ~p     Print the	message	being entered.

       ~q     Quit from	input mode by simulating an interrupt.	If the body of
	      the message is not empty,	the partial message is	saved  in  the
	      dead.letter file.

       ~r filename
       ~< filename
       ~<! shell-command
	      Read  in	text from the specified	file or	the standard output of
	      the specified shell-command.

       ~s subject
	      Set the subject line to subject.

       ~t name ...
	      Add each name to the list	of recipients.

       ~v     Invoke a visual editor to	edit the message.  The name of the ed-
	      itor  is listed in the VISUAL variable.  The default visual edi-
	      tor is vi(1).

       ~w filename
	      Write the	message	text onto the given file, without the header.

       ~x     Exit as with ~q but do not save the message in  the  dead.letter
	      file.

       ~| shell-command
	      Pipe  the	 body  of the message through the given	shell-command.
	      If shell-command returns a successful exit status, the output of
	      the command replaces the message.

   Reading Mail
       When  you  enter	command	mode in	order to read your messages, mail dis-
       plays a header summary of the first several  messages,  followed	 by  a
       prompt for one of the commands listed below.  The default prompt	is the
       & (ampersand character).

       Message are listed and referred to by number.  There is,	at any time, a
       current	message,  which	 is  marked by a > in the header summary.  For
       commands	that take an optional list of messages,	if you omit a  message
       number as an argument, the command applies to the current message.

       A  message-list is a list of message specifications, separated by SPACE
       characters, which may include:

	      .	     The current message.
	      n	     Message number n.
	      ^	     The first undeleted message.
	      $	     The last message.
	      +	     The next undeleted	message.
	      -	     The previous undeleted message.
	      *	     All messages.
	      n-m    An	inclusive range	of message numbers.
	      user   All messages from user.
	      /string
		     All messages with string in the subject  line  (case  ig-
		     nored).
	      :c     All messages of type c, where c is	one of:
			    d	   deleted messages
			    n	   new messages
			    o	   old messages
			    r	   read	messages
			    u	   unread messages
		     Note:  the	context	of the command determines whether this
		     type of message specification makes sense.

       Additional arguments are	treated	as strings whose usage depends on  the
       command	involved.   Filenames,	where expected,	are expanded using the
       normal shell filename-substitution mechanism.

       Special characters, recognized by certain commands, are documented with
       those commands.

   Commands
       While  in  command mode,	if you type in an empty	command	line (a	RETURN
       or NEWLINE only), the print command is assumed.	 The  following	 is  a
       complete	list of	mail commands:

       ! shell-command	 Escape	to the shell.  The name	of the shell to	use is
			 listed	in the SHELL variable.

       # arguments	 Null command.	This may be used as if it were a  com-
			 ment in .mailrc files,	but note that it must be sepa-
			 rated from its	arguments (commentary) by white	space.

       =		 Print the current message number.

       ?		 Print a summary of commands.

       alias [alias recipient...]
       group [alias recipient...]
			 Declare an alias for the given	 list  of  recipients.
			 The  list  will be substituted	when the alias is used
			 as a recipient	while sending mail.  When put  in  the
			 .mailrc file, this command provides you with a	record
			 of the	alias.	With no	arguments,  the	 command  dis-
			 plays the list	of defined aliases.

       alternates name ...
			 Declare  a  list  of  alternate names for your	login.
			 When responding to a message, these names are removed
			 from  the  list of recipients for the response.  With
			 no arguments, alternates prints the current  list  of
			 alternate names.

       cd[ directory]
       chdir [directory]
			 Change	 directory.   If  directory  is	not specified,
			 $HOME is used.

       copy [message-list] [filename]
			 Copy messages to the file without  marking  the  mes-
			 sages	as  saved.   Otherwise	equivalent to the save
			 command.

