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LSOF(8)			    System Manager's Manual		       LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open	files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX	] [ -A A ] [ -c	c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ]	[ +|-D
       D ] [ +|-e s ] [	+|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ]	[ -F [f] ] [ -g	[s] ] [	-i [i]
       ]  [ -k k ] [ -K	k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m	m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ]	[ -p s
       ] [ +|-r	[t[m_fmt_]] ] [	-s [p:s] ] [ -S	[t] ] [	-T [t] ] [ -u  s  ]  [
       +|-w ] [	-x [fl]	] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ]	[ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision 4.90 lists on its	standard output	file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX	dialects:

	    Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X	10.[567]
	    FreeBSD 8.[234], 9.0 and 1[012].0 for AMD64-based systems
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See the	DISTRIBUTION section of	this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest	lsof revision.)

       An  open	file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,	a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file	or UNIX	domain
       socket.)	 A specific file or all	the files in a file system may be  se-
       lected by path.

       Instead	of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that	can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in	repeat
       mode.  In repeat	mode it	will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until	stopped	with an	interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r	[t[m_fmt_]] option description for more	information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files	 belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any	list  request option is	specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested -	e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS	files won't be listed unless -N	is also	speci-
       fied; or	if a user list is specified with the -u	 option,  UNIX	domain
       socket  files,  belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed un-
       less the	-U option is also specified.

       Normally	list options that are specifically stated  are	ORed  -	 i.e.,
       specifying  the	-i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging	 to  processes
       owned by	user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with	the -u
	  option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified	with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with the	-g op-
	  tion;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the	-c option;

       5) the  (`^')  negated  TCP or UDP protocol state names,	specified with
	  the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions,	they are applied without ORing or AND-
       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND	the selections.	 For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a	listing	of only	UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:	 the  -a option	causes all list	selection options to be	ANDed;
       it can't	be used	to cause ANDing	of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though	its placement there is accept-
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it	causes the ANDing of all selection op-
       tions.

       Items of	the same selection set - command names,	file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names,  se-
       curity  contexts	 -  are	joined in a single ORed	set and	applied	before
       the result participates	in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb,  -i@ccc.ddd,	 -a,  and -ufff,ggg will select	the listing of
       files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND	 have  network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options	may be grouped together	following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as	-abC.  However,	 since	values
       are optional following +|-f, -F,	-g, -i,	+|-L, -o, +|-r,	-s, -S,	-T, -x
       and -z.	when you have no values	for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example,	-Fn might represent the	-F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier	character fol-
       lowing  the  -F option.	When ambiguity is possible, start a new	option
       with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.	If the next option is  a  file
       name,  follow the possibly ambiguous option with	``--'' - e.g., ``-F --
       name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix	may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for	each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be	grouped	under either prefix.  Thus, for	example, ``+M -i'' may
       be  stated  as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as the separate op-
       tions.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options  in  the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is	not the	same request as	``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate	options	with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These  two  equivalent	options	 select	 a usage (help)	output
		list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
		detects	 an  error in the options supplied to it, after	it has
		displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
		character as your shell	requires.)

       -a	causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described	above.

       -A A	is  available  on  systems configured for AFS whose AFS	kernel
		code is	implemented via	dynamic	modules.  It allows  the  lsof
		user  to  specify  A  as an alternate name list	file where the
		kernel addresses of the	dynamic	modules	might be  found.   See
		the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ	section	gives its location.)  for more
		information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they
		affect lsof.

       -b	causes	lsof  to  avoid	 kernel	 functions  that might block -
		lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See the	BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and	AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS  sec-
		tions for information on using this option.

       -c c	selects	 the listing of	files for processes executing the com-
		mand that begins with the characters of	c.  Multiple  commands
		may  be	specified, using multiple -c options.  They are	joined
		in a single ORed set before participating in AND option	selec-
		tion.

		If  c begins with a `^', then the following characters specify
		a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

		If c begins and	ends with a slash ('/'),  the  characters  be-
		tween  the  slashes  are  interpreted as a regular expression.
		Shell meta-characters in the regular expression	must be	quoted
		to  prevent  their  interpretation  by the shell.  The closing
		slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended	one
			  (default).

		See the	lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives	 its  location.)   for
		more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

		The  simple  command  specification  is	tested first.  If that
		test fails, the	command	regular	expression is applied.	If the
		simple	command	 test succeeds,	the command regular expression
		test isn't made.  This may result in ``no  command  found  for
		regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option	is specified.

       +c w	defines	 the maximum number of initial characters of the name,
		supplied by the	UNIX dialect, of the UNIX  command  associated
		with a process to be printed in	the COMMAND column.  (The lsof
		default	is nine.)

		Note that many UNIX dialects do	not supply  all	 command  name
		characters to lsof in the files	and structures from which lsof
		obtains	command	name.  Often  dialects	limit  the  number  of
		characters  supplied  in  those	 sources.   For	example, Linux
		2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit	 command  name	length	to  16
		characters.

		If w is	zero ('0'), all	command	characters supplied to lsof by
		the UNIX dialect will be printed.

		If w is	less than the length of	the column title, ``COMMAND'',
		it will	be raised to that length.

       -C	disables  the  reporting  of any path name components from the
		kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME  CACHE  section  for
		more information.

       +d s	causes	lsof  to  search for all open instances	of directory s
		and the	files and directories it contains at  its  top	level.
		+d does	NOT descend the	directory tree,	rooted at s.  The +D D
		option may be used to request a	 full-descent  directory  tree
		search,	rooted at directory D.

		Processing  of	the  +d	 option	does not follow	symbolic links
		within s unless	the -x or -x  l	option is also specified.  Nor
		does  it  search for open files	on file	system mount points on
		subdirectories of s unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
		specified.

		Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
		searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
		with the system	stat(2)	function.

       -d s	specifies  a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or
		include	in the output listing.	The file descriptors are spec-
		ified  in  the	comma-separated	 set  s	 -  e.g., ``cwd,1,3'',
		``^6,^2''.  (There should be no	spaces in the set.)

		The list is an exclusion list if all entries of	the set	 begin
		with  `^'.   It	 is  an	inclusion list if no entry begins with
		`^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

		A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
		neither	 member	 is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
		ending member is larger	than the starting one -	e.g.,  ``0-7''
		or  ``3-10''.	Ranges	may be specified for exclusion if they
		have the `^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7''  excludes	all  file  de-
		scriptors 0 through 7.

		Multiple  file	descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
		set before participating in AND	option selection.

		When there are exclusion and inclusion	members	 in  the  set,
		lsof  reports  them as errors and exits	with a non-zero	return
		code.

		See the	description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
		the  OUTPUT  section  for  more	information on file descriptor
		names.

       +D D	causes lsof to search for all open instances  of  directory  D
		and  all the files and directories it contains to its complete
		depth.

		Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  symbolic	 links
		within D unless	the -x or -x  l	option is also specified.  Nor
		does it	search for open	files on file system mount  points  on
		subdirectories	of  D  unless  the  -x or -x  f	option is also
		specified.

		Note: the authority of the user	of this	option	limits	it  to
		searching  for	files  that the	user has permission to examine
		with the system	stat(2)	function.

		Further	note: lsof may process this option slowly and  require
		a large	amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
		must descend the entire	directory tree,	rooted at  D,  calling
		stat(2)	 for  each  file and directory,	building a list	of all
		the files it finds, and	searching that list for	a  match  with
		every  open  file.  When directory D is	large, these steps can
		take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D	directs	lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of  this
		option	is  sometimes  restricted.   See the DEVICE CACHE FILE
		section	and the	sections that follow it	for  more  information
		on this	option.

		-D  must be followed by	a function letter; the function	letter
		may optionally be followed by a	path  name.   Lsof  recognizes
		these function letters:

		     ? - report	device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache	file
		     i - ignore	the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The  b,	 r,  and  u functions, accompanied by a	path name, are
		sometimes restricted.  When these  functions  are  restricted,
		they  will not appear in the description of the	-D option that
		accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the	 DEVICE	 CACHE
		FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
		tion on	these functions	and when they're restricted.

		The ?  function	reports	the read-only  and  write  paths  that
		lsof can use for the device cache file,	the names of any envi-
		ronment	variables whose	values lsof will examine when  forming
		the  device  cache  file path, and the format for the personal
		device cache file path.	 (Escape the  `?'  character  as  your
		shell requires.)

		When  available,  the b, r, and	u functions may	be followed by
		the  device  cache  file's  path.   The	 standard  default  is
		.lsof_hostname	in the home directory of the real user ID that
		executes lsof, but this	could have been	changed	when lsof  was
		configured  and	 compiled.   (The output of the	-h and -?  op-
		tions show the current default prefix -	e.g., ``.lsof''.)  The
		suffix,	 hostname,  is	the first component of the host's name
		returned by gethostname(2).

		When available,	the b function directs lsof to build a new de-
		vice cache file	at the default or specified path.

		The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
		file and obtain	its information	about devices via direct calls
		to the kernel.

		The  r	function  directs lsof to read the device cache	at the
		default	or specified path, but prevents	it from	creating a new
		device	cache file when	none exists or the existing one	is im-
		properly structured.  The r function, when specified without a
		path  name,  prevents  lsof from updating an incorrect or out-
		dated device cache file, or creating a new one in  its	place.
		The  r function	is always available when it is specified with-
		out a path name	argument; it may be restricted by the  permis-
		sions of the lsof process.

		When available,	the u function directs lsof to read the	device
		cache file at the default or specified path, if	possible,  and
		to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
		file function when no -D option	has been specified.

       +|-e s	exempts	the file system	whose path name	is s from  being  sub-
		jected	to kernel function calls that might block.  The	+e op-
		tion exempts stat(2), lstat(2)	and  most  readlink(2)	kernel
		function  calls.   The	-e  option  exempts  only  stat(2) and
		lstat(2) kernel	function calls.	 Multiple file systems may  be
		specified  with	separate +|-e specifications and each may have
		readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

		This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

		CAUTION: this option can easily	be mis-applied to  other  than
		the  file system of interest, because it uses path name	rather
		than the more reliable device and inode	numbers.  (Device  and
		inode  numbers	are  acquired  via  the	 potentially  blocking
		stat(2)	kernel call and	are thus not available,	 but  see  the
		+|-m  m	 option	as a possible alternative way to supply	device
		numbers.)  Use this option with	great care and	fully  specify
		the path name of the file system to be exempted.

		When  open files on exempted file systems are reported,	it may
		not be possible	to obtain all their  information.   Therefore,
		some   information  columns  will  be  blank,  the  characters
		``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE	column,	and the	appli-
		cable  exemption  option is added in parentheses to the	end of
		the NAME column.  (Some	device	number	information  might  be
		made available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-E	+E  specifies  that  Linux  pipe  and  Linux UNIX socket files
		should be displayed with endpoint information and the files of
		the  endpoints	should	also  be displayed.  Note: UNIX	socket
		file endpoint information is available only when  the  compile
		flags line of -v output	contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

		Pipe  endpoint	information is displayed in the	NAME column in
		the form ``PID,cmd,FDmode'', where PID is the endpoint process
		ID;  cmd  is  the endpoint process command; FD is the endpoint
		file's descriptor; and mode  is	 the  endpoint	file's	access
		mode.

		UNIX socket file endpoint information is displayed in the NAME
		column in the form
		``type=TYPE ->INO=INODE	PID,cmd,FDmode'', where	 TYPE  is  the
		socket	type;  INODE  is  the  i-node  number of the connected
		socket;	and PID, cmd, FD, and mode are the same	as  with  pipe
		endpoint  information.	Note: UNIX socket file endpoint	infor-
		mation is available only when the compile  flags  line	of  -v
		output contains	HASUXSOCKEPT.

		Multiple  occurrences  of  this	 information  can  appear in a
		file's NAME column.

		-E specfies that Linux pipe and	Linux UNIX socket files	should
		be  displayed  with endpoint information, but not the files of
		the endpoints.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be	inter-
		preted.	  When followed	by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination
		it specifies that the listing of kernel	file structure	infor-
		mation is to be	enabled	(`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally  a  path  name	 argument is taken to be a file	system
		name if	it matches a mounted-on	 directory  name  reported  by
		mount(8),  or  if  it  represents a block device, named	in the
		mount output and associated with  a  mounted  directory	 name.
		When +f	is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
		be file	system names, and lsof will complain if	any  are  not.
		This  can  be  useful,	for example, when the file system name
		(mounted-on device) isn't a block device.   This  happens  for
		some CD-ROM file systems.

		When  -f  is specified by itself, all path name	arguments will
		be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for	example,  the  ``-f --
		/''  arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/'
		path name, not all open	files in the `/' (root)	file system.

		Be careful to make sure	+f and -f are properly terminated  and
		aren't followed	by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
		tem name) that might be	taken as a  parameter.	 For  example,
		use ``--'' after +f and	-f as in these examples.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
		     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

		The  listing  of  information from kernel file structures, re-
		quested	with the +f [cfgGn] option form,  is  normally	inhib-
		ited,  and is not available in whole or	part for some dialects
		- e.g.,	/proc-based Linux kernels below	2.6.22.	 When the pre-
		fix  to	 f is a	plus sign (`+'), these characters request file
		structure information:

		     c	  file structure use count (not	Linux)
		     f	  file structure address (not Linux)
		     g	  file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22	and up)
		     G	  file flags in	hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
		     n	  file structure node address (not Linux)

		When the prefix	is minus (`-') the same	characters disable the
		listing	of the indicated values.

		File  structure	 addresses,  use  counts,  flags, and node ad-
		dresses	may be used to detect more readily identical files in-
		herited	 by child processes and	identical files	in use by dif-
		ferent processes.  Lsof	column output can be sorted by	output
		columns	 holding  the  values and listed to identify identical
		file use, or lsof field	output can be parsed by	an AWK or Perl
		post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f	specifies  a  character	list, f, that selects the fields to be
		output for processing by another program,  and	the  character
		that terminates	each output field.  Each field to be output is
		specified with a single	character in f.	 The field  terminator
		defaults to NL,	but may	be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUT-
		PUT FOR	OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the	 field
		identification characters and the field	output process.

		When the field selection character list	is empty, all standard
		fields are selected (except the	 raw  device  field,  security
		context	 and  zone field for compatibility reasons) and	the NL
		field terminator is used.