       Copy [message-list]
			 Save the specified messages in	a file whose  name  is
			 derived  from	the author of the message to be	saved,
			 without marking the  messages	as  saved.   Otherwise
			 equivalent to the Save	command.

       delete [message-list]
			 Delete	 messages  from	 the  system  mailbox.	If the
			 variable autoprint is set, print the message  follow-
			 ing the last message deleted.

       discard [header-field...]
       ignore [header-field...]
			 Suppress printing of the specified header fields when
			 displaying messages on	the screen, such  as  "Status"
			 and  "Received".   The	 fields	 are included when the
			 message is saved unless the variable alwaysignore  is
			 set.	The Print and Type commands display all	header
			 fields, ignored or not.

       dp [message-list]
       dt [message-list]
			 Delete	the specified messages from the	 system	 mail-
			 box,  and  print  the	message	 after	the  last  one
			 deleted.  Equivalent to a delete command followed  by
			 a print command.

       echo [string ...]
			 Echo the given	strings	(like echo(1V)).

       edit [message-list]
			 Edit  the given messages.  The	messages are placed in
			 a temporary file and the EDITOR variable is  used  to
			 get  the  name	 of the	editor.	 The default editor is
			 ex(1).

       exit
       xit		 Exit from mail	without	changing the  system  mailbox.
			 No messages are saved in the mbox (see	also quit).

       file [filename]
       folder [filename]
			 Quit  from  the  current mailbox file and read	in the
			 named mailbox file.  Several special  characters  are
			 recognized when used as file names:

				%	  Your system mailbox.
				%user	  The system mailbox for user.
				#	  The previous mail file.
				&	  Your	mbox  file (of messages	previ-
					  ously	read).
				+filename The named file in the	folder	direc-
					  tory	(listed	 in  the  folder vari-
					  able).

			 With no arguments, file prints	the name of  the  cur-
			 rent  mail file, and the number of messages and char-
			 acters	it contains.

       folders		 Print the name	of each	mail file in the folder	direc-
			 tory (listed in the folder variable).

       followup	[message]
			 Respond  to  a	 message,  recording the response in a
			 file, name of which is	derived	from the author	of the
			 message (overrides the	record variable, if set).  See
			 also the Followup, Save, and Copy  commands  and  the
			 outfolder variable.

       Followup	[message-list]
			 Respond  to  the  first  message in the message list,
			 sending the message to	the author of each message  in
			 the  list.   The subject line is taken	from the first
			 message, and the response is recorded in a file,  the
			 name of which is derived from the author of the first
			 message (overrides the	record variable, if set).  See
			 also  the  followup,  Save, and Copy commands and the
			 outfolder variable.

       from [message-list]
			 Print the header summary for the  indicated  messages
			 or the	current	message.

       group alias name	...
			 Same as the alias command.

       headers [message] Print	the  page of headers that includes the message
			 specified, or the current message.  The screen	 vari-
			 able  sets  the number	of headers per page.  See also
			 the z command.

       help		 Print a summary of commands.

       hold [message-list]
       preserve	[message-list]
			 Hold the specified messages in	the system mailbox.

       if s|r|t
       mail-command
       ...
       else
       mail-command
       ...
       endif		 Conditional execution,	where s	will execute following
			 mail-command  up  to an else or endif,	if the program
			 is in send mode, r executes the mail-command only  in
			 receive mode, and t executes the mail-command only if
			 mail is being run from	a terminal.  Useful  primarily
			 in the	.mailrc	file.

       ignore [header-field...]
			 Same as the discard command.

       inc		 Incorporate  messages that arrive while you are read-
			 ing the system	mailbox.  The new messages  are	 added
			 to  the  message  list	 in  the current mail session.
			 This command does not commit changes made during  the
			 session, and prior messages are not renumbered.

       list		 Prints	 all  commands	available.   No	explanation is
			 given.

       load [message] filename
			 Load the specified message from the name file.	 file-
			 name  should  contain a single	mail message including
			 mail headers (as saved	by the save command).

       mail recipient ...
			 Mail a	message	to the specified recipients.

       mbox [message-list]
			 Arrange for the given messages	to end up in the stan-
			 dard  mbox  file  when	mail terminates	normally.  See
			 also the exit and quit	commands.

       new [message-list]
			 New [message-list]
			 unread	[message-list]
       Unread [message-list]
			 Take a	message	list and mark each message as not hav-
			 ing been read.

       next message	 Go  to	next message matching message.	A message-list
			 can be	given instead of message, but only first valid
			 message  in the list is used.	(This can be used, for
			 instance, to jump to the next message from a specific
			 user.)

       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
       | [message-list]	[shell-command]
			 Pipe  the message through shell-command.  The message
			 is treated marked as read (and	normally saved to  the
			 mbox  file  when  mail	 exits).   If no arguments are
			 given,	the current message is piped through the  com-
			 mand  specified by the	value of the cmd variable.  If
			 the page variable is set, a form  feed	 character  is
			 inserted after	each message.

       preserve	[message-list]
			 Same as the hold command.

       print [message-list]
       type [message-list]
			 Print the specified messages.	If the crt variable is
			 set, messages longer than the number of lines it  in-
			 dicates  paged	 through  the command specified	by the
			 PAGER	variable.   The	 default  paging  command   is
			 more(1).

       Print [message-list]
       Type [message-list]
			 Print the specified messages on the screen, including
			 all header fields.  Overrides suppression  of	fields
			 by the	ignore and retain commands.

       quit		 Exit from mail	storing	messages that were read	in the
			 mbox file and unread messages in the system  mailbox.
			 Messages  that	 have  been explicitly saved in	a file
			 are deleted unless the	variable keepsave is set.

       reply [message-list]
       respond [message-list]
       replysender [message-list]
			 Send a	response to the	author of each message in  the
			 message-list.	 The  subject  line  is	taken from the
			 first message.	 If record is set  to  a  filename,  a
			 copy  of the reply is added to	that file.  If the re-
			 plyall	variable is set, the actions of	 Reply/Respond
			 and reply/respond are reversed.  The replysender com-
			 mand is not affected by the  replyall	variable,  but
			 sends each reply only to the sender of	each message.

       Reply [message]
       Respond [message]
       replyall	[message]
			 Reply	to  the	specified message, including all other
			 recipients of that message.  If the  variable	record
			 is  set  to  a	filename, a copy of the	reply added to
			 that file.  If	the replyall variable is set, the  ac-
			 tions	of  Reply/Respond  and	reply/respond  are re-
			 versed.  The replyall command is not affected by  the
			 replyall  variable, but always	sends the reply	to all
			 recipients of the message.

       retain		 Add the list of header	fields named to	 the  retained
			 list.	 Only the header fields	in the retain list are
			 shown on your terminal	when you print a message.  All
			 other	header	fields are suppressed.	The set	of re-
			 tained	fields specified by the	retain	command	 over-
			 rides any list	of ignored fields specified by the ig-
			 nore command.	The Type and  Print  commands  can  be
			 used  to  print a message in its entirety.  If	retain
			 is executed with no arguments,	it lists  the  current
			 set of	retained fields.

       save [message-list] [filename]
			 Save  the  specified messages in the named file.  The
			 file is created if it does not	exist.	If no filename
			 is  specified,	the file named in the MBOX variable is
			 used, mbox in your home directory by  default.	  Each
			 saved message is deleted from the system mailbox when
			 mail terminates unless	the keepsave variable is  set.
			 See also the exit and quit commands.

       Save [message-list]
			 Save  the  specified messages in a file whose name is
			 derived from the author of the	 first	message.   The
			 name  of  the	file  is taken from the	author's name,
			 with all network addressing stripped off.   See  also
			 the  Copy,  followup,	and  Followup commands and the
			 outfolder variables.

       set [variable[=value]]
			 Define	a variable.  To	assign a  value	 to  variable,
			 separate  the	variable name from the value by	an `='
			 (there	must be	no space before	or after the `=').   A
			 variable  may	be  given  a  null, string, or numeric
			 value.	 To embed SPACE	characters within a value  en-
			 close it in quotes.

			 With no arguments, set	displays all defined variables
			 and any values	they might have.  See Variables	for  a
			 description of	all predefined mail variables.

       shell		 Invoke	 the  interactive  shell  listed  in the SHELL
			 variable.

       size [message-list]
			 Print the size	in characters of  the  specified  mes-
			 sages.

       source filename	 Read  commands	from the given file and	return to com-
			 mand mode.

       top [message-list]
			 Print the top few lines of  the  specified  messages.
			 If  the  toplines variable is set, it is taken	as the
			 number	of lines to print.  The	default	number is 5.

       touch [message-list]
			 Touch the specified messages.	If any message in mes-
			 sage-list  is	not  specifically  saved in a file, it
			 will be placed	in the mbox upon  normal  termination.
			 See also the exit and quit commands.

       type [message-list]
			 Same as the print command.