		When the field selection character list	contains only  a  zero
		(`0'),	all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
		for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
		used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field	termi-
		nator character	must be	set with explicit entries in f,	as de-
		scribed	in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER	PROGRAMS section.

		When  a	field selection	character identifies an	item lsof does
		not normally list - e.g., PPID,	selected with -R -  specifica-
		tion of	the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
		listing	of the item.

		When the field selection character list	 contains  the	single
		character  `?',	 lsof  will  display  a	help list of the field
		identification characters.  (Escape the	`?' character as  your
		shell requires.)

       -g [s]	excludes  or  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
		whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
		in  the	comma-separated	set s -	e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
		(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		PGID numbers that begin	with `^' (negation)  represent	exclu-
		sions.

		Multiple  PGID	numbers	are joined in a	single ORed set	before
		participating in AND option selection.	However,  PGID	exclu-
		sions  are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect be-
		fore other selection criteria are applied.

		The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
		When specified without a PGID set that's all it	does.

       -i [i]	selects	 the  listing  of  files any of	whose Internet address
		matches	the address specified in i.  If	no address  is	speci-
		fied, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25
		(HP-UX)	network	files.

		If -i4 or -i6 is specified with	 no  following	address,  only
		files  of  the	indicated  IP  version,	IPv4 or	IPv6, are dis-
		played.	 (An IPv6 specification	may be used only  if  the  di-
		alects supports	IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]''
		in lsof's -h or	-?   output.)	Sequentially  specifying  -i4,
		followed  by -i6 is the	same as	specifying -i, and vice-versa.
		Specifying -i4,	or -i6 after -i	is the same as specifying  -i4
		or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a	limit of 100) may be specified
		with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or	 service  name
		range is counted as one	address.)  They	are joined in a	single
		ORed set before	participating in AND option selection.

		An Internet address is specified in the	form (Items in	square
		brackets are optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46	specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following	address.
			  '6' may be be	specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the	following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP,	UDP
		     hostname is an Internet host name.	 Unless	a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files	associated with	host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon	form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports	IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its	numeric
			  addresses may	be specified.
		     service is	an /etc/services name -	e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6  options  may  be	used only if the UNIX dialect supports
		IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run	lsof and spec-
		ify the	-h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
		of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and	``IPv[46]'',  IPv6  is
		supported.

		IPv4  host names and addresses may not be specified if network
		file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host	 names
		and  addresses	may not	be specified if	network	file selection
		is limited to IPv4 with	-i  4.	 When  an  open	 IPv4  network
		file's	address	 is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open	file's
		type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
		by '6',	not '4'.

		At  least  one	address	 component - 4,	6, protocol, hostname,
		hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The  `@'  character,
		leading	 the host specification, is always required; as	is the
		`:', leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
		or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list	or port	number
		list.  If a service name list is specified, the	 protocol  may
		also  need  to	be  specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
		numbers	for the	service	name are different.  Use  any  case  -
		lower or upper - for protocol.

		Service	names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
		entries	are separated by commas	and whose  numeric  range  en-
		tries  are separated by	minus signs.  There may	be no embedded
		spaces,	and all	service	names must  belong  to	the  specified
		protocol.   Since  service  names  may	contain	embedded minus
		signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a	service	 name;
		it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6	only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 -	Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1,	port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host	name lsof.itap
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name	foo
		     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
		     :time - either TCP, UDP or	UDPLITE	time service port

       -K k	selects	 the  listing  of tasks	(threads) of processes,	on di-
		alects where task (thread) reporting is	supported.   (If  help
		output	-  i.e.,  the  output of the -h	or -?  options - shows
		this option, then task (thread)	reporting is supported by  the
		dialect.)

		If  -K	is  followed  by  a  value, k, it must be ``i''.  That
		causes lsof to ignore  tasks,  particularly  in	 the  default,
		list-everything	case when no other options are specified.

		When -K	and -a are both	specified on Linux, and	the tasks of a
		main process are selected by other options, the	 main  process
		will  also  be	listed as though it were a task, but without a
		task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the	OUTPUT
		section.)

		Where  the  FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will
		be listed with their IDs.

		In general threads and tasks inherit the files of the  caller,
		but may	close some and open others, so lsof always reports all
		the open files of threads and tasks.

       -k k	specifies a kernel name	list file, k,  in  place  of  /vmunix,
		/mach,	etc.   -k  is  not  available  under  AIX  on  the IBM
		RISC/System 6000.

       -l	inhibits the conversion	of user	ID numbers to login names.  It
		is also	useful when login name lookup is working improperly or
		slowly.

       +|-L [l]	enables	(`+') or disables  (`-')  the  listing	of  file  link
		counts,	where they are available - e.g., they aren't available
		for sockets, or	most FIFOs and pipes.

		When +L	is specified without  a	 following  number,  all  link
		counts will be listed.	When -L	is specified (the default), no
		link counts will be listed.

		When +L	is followed by a number,  only	files  having  a  link
		count  less  than  that	number will be listed.	(No number may
		follow -L.)  A specification of	the form ``+L1''  will	select
		open  files  that  have	been unlinked.	A specification	of the
		form ``+aL1 _file_system_'' will select	unlinked open files on
		the specified file system.

		For  other link	count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
		post-processing	script or program.

       +|-m m	specifies an alternate kernel memory file or  activates	 mount
		table supplement processing.

		The  option  form  -m  m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
		place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

		The option form	+m requests that a mount  supplement  file  be
		written	 to  the  standard output file.	 All other options are
		silently ignored.

		There will be a	line in	the mount  supplement  file  for  each
		mounted	file system, containing	the mounted file system	direc-
		tory, followed by a single space, followed by the device  num-
		ber in hexadecimal "0x"	format - e.g.,

		     / 0x801

		Lsof  can  use the mount supplement file to get	device numbers
		for file systems  when	it  can't  get	them  via  stat(2)  or
		lstat(2).

		The option form	+m m identifies	m as a mount supplement	file.

		Note:  the  +m and +m m	options	are not	available for all sup-
		ported dialects.  Check	the output of lsof's -h	or -?  options
		to see if the +m and +m	m options are available.

       +|-M	Enables	(+) or disables	(-) the	reporting of portmapper	regis-
		trations for local TCP,	UDP and	UDPLITE	ports, where port map-
		ping is	supported.  (See the last paragraph of this option de-
		scription for information about	where portmapper  registration
		reporting is supported.)

		The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the
		HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's	machine.h header file;
		lsof  is  distributed  with the	HASPMAPENABLED #define deacti-
		vated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must
		be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
		report the default mode.   Disabling  portmapper  registration
		when  it  is  already disabled or enabling it when already en-
		abled is acceptable.  When portmapper  registration  reporting
		is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration (if any)
		for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immedi-
		ately  following  the  port  numbers  or service names - e.g.,
		``:1234[name]''	or ``:name[100083]''.  The registration	infor-
		mation	may  be	a name or number, depending on what the	regis-
		tering program supplied	to the portmapper when	it  registered
		the port.