       Type [message-list]
			 Same as the Print command.

       undelete	[message-list]
			 Restore deleted messages.  This command only restores
			 messages deleted in the current mail session.	If the
			 autoprint  variable is	set, the last message restored
			 is printed.

       unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list]
			 Same as the new command.
       unset variable ...
			 Erase the specified variables.	 If the	 variable  was
			 imported  from	 the environment (that is, an environ-
			 ment variable or exported shell variable), it	cannot
			 be unset from within mail.

       version		 Print	the  current  version  and release date	of the
			 mail utility.

       visual [message-list]
			 Edit the given	messages with the screen editor	listed
			 in the	VISUAL variable.  The default screen editor is
			 vi(1).	 Each message is placed	in  a  temporary  file
			 for editing.

       write [message-list] [filename]
			 Write the given messages onto the specified file, but
			 without the header and	trailing blank	line.	Other-
			 wise, this is	equivalent to the save command.

       xit		 Same as the exit command.

       z[+|-]		 Scroll	the header display forward (+) or backward (-)
			 one screenfull.  The number of	headers	 displayed  is
			 set by	the screen variable.

   Forwarding Messages
       To  forward  a specific message,	include	it in a	message	to the desired
       recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes.  To forward mail  automati-
       cally,  add  a comma-separated list of addresses	for additional recipi-
       ents to the .forward file in your home directory.   This	 is  different
       from  the  format  of  the alias	command, which takes a space-separated
       list instead.  Note: forwarding addresses must be valid	(as  described
       in  aliases(5)),	 or  the  messages will	"bounce."  You cannot, for in-
       stance, reroute your mail to a new host by forwarding it	 to  your  new
       address if it is	not yet	listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Variables
       The  behavior of	mail is	governed by a set of predefined	variables that
       are set and cleared using the set and unset commands.

   Environment Variables
       Values for the following	variables are read in automatically  from  the
       environment; they cannot	be altered from	within mail:

       HOME=directory
		     The user's	home directory.

       MAIL=filename
		     The  name of the initial mailbox file to read (in lieu of
		     the   standard   system   mailbox).    The	  default   is
		     /var/spool/mail/username.

       MAILRC=filename
		     The  name	of the personal	start-up file.	The default is
		     $HOME/.mailrc.

   Mail	Variables
       The following variables can be initialized within the .mailrc file,  or
       set  and	altered	interactively using the	set command.  They can also be
       imported	from the environment (in which case  their  values  cannot  be
       changed within mail).  The unset	command	clears variables. The set com-
       mand can	also be	used to	clear a	variable by prefixing the word	no  to
       the name	of the variable	to clear.

       Variables  for which values are normally	supplied are indicated with an
       equal-sign (=).	The equal-sign is required by  the  set	 command,  and
       there  can  be  no  spaces  between  the	variable-name, equal-sign, and
       value, using set	to assign a value.

       allnet	     All network names whose last component (login name) match
		     are  treated  as identical.  This causes the message list
		     specifications to behave similarly.  Default is noallnet.
		     See also the alternates command and the metoo variable.

       alwaysignore  Ignore  header  fields  with  ignore everywhere, not just
		     during print or type.   Affects  the  save,  Save,	 copy,
		     Copy,  top,  pipe,	 and write commands, and the ~m	and ~f
		     tilde escapes.

       append	     Upon termination, append messages to the end of the  mbox
		     file instead of prepending	them.  Default is noappend but
		     append is set in the global start-up file (which  can  be
		     suppressed	with the -n command line option).

       askcc	     Prompt for	the Cc list after message is entered.  Default
		     is	noaskcc.

       asksub	     Prompt for	subject	if it is not specified on the  command
		     line with the -s option.  Enabled by default.

       autoprint     Enable  automatic	printing  of messages after delete and
		     undelete commands.	 Default is noautoprint.