		When  portmapper  registration	reporting is enabled, lsof may
		run a little more slowly or even become	blocked	when access to
		the  portmapper	becomes	congested or stopped.  Reverse the re-
		porting	mode to	determine if portmapper	registration reporting
		is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For purposes of	portmapper registration	reporting lsof consid-
		ers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is	found  in  the
		local part of its containing kernel structure; or if it	is lo-
		cated in the foreign part of its containing  kernel  structure
		and  the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or
		if it is located in the	foreign	part of	its containing	kernel
		structure  and the foreign Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK
		(127.0.0.1).  This rule	may  make  lsof	 ignore	 some  foreign
		ports  on  machines  with multiple interfaces when the foreign
		Internet address is on a different interface  from  the	 local
		one.

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		further	discussion of portmapper  registration	reporting  is-
		sues.

		Portmapper  registration  reporting  is	 supported only	on di-
		alects that have RPC header files.  (Some Linux	 distributions
		with  GlibC 2.14 do not	have them.)  When portmapper registra-
		tion reporting is supported, the -h or -?   help  output  will
		show the +|-M option.

       -n	inhibits  the  conversion of network numbers to	host names for
		network	 files.	  Inhibiting  conversion  may  make  lsof  run
		faster.	  It is	also useful when host name lookup is not work-
		ing properly.

       -N	selects	the listing of NFS files.

       -o	directs	lsof to	display	file offset at all times.   It	causes
		the  SIZE/OFF  output  column  title  to be changed to OFFSET.
		Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or con-
		sistent	 file offset information from its kernel data sources,
		sometimes just for particular kinds  of	 files	(e.g.,	socket
		files.)	 Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its loca-
		tion.)	for more information.

		The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't  both
		be  specified.	When neither is	specified, lsof	displays what-
		ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
		the type of the	file.

       -o o	defines	 the  number of	decimal	digits (o) to be printed after
		the ``0t'' for a file offset before the	form  is  switched  to
		``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof	to use
		the ``0t'' form	for all	offset output.

		This option does NOT direct lsof  to  display  offset  at  all
		times;	specify	-o (without a trailing number) to do that.  -o
		o only specifies the number of digits after ``0t''  in	either
		mixed  size and	offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for exam-
		ple, to	direct lsof to display offset at all times with	a dec-
		imal digit count of 10,	use:

		     -o	-o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The  default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally
		8, but may have	been changed by	the lsof builder.  Consult the
		description  of	 the -o	o option in the	output of the -h or -?
		option to determine the	default	that is	in effect.

       -O	directs	lsof to	bypass the strategy it	uses  to  avoid	 being
		blocked	by some	kernel operations - i.e., doing	them in	forked
		child processes.  See the BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS	 and  AVOIDING
		KERNEL	BLOCKS	sections for more information on kernel	opera-
		tions that may block lsof.

		While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
		may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
		a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s	excludes or selects the	listing	of  files  for	the  processes
		whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are	in the
		comma-separated	set s -	e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.	(There
		should be no spaces in the set.)

		PID  numbers  that  begin with `^' (negation) represent	exclu-
		sions.

		Multiple process ID numbers are	joined in a  single  ORed  set
		before	participating  in  AND option selection.  However, PID
		exclusions are applied without ORing or	ANDing and take	effect
		before other selection criteria	are applied.

       -P	inhibits the conversion	of port	numbers	to port	names for net-
		work files.  Inhibiting	the conversion may  make  lsof	run  a
		little faster.	It is also useful when port name lookup	is not
		working	properly.

       +|-r [t[m_fmt_]]
		puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as  se-
		lected	by  other options, delays t seconds (default fifteen),
		then repeats the listing, delaying  and	 listing  repetitively
		until  stopped by a condition defined by the prefix to the op-
		tion.

		If the prefix is a `-',	repeat mode is endless.	 Lsof must  be
		terminated with	an interrupt or	quit signal.

		If  the	prefix is `+', repeat mode will	end the	first cycle no
		open files are listed -	and of course  when  lsof  is  stopped
		with  an  interrupt or quit signal.  When repeat mode ends be-
		cause no files are listed, the process exit code will be  zero
		if  any	 open  files  were ever	listed;	one, if	none were ever
		listed.

		Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if	 field	output	is  in
		progress  (the	-F,  option  has  been specified), the default
		marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker  is	 ``========''.
		The marker is followed by a NL character.

		The  optional  "m<fmt>"	 argument  specifies  a	format for the
		marker line.  The <fmt>	characters following  `m'  are	inter-
		preted	as a format specification to the strftime(3) function,
		when both it and the localtime(3) function  are	 available  in
		the  dialect's	C library.  Consult the	strftime(3) documenta-
		tion for what may appear in its	 format	 specification.	  Note
		that  when field output	is requested with the -F option, <fmt>
		cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.	Note  also  that  when
		<fmt>  contains	 spaces	 or  other  characters that affect the
		shell's	interpretation of arguments, <fmt> must	be quoted  ap-
		propriately.

		Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
		cient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively  from  a
		shell script, for example.

		To use repeat mode most	efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
		ification of other lsof	selection options, so  the  amount  of
		kernel memory access lsof does will be kept to a minimum.  Op-
		tions that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,  -u
		- are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat	mode is	useful when coupled with field output (see the
		-F, option description)	and a supervising awk or Perl  script,
		or a C program.

       -R	directs	 lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification	number
		in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s]	s alone	directs	lsof to	display	file size at  all  times.   It
		causes the SIZE/OFF output column title	to be changed to SIZE.
		If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

		The optional -s	p:s form is available only  for	 selected  di-
		alects,	and only when the -h or	-?  help output	lists it.

		When  the optional form	is available, the s may	be followed by
		a protocol name	(p), either TCP	or UDP,	a colon	 (`:')	and  a
		comma-separated	 protocol  state  name list, the option	causes
		open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their	state  name(s)
		are  in	 the  list (s) preceded	by a `^'; or included if their
		name(s)	are not	preceded by a `^'.

		When an	inclusion list is defined,  only  network  files  with
		state  names  in  the list will	be present in the lsof output.
		Thus, specifying one state name	means that only	network	 files
		with that lone state name will be listed.

		Case  is unimportant in	the protocol or	state names, but there
		may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating	 the  protocol
		name (p) and the state name list (s) is	required.

		If  only  TCP and UDP files are	to be listed, as controlled by
		the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i	option must be
		specified,  too.   If only a single protocol's files are to be
		listed,	add its	name as	an argument to the -i option.

		For example, to	list only network files	with TCP state LISTEN,
		use:

		     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

		Or, for	example, to list network files with all	UDP states ex-
		cept Idle, use:

		     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

		State names vary with UNIX dialects, so	it's not  possible  to
		provide	 a  complete  list.   Some common TCP state names are:
		CLOSED,	IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,
		ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,	  CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
		FIN_WAIT_2, and	TIME_WAIT.  Two	common UDP state names are Un-
		bound and Idle.

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information on how	to use protocol	 state	exclusion  and
		inclusion, including examples.

		The -o (without	a following decimal digit count) and -s	option
		(without a following protocol and state	name list)  are	 mutu-
		ally exclusive;	they can't both	be specified.  When neither is
		specified, lsof	displays whatever value	- size or offset -  is
		appropriate and	available for the type of file.

		Since some types of files don't	have true sizes	- sockets, FI-
		FOs, pipes, etc. - lsof	displays for their sizes  the  content
		amounts	in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]	specifies  an optional time-out	seconds	value for kernel func-
		tions -	lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might	other-
		wise  deadlock.	  The  minimum for t is	two; the default, fif-
		teen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

		See the	BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for	more information.

       -T [t]	controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information,  also  re-
		ported	by  netstat(1),	 following  the	network	addresses.  In
		normal output the information  appears	in  parentheses,  each
		item  except  TCP  or  TPI state name identified by a keyword,
		followed by `=', separated from	others by a single space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     SO=<socket	options	and values>
		     SS=<socket	states>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values>
		     WR=<window	read length>
		     WW=<window	write length>

		Not all	values are reported for	all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
		ues (when available) are reported after	the item name and '='.

		When  the field	output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
		PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
		character.

		-T  with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI informa-
		tion reporting.

		-T with	following characters selects the reporting of specific
		TCP/TPI	information:

		     f	  selects reporting of socket options,
			  states and values, and TCP flags and
			  values.
		     q	  selects queue	length reporting.
		     s	  selects connection state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting.

		Not  all selections are	enabled	for some UNIX dialects.	 State
		may be selected	for all	dialects and is	reported  by  default.
		The -h or -?  help output for the -T option will show what se-
		lections may be	used with the UNIX dialect.

		When -T	is used	to select information -	i.e., it  is  followed
		by  one	or more	selection characters - the displaying of state
		is disabled by default,	and it	must  be  explicitly  selected
		again  in  the characters following -T.	 (In effect, then, the
		default	is equivalent to -Ts.)	For example, if	queue  lengths
		and state are desired, use -Tqs.

		Socket	options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
		and one	TCP value may be reported (when	available in the  UNIX
		dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
		SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in	the dialect's header  files  -
		most	 often	   <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>	   and
		<netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
		ing of the flags, options, states and values.

		``SO=''	 precedes  socket  options and values; ``SS='',	socket
		states;	and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

		If a flag or option has	a value, the value will	follow an  '='
		and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',	``SO=QLIM=5'',
		``TF=MSS=512''.	 The following seven values may	be reported:

		     Name
		     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

		     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
		     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
		     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
		     PQLEN	    partial listen queue connections
		     QLEN      established listen queue	connections
		     QLIM      established listen queue	limit
		     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
		     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

		Details	on what	socket options and values, socket states,  and
		TCP  flags and values may be displayed for particular UNIX di-
		alects may be found in the answer to the  ``Why	 doesn't  lsof
		report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and	values
		for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof  report  the  partial
		listen	queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions in
		the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its	location.)

       -t	specifies that lsof should produce terse output	 with  process
		identifiers  only and no header	- e.g.,	so that	the output may
		be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w	option.

       -u s	selects	the listing of files for the user whose	login names or
		user  ID  numbers  are	in  the	 comma-separated set s - e.g.,
		``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces  in  the
		set.)

		Multiple login names or	user ID	numbers	are joined in a	single
		ORed set before	participating in AND option selection.

		If a login name	or user	ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes  a
		negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
		user ID	will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
		selection  is neither ANDed nor	ORed with other	selections; it
		is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
		the  listing of	the files of the process.  For example,	to di-
		rect lsof to exclude the listing of files  belonging  to  root
		processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	selects	the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	selects	 the  listing  of lsof version information, including:
		revision number; when the lsof	binary	was  constructed;  who
		constructed  the  binary  and  where; the name of the compiler
		used to	construct the lsof binary; the version number  of  the
		compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags
		used to	construct the lsof  binary;  and  system  information,
		typically the output of	uname's	-a option.

       -V	directs	 lsof  to  indicate the	items it was asked to list and
		failed to find - command names,	file names, Internet addresses
		or files, login	names, NFS files, PIDs,	PGIDs, and UIDs.

		When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
		pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
		not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
		option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
		file containing	the located search item.

		For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999''	may not	report
		a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and  may  not
		list  any,  if	none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
		similar	situation arises when HASSECURITY  and	HASNOSOCKSECU-
		RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
		of open	files.

       +|-w	Enables	(+) or disables	(-) the	suppression  of	 warning  mes-
		sages.

		The  lsof builder may choose to	have warning messages disabled
		or enabled by default.	The default warning message  state  is
		indicated  in  the  output of the -h or	-?  option.  Disabling
		warning	messages when they are already	disabled  or  enabling
		them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]	may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their processing
		to cross over symbolic links and|or file system	 mount	points
		encountered when scanning the directory	(+d) or	directory tree
		(+D).

		If -x is specified by itself without  a	 following  parameter,
		cross-over  processing	of both	symbolic links and file	system
		mount points is	enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
		out a parameter, the next argument must	begin with '-' or '+'.

		The  optional  'f'  parameter  enables file system mount point
		cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over  process-
		ing.

		The  -x	option may not be supplied without also	supplying a +d
		or +D option.

       -X	This is	a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
		executed text file and shared library references.

		WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
		its use	on a  busy  AIX	 system	 might	cause  an  application
		process	 to  hang  so completely that it can neither be	killed
		nor stopped.  I	have never seen	this happen or had a report of
		its  happening,	 but  I	think there is a remote	possibility it
		could happen.

		By default use of readx() is disabled.	On AIX	5L  and	 above
		lsof  may  need	 setuid-root permission	to perform the actions
		this option requests.

		The lsof builder may specify that the -X option	be  restricted
		to  processes  whose real UID is root.	If that	has been done,
		the -X option will not appear in the -h	or -?  help output un-
		less  the  real	 UID of	the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X,	so by  default
		it will	appear in the help output.

		When  AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof	may not	be able	to re-
		port information for all text and loader file references,  but
		it  may	also avoid exacerbating	an AIX kernel directory	search
		kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		The readx() function, used by lsof or any other	program	to ac-
		cess  some  sections of	kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
		Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the	kernel's  dir_search()
		function to believe erroneously	that part of an	in-memory copy
		of a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another  applica-
		tion  process, distinct	from lsof, asking the kernel to	search
		the  directory	-  e.g.,  by  using  open(2)   -   can	 cause
		dir_search()  to  loop	forever,  thus hanging the application
		process.

		Consult	the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section	gives  its  location.)
		and the	00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
		plete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its  APAR,  and
		methods	for defining readx() use when compiling	lsof.

	   Linux:
		This Linux option requests that	lsof skip the reporting	of in-
		formation on all open TCP,  UDP	 and  UDPLITE  IPv4  and  IPv6
		files.

		This  Linux  option  is	most useful when the system has	an ex-
		tremely	large number of	open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE  files,  the
		processing  of	whose  information  in	the /proc/net/tcp* and
		/proc/net/udp* files would take	lsof a long  time,  and	 whose
		reporting is not of interest.

		Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the
		information you	want lsof to  display  isn't  associated  with
		open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket	files.

	   Solaris 10 and above:
		This  Solaris  10  and	above option requests the reporting of
		cached paths for files that have been deleted -	i.e.,  removed
		with rm(1) or unlink(2).

		The  cached  path  is followed by the string ``	(deleted)'' to
		indicate that the path by which	the file was opened  has  been
		deleted.