       bang	     Enable the	special-casing of exclamation  points  (!)  in
		     shell  escape  command  lines  as	in  vi(1).  Default is
		     nobang.

       cmd=shell-command
		     Set the default command for the pipe command.  No default
		     value.

       conv=conversion
		     Convert  uucp addresses to	the address style specified by
		     conversion, which can be either:

		     internet
			    This requires a mail delivery  program  conforming
			    to	the  RFC822  standard  for electronic mail ad-
			    dressing.

		     optimize
			    Remove loops in uucp(1C) address paths  (typically
			    generated  by the reply command).  No rerouting is
			    performed; mail has	no knowledge of	UUCP routes or
			    connections.

		     Conversion	 is disabled by	default.  See also sendmail(8)
		     and the -U	command	line option.

       crt=number    Pipe messages having more than number lines  through  the
		     command  specified	 by  the  value	 of the	PAGER variable
		     (more by default).	 Disabled by default.

       DEAD=filename
		     The name of the file in which to save partial letters  in
		     case  of  untimely	interrupt or delivery errors.  Default
		     is	the file dead.letter in	your home directory.

       debug	     Enable verbose diagnostics	for debugging.	 Messages  are
		     not delivered.  Default is	nodebug.

       dot	     Take  a  period  on  a line by itself during input	from a
		     terminal as EOF.  Default is nodot	but dot	is set in  the
		     global start-up file (which can be	suppressed with	the -n
		     command line option).

       editheaders   Include message headers in	the text to be edited  by  the
		     ~e	and ~v commands.

       EDITOR=shell-command
		     The  command  to run when the edit	or ~e command is used.
		     Default is	ex(1).

       escape=c	     Substitute	c for the ~ escape character.

       folder=directory
		     The directory for saving standard mail files.  User spec-
		     ified  file  names	beginning with a plus (+) are expanded
		     by	preceding the filename with this directory name	to ob-
		     tain the real filename.  If directory does	not start with
		     a slash (/), the value of HOME is prepended to it.	 There
		     is	 no  default  for  the folder variable.	 See also out-
		     folder below.

       header	     Enable printing of	the header summary when	entering mail.
		     Enabled by	default.

       hold	     Preserve all messages that	are read in the	system mailbox
		     instead of	putting	them in	the standard mbox  save	 file.
		     Default is	nohold for mail	and hold for mailtool(1).

       ignore	     Ignore  interrupts	 while	entering  messages.  Handy for
		     noisy dial-up lines.  Default is noignore.

       ignoreeof     Ignore EOF	during message input.  Input  must  be	termi-
		     nated  by	a  period (`.')	 on a line by itself or	by the
		     `~.'  command.  Default is	 noignoreeof.	See  also  dot
		     above.

       indentprefix=string
		     When indentprefix is set, string is used to mark indented
		     lines from	messages included with ~m.  The	default	 is  a
		     TAB character.

       keep	     When  the	system	mailbox	 is empty, truncate it to zero
		     length instead of removing	it.  Disabled by default.

       keepsave	     Keep messages that	have been saved	in other files in  the
		     system  mailbox instead of	deleting them.	Default	is no-
		     keepsave.

       LISTER=shell-command
		     The command (and options) to use when listing  the	 files
		     in	the folder directory.  The default is ls(1V).

       MBOX=filename
		     The  name	of  the	 file to save messages which have been
		     read.  The	xit command overrides this variable,  as  does
		     saving  the  message explicitly to	another	file.  Default
		     is	the file mbox in your home directory.

       metoo	     If	your login appears as a	recipient, do  not  delete  it
		     from the list.  Default is	nometoo.

       no	     When  used	as a prefix to a variable name,	has the	effect
		     of	unsetting the variable.

       onehop	     When responding to	a message that was originally sent  to
		     several  recipients,  the	other  recipient addresses are
		     normally forced to	be relative  to	 the  originating  au-
		     thor's  machine for the response.	This flag disables al-
		     teration of the recipients'  addresses,  improving	 effi-
		     ciency  in	a network where	all machines can send directly
		     to	all other machines (that is, one "hop" away).

       outfolder     Locate the	files used to record outgoing messages in  the
		     directory	specified  by  the  folder variable unless the
		     pathname  is  absolute.   Default	is  nooutfolder.   See
		     folder  above  and	the Save, Copy,	followup, and Followup
		     commands.

       page	     Used with the pipe	command	to insert a  form  feed	 after
		     each message sent through the pipe.  Default is nopage.