		Because	 intervening  changes made to the path - i.e., renames
		with mv(1) or rename(2)	- are not recorded in the cached path,
		what  lsof  reports  is	 only  the  path by which the file was
		opened,	not its	possibly different final path.

       -z [z]	specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is	to  be
		handled.

		Without	 a following argument -	e.g., NO z - the option	speci-
		fies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output  col-
		umn.

		The  -z	option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That	causes
		lsof to	list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
		tiple  -z z option and argument	pairs may be specified to form
		a list of named	zones.	Any open file of any process in	any of
		the  zones  will be listed, subject to other conditions	speci-
		fied by	other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]	specifies how SELinux security contexts	are to be handled.  It
		and  'Z'  field	 output	 character  support are	inhibited when
		SELinux	is disabled in the running Linux kernel.   See	OUTPUT
		FOR  OTHER PROGRAMS for	more information on the	'Z' field out-
		put character.

		Without	a following argument - e.g., NO	Z - the	option	speci-
		fies  that  security  contexts	are  to	be listed in the SECU-
		RITY-CONTEXT output column.

		The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard  security  context
		name,  Z.   That  causes lsof to list only open	files for pro-
		cesses in that security	context.  Multiple -Z Z	option and ar-
		gument	pairs may be specified to form a list of security con-
		texts.	Any open file of any process in	any  of	 the  security
		contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
		by other options and arguments.	 Note that Z can be  A:B:C  or
		*:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C	to match against the A:B:C context.

       --	The  double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
		of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example,  when  the
		first file name	begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
		when the absence of a value for	the last keyed option must  be
		signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following op-
		tion and before	the start of the file names.

       names	These are path names of	 specific  files  to  list.   Symbolic
		links  are  resolved  before use.  The first name may be sepa-
		rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

		If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file	system or  the
		device	of  the	file system, lsof will list all	the files open
		on the file system.  To	be considered a	file system, the  name
		must  match a mounted-on directory name	in mount(8) output, or
		match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
		directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
		consider a name	a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
		(-f).

		If  name  is  a	path to	a directory that is not	the mounted-on
		directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
		lar  file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro-
		cesses that have it open as a file or  as  a  process-specific
		directory,  such as the	root or	current	working	directory.  To
		request	that lsof look for open	files inside a directory name,
		use the	+d s and +D D options.

		If  a name is the base name of a family	of multiplexed files -
		e.g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will  list  all  the  associated
		multiplexed  files  on	the  device  that  are	open  -	 e.g.,
		/dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain  socket  name,  lsof	 will  usually
		search for it by the characters	of the name alone - exactly as
		it is specified	and is recorded	in the	kernel	socket	struc-
		ture.	(See  the next paragraph for an	exception to that rule
		for Linux.)  Specifying	a relative path	- e.g.,	 ./file	 -  in
		place  of  the	file's absolute	path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't
		work because lsof must match the characters you	 specify  with
		what it	finds in the kernel UNIX domain	socket structures.

		If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket	name, in one case lsof
		is able	to search for it by its	device and inode  number,  al-
		lowing name to be a relative path.  The	case requires that the
		absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with  a  slash  ('/')  be
		used  by  the  process	that  created the socket, and hence be
		stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
		be  able to obtain the device and node numbers of both the ab-
		solute path in /proc/net/unix and name via successful  stat(2)
		system	calls.	 When  those  conditions are met, lsof will be
		able to	search for the UNIX domain socket when some path to it
		is  is	specified  in name.  Thus, for example,	if the path is
		/dev/log, and an lsof search is	initiated when the working di-
		rectory	is /dev, then name could be ./log.

		If  a name is none of the above, lsof will list	any open files
		whose device and inode match that of the specified path	name.

		If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
		may safely specify are file systems for	which your mount table
		supplies alternate device numbers.  See	 the  AVOIDING	KERNEL
		BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
		tion.

		Multiple file names are	joined in a  single  ORed  set	before
		participating in AND option selection.

AFS
       Lsof  supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
       versions):

	    AIX	4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5	(AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS	3.4a)

       It may recognize	AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not  been  tested there.	 Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties	recog-
       nizing AFS files	in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may	have trouble identifying all aspects of	AFS files in supported
       dialects	when AFS kernel	support	is  implemented	 via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses	 do not	appear in the kernel's variable	name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have	to guess at the	identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the	kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.	When lsof  can't  com-
       pute volume node	numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A	A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option	is available, it will be listed	in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ	(The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more	infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path	lookups	don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache  operations,  lsof	 can't	identify  path name components for AFS
       files.

SECURITY
       Lsof has	three features that may	cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default	compilation mode allows	anyone to list all open	files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable	device
       cache  file  in	the  home  directory of	the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache	features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and	-m options name	alter-
       nate kernel name	list or	memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled	 by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof	will allow only	the root user to list all open	files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real  user  ID	 number	 of  the  lsof
       process (the one	that its user logged on	with).

       However,	 if HASSECURITY	and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined,	anyone
       may list	open socket files, provided they are selected with the -i  op-
       tion.

       When HASSECURITY	is not defined,	anyone may list	all open files.

       Help  output,  presented	in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security	section	of the 00README	file of	the lsof  distribution
       for  information	on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation	and use	of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is  controlled  by  the	compile-time HASDCACHE option.	See the	DEVICE
       CACHE FILE section and the sections that	follow it for details  on  how
       its  path  is  formed.	For security considerations it is important to
       note that in the	default	lsof distribution, if the real user  ID	 under
       which  lsof  is executed	is root, the device cache file will be written
       in root's home directory	- e.g.,	/ or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not de-
       fined, lsof does	not write or attempt to	read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.   When HASDCACHE is	not defined, the -h or -?  output will
       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the	device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the	discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file	of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE	 CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel	name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority	to  read  them
       with  access(2).	  This	is  intended to	prevent	whatever special power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real	user ID.

OUTPUT
       This  section  describes	the information	lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER	PROGRAMS section for additional	information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or
       hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space	is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's ma-
       chine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8 bit	characters  of
       a language locale.  The lsof process must be supplied a language	locale
       environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents	a  known  lan-
       guage  locale in	which the extended characters are considered printable
       by  isprint(3).	 Otherwise  lsof  considers  the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according	to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for  the	names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers	 wide  charac-
       ters  -	e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE	and HASWIDECHAR	are defined in
       the dialect's machine.h header file, and	when a suitable	 language  lo-
       cale  has  been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those	conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable	language locale	aren't defined,	or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that	 aren't	 printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints	each of	their 8	bits according	to  its	 rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult	the  answers to	the "Language locale support" questions	in the
       lsof FAQ	(The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically	sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from	its predecessor	by at least one	space.

       COMMAND	  contains the first nine characters of	the name of  the  UNIX
		  command  associated with the process.	 If a non-zero w value
		  is specified to the +c w option,  the	 column	 contains  the
		  first	 w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
		  ated with the	process	up to the limit	of characters supplied
		  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.	(See the description of	the +c
		  w command or the lsof	FAQ for	 more  information.   The  FAQ
		  section gives	its location.)

		  If  w	 is  less  than	the length of the column title,	``COM-
		  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

		  If a zero w value is specified to the	+c w option, the  col-
		  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
		  mand associated with the process.

		  All command name characters maintained by the	kernel in  its
		  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
		  name descriptor (`c')	is  specified.	 See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
		  OTHER	 COMMANDS  section  for	information on selecting field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification	number of the process.

       TID	  is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task (thread)
		  reporting is supported by the	dialect	and a task (thread) is
		  being	listed.	 (If help output - i.e., the output of the  -h
		  or  -?   options - shows this	option,	then task (thread) re-
		  porting is supported by the dialect.)

		  A blank TID column in	Linux indicates	a process  -  i.e.,  a
		  non-task.

       TASKCMD	  is  the  task	command	name.  Generally this will be the same
		  as the process named in the COMMAND column,  but  some  task
		  implementations  (e.g.,  Linux)  permit a task to change its
		  command name.

		  The TASKCMD column width is subject to the same size limita-
		  tion as the COMMAND column.

       ZONE	  is the Solaris 10 and	higher zone name.  This	column must be
		  selected with	the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
		  is the SELinux security context.  This column	 must  be  se-
		  lected  with	the -Z option.	Note that the -Z option	is in-
		  hibited when SELinux is disabled in the running  Linux  ker-
		  nel.

       PPID	  is  the Parent Process IDentification	number of the process.
		  It is	only displayed when the	-R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is the process group IDentification number  associated  with
		  the  process.	  It  is only displayed	when the -g option has
		  been specified.

       USER	  is the user ID number	or login name of the user to whom  the
		  process  belongs,  usually  the  same	 as reported by	ps(1).
		  However, on Linux USER is the	user ID	number or  login  that
		  owns	the  directory	in  /proc where	lsof finds information
		  about	the process.  Usually that is the same value  reported
		  by  ps(1),  but  may differ when the process has changed its
		  effective user ID.  (See the -l option description  for  in-
		  formation  on	 when  a  user ID number or login name is dis-
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number	of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text	(code and data);
		       Mxx  hex	memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS	Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD is	followed by one	of these  characters,  describing  the
		  mode under which the file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if	mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The  mode character is followed by one of these lock charac-
		  ters,	describing the type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock	of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the	entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire	file;
		       u for a read and	write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x for an	SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of  the
		  file;
		       X for an	SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the entire	file;
		       space if	there is no lock.

		  See  the  LOCKS section for more information on the lock in-
		  formation character.

		  The FD column	contents constitutes a single field for	 pars-
		  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE	  is  the  type	 of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
		  GDIR,	GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its  ad-
		  dress	is IPv4, mapped	in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25	socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain	socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25	socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been	deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``KQUEUE''	for a BSD style	kernel event queue file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or  ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
		  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
		  followed by an error message;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable	/proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group	notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl	file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage	file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs	file;

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or  ``POLP''	for  an	 old format /proc light	weight process
		  file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format	/proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format	/proc page data	file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PSXSEM''	for a POSIX semaphore file;

		  or ``PSXSHM''	for a POSIX shared memory file;

		  or ``PTS'' for a /dev/pts file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage	file;

		  or ``PW'' for	a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer	Xenix special file of  unknown
		  type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer	Xenix semaphore	file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

		  or  the  four	 type  number octets if	the corresponding name
		  isn't	known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
		  specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains  the	 file  reference  count	 from  the kernel file
		  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,	 this  field  contains
		  the  contents	 of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
		  structure and	the kernel's per-process open file  flags  (if
		  available);  `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
		  `g', as short-hand names; two	lists may  be  displayed  with
		  entries  separated by	commas,	the lists separated by a semi-
		  colon	(`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
		  f_flag[s] values from	the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block,	test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CIO	 concurrent I/O
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       DTY	 must be a directory
		       EVO	 event only
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in	progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream	message	block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NATM	 don't update atime
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in	effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NFLK	 don't follow links
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling	TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared	read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       RW	 read and write	access
		       SL	 shared	lock
		       SNAP	 cooked	snapshot
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared	set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared	open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity	while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this	list of	names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
		  header  files	  <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,	<sys/fcntl.c>,
		  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;	 see the lsof.h	header
		  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
		  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the second list (after the semicolon)	may contain short-hand
		  names	for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta-
		  ble:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       OPIP	 open pending -	in progress
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use	(multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a	unique identi-
		  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or	 inode
		  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
		  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains the device numbers,	separated  by  commas,	for  a
		  character  special, block special, regular, directory	or NFS
		  file;

		  or ``memory''	for a memory  file  system  node  under	 Tru64
		  UNIX;

		  or  the address of the private data area of a	Solaris	socket
		  stream;

		  or a kernel reference	address	that identifies	the file  (The
		  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam-
		  ple.);

		  or the base address or device	name of	a Linux	 AX.25	socket
		  device.

		  Usually  only	the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX	kernel
		  addresses are	displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is the size of the file or the  file	offset	in  bytes.   A
		  value	 is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
		  Lsof displays	whatever value - size or offset	- is appropri-
		  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On  some UNIX	dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis-
		  tent file offset information from its	kernel	data  sources,
		  sometimes  just  for particular kinds	of files (e.g.,	socket
		  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
		  sockets, FIFOs, pipes	- so lsof displays for their sizes the
		  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
		  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP	window sizes.)
		  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ	section	gives  its  location.)
		  for more information.

		  The  file  size  is displayed	in decimal; the	offset is nor-
		  mally	displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con-
		  tains	8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a	leading	``0x''
		  if it	is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o option de-
		  scription  for  information  on when 8 might default to some
		  other	value.)

		  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
		  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
		  title	is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  offset (or nothing if	no offset is available)	and labels the
		  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
		  ``0x'' as described above.

		  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to	``0x''
		  with the -o o	option.	 Consult its description for more  in-
		  formation.

		  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
		  column  SIZE.	 The -o	and -s options are mutually exclusive;
		  they can't both be specified.

		  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't	reside
		  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
		  about	the current size or position of	 the  file  if	it  is
		  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK	  contains the file link count when +L has been	specified;

       NODE	  is the node number of	a local	file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS	file in	the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type	- e.g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or	inode number of	a Linux	AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is  the name of the mount point and file system on which the
		  file resides;

		  or the name of a file	specified in the names	option	(after
		  any symbolic links have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or	block special device;

		  or  the  local  and  remote  Internet	addresses of a network
		  file;	the local host name or IP  number  is  followed	 by  a
		  colon	 (':'),	 the port, ``->'', and the two-part remote ad-
		  dress; IP addresses may be reported as numbers or names, de-
		  pending  on  the  +|-M,  -n, and -P options; colon-separated
		  IPv6 numbers are  enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4  IN-
		  ADDR_ANY  and	 IPv6  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED	addresses, and
		  zero port numbers are	represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
		  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
		  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina-
		  tion;	 TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be followed
		  by TCP/TPI information in parentheses	- state	(e.g.,	``(ES-
		  TABLISHED)'',	 ``(Unbound)''), queue sizes, and window sizes
		  (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what netstat(1)
		  reports; see the -T option description or the	description of
		  the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER	PROGRAMS for more  in-
		  formation on state, queue size, and window size;

		  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly in-
		  cluding a stream clone device	name, a	file  system  object's
		  path	name,  local and foreign kernel	addresses, socket pair
		  information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount	point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or a stream character	device name, followed  by  ``->''  and
		  the  stream name or a	list of	stream module names, separated
		  by ``->'';