       PAGER=shell-command
		     The  command  to  use  as a filter	for paginating output,
		     along with	any options to be used.	 Default is more(1).

       prompt=string Set the command mode prompt to string.  Default is	`&'.

       quiet	     Refrain from printing the	opening	 message  and  version
		     when entering mail.  Default is noquiet.

       record=filename
		     Record  all  outgoing  mail in filename.  Disabled	by de-
		     fault.  See also the variable outfolder.

       replyall	     Reverse the effect	of the reply and Reply commands.

       save	     Enable saving of messages in the dead.letter file on  in-
		     terrupt or	delivery error.	 See DEAD for a	description of
		     this file.	 Enabled by default.

       screen=number Set the number of lines in	a screen-full of  headers  for
		     the headers command.

       sendmail=shell-command
		     Alternate	command	for delivering messages.  Note:	in ad-
		     dition to the expected  list  of  recipients,  mail  also
		     passes  the -i and	-m, flags to the command.  Since these
		     flags are not appropriate to other	commands, you may have
		     to	use a shell script that	strips them from the arguments
		     list before invoking the desired command.

       sendwait	     Wait for background mailer	to  finish  before  returning.
		     Default is	nosendwait.

       SHELL=shell-command
		     The  name	of a preferred command interpreter.  Typically
		     inherited from the	environment, the shell is normally the
		     one you always use.  Otherwise defaults to	sh(1).

       showto	     When  displaying  the  header  summary and	the message is
		     from you, print the recipient's name instead of  the  au-
		     thor's name.

       sign=autograph
		     The  autograph text inserted into the message when	the ~a
		     (autograph) command is given.  No default (see  also  the
		     ~i	tilde escape).

       Sign=autograph
		     The  autograph text inserted into the message when	the ~A
		     command is	given.	No default (see	also the ~i tilde  es-
		     cape).

       toplines=number
		     The  number of lines of header to print with the top com-
		     mand.  Default is 5.

       verbose	     Invoke sendmail with the -v flag.

       VISUAL=shell-command
		     The name of a preferred screen editor.  Default is	vi.

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc	   personal start-up file
       $HOME/.forward	   list	of recipients for automatic forwarding of mes-
			   sages
       $HOME/mbox	   secondary storage file
       $HOME/dead.letter   undeliverable messages file
       /var/spool/mail	   directory for system	mailboxes
       /usr/lib/Mail.help* help	message	files
       /usr/lib/Mail.rc	   global start-up file
       /tmp/R[emqsx]*	   temporary files

SEE ALSO
       biff(1),	 bin-mail(1),  echo(1V),  ex(1),  fmt(1), ls(1V), mailtool(1),
       more(1),	  sh(1),    uucp(1C),	 vacation(1),	 vi(1),	   aliases(5),
       newaliases(8), sendmail(8)

       mail  is	 found	in  /usr/ucb/Mail, as a	link to	/usr/ucb/mail.	If you
       wish to use the original	(version 7) UNIX mail program, you can find it
       in /usr/bin/mail.  Its man page is named	bin-mail(1).

BUGS
       Where  shell-command  is	 shown	as valid, arguments are	not always al-
       lowed.  Experimentation is recommended.

       Internal	variables imported from	the execution  environment  cannot  be
       unset.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.	 Try resending
       the errant reply	with onehop set.

       mail does not lock your record file.  So, if you	use a record file  and
       send  two  or more messages simultaneously, lines from the messages may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The format for the alias	command	is a space-separated list  of  recipi-
       ents,  while  the  format  for  an  alias  in  either  the  .forward or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

NOTES
       The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known	as Sun	Yellow
       Pages  (YP).   The  functionality of the	two remains the	same; only the
       name has	changed.

			       19 December 1988			       MAIL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USAGE | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | NOTES

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