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
		  module names,	separated by ``->'';

		  or  system  directory	name, `` -- '',	and as many components
		  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
		  for selected dialects	(See the KERNEL	NAME CACHE section for
		  more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
		  address;

		  or  ``COMMON:'',  followed  by  the vnode device information
		  structure's device name, for a Solaris common	vnode;

		  or the address family, followed by a slash  (`/'),  followed
		  by  fourteen	comma-separated	 bytes	of  a non-Internet raw
		  socket address;

		  or the HP-UX x.25 local address,  followed  by  the  virtual
		  connection  number  (if any),	followed by the	remote address
		  (if any);

		  or ``(dead)''	for disassociated Tru64	UNIX files - typically
		  terminal  files  that	 have  been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY
		  ioctl	and closed by daemons;

		  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values	of the
		  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

		  or  ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer	file clones of
		  the /dev/event device, where n is the	minor device number of
		  the file;

		  or  ``(socketpair:  n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX
		  domain socket, created by the	socketpair(3N)	network	 func-
		  tion;

		  or  ``no  PCB'' for socket files that	do not have a protocol
		  block	associated  with  them,	 optionally  followed  by  ``,
		  CANTSENDMORE''  if  sending on the socket has	been disabled,
		  or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on	the  socket  has  been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
		  in the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed  in  parentheses
		  by  the transmit and receive queue sizes, and	the connection
		  state;

		  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare  7.1.1  and
		  above	 in-kernel  UNIX  domain  sockets, followed by a colon
		  (':')	and the	local path name	when  available,  followed  by
		  ``->''  and the remote path name or kernel socket address in
		  hexadecimal when available;

		  or the association value, association	index, endpoint	value,
		  local	 address,  local  port,	remote address and remote port
		  for Linux SCTP sockets;

		  or ``protocol: '' followed by	the  Linux  socket's  protocol
		  attribute.

       For  dialects  that support a ``namefs''	file system, allowing one file
       to be attached to another with fattach(3C), lsof	 will  add  ``(FA:<ad-
       dress1><direction><address2>)''	to  the	 NAME  column.	<address1> and
       <address2> are hexadecimal vnode	addresses.  <direction>	will be	``<-''
       if  <address2>  has been	fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <ad-
       dress1>;	and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of this vnode, has
       been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omitted if it already
       appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may	add two	parenthetical notes to the NAME	column	for  open  So-
       laris 10	files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of questionable
       accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option  has  been	specified  and
       lsof  detects  the open file's path name	has been deleted.  Consult the
       lsof FAQ	(The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more	information on
       these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof  can't  adequately	report	the  wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in	a single character.  What it reports in	a single character  is
       a  compromise  between  the  information	it finds in the	kernel and the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a	process	holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only  reports  the  status of the first lock it encounters.  If it is a
       byte level lock,	then the lock character	will be	reported in lower case
       -  i.e.,	 `r',  `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case	equivalent re-
       ported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on  lo-
       cal  files.   When  a  local  process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host  usually  records  the  lock
       state.	One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels	of 2.3,	and in
       all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information  on  re-
       mote locks in local structures.

       Lsof  has  trouble reporting locks for some UNIX	dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page	or the lsof FAQ	(The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more	information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When  the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable
       for processing by another program - e.g,	an awk or Perl script, or a  C
       program.

       Each unit of information	is output in a field that is identified	with a
       leading character and terminated	by a NL	(012) (or a NUL	(000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)	 The data of the field
       follows immediately after the field identification  character  and  ex-
       tends to	the field terminator.

       It  is  possible	 to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier	is  `p'	 (for  process
       IDentifier  (PID)).   It	extends	to the beginning of the	next PID field
       or the beginning	of the first file set of the process, whichever	 comes
       first.	Included  in the process set are fields	that identify the com-
       mand, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the task (thread)
       ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A  file	set  begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file de-
       scriptor).  It is followed by lines that	 describe  the	file's	access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream module names.  It	extends	to the beginning of the	next  file  or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the	NUL (000) field	terminator has been selected with the 0	(zero)
       field identifier	character, lsof	ends each process and file set with  a
       NL (012)	character.

       Lsof  always produces one field,	the PID	(`p') field.  All other	fields
       may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list  that
       follows	the -F option.	When a field selection character identifies an
       item lsof does not normally list	- e.g.,	PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification  of  the  field  character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed -	e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it	may be
       difficult to identify file sets.	 To help you  avoid  this  difficulty,
       lsof  supports  the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with
       NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output  of  all	fields
       with  NUL  terminators).	  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.	The  single  character
       listed first is the field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc	or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure	share count
	    d	 file's	device character code
	    D	 file's	major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor (always selected)
	    F	 file structure	address	(0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    g	 process group ID
	    i	 file's	inode number
	    K	 tasK ID
	    k	 link count
	    l	 file's	lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker	between	repeated output
	    M	 the task comMand name
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's	offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent	process	ID
	    s	 file's	size (decimal)
	    S	 file's	stream identification
	    t	 file's	type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is	part of	the prefix):
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<send queue size>
		     SO=<socket	options	and values> (not all dialects)
		     SS=<socket	states>	(not all dialects)
		     ST=<connection state>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all	dialects)
		     WR=<window	read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window	write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
		   UNIX	dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
		   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    z	 Solaris 10 and	higher zone name
	    Z	 SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of	NL
	    1-9	 dialect-specific field	identifiers (The output
		 of -F?	identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can	get on-line help information on	these characters and their de-
       scriptions by specifying	the -F?	 option	pair.  (Escape the `?' charac-
       ter  as	your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process  ID  (`p'),  command
       name (`c'), file	descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator	character; ``-F	pcfn0''	selects	the same output	with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce  all  fields for every process or	file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields are mutually exclusive: file de-
       vice  characters	and file major/minor device numbers; file inode	number
       and protocol name; file name and	stream identification; file  size  and
       offset.	 One or	the other member of these mutually exclusive sets will
       appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally	lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.	 The 0	(zero)
       field  identifier character may be specified to change the field	termi-
       nator character to a NUL	(000).	A NUL  terminator  may	be  easier  to
       process	with  xargs  (1),  for example,	or with	programs whose quoting
       mechanisms may not easily cope with the	range  of  characters  in  the
       field  output.  When the	NUL field terminator is	in use,	lsof ends each
       process and file	set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs	that can process lsof field output are
       included	 in  the  lsof	distribution.	The  first is a	C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for	the field identification char-
       acters,	indexes	 for  storing them in a	table, and explanation strings
       that may	be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that  process	field  output,
       written	in  awk,  Perl	4, and Perl 5.	They're	located	in the scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof	distribution.

       The third aid is	the C library used for the lsof	test suite.  The  test
       suite is	written	in C and uses field output to validate the correct op-
       eration of lsof.	 The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file of
       the   lsof   distribution.    The  library  uses	 the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof can	be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -  lstat(2),
       readlink(2),  and  stat(2).  These functions are	stalled	in the kernel,
       for example, when the hosts where mounted NFS file systems  reside  be-
       come inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break these blocks with timers and child processes,
       but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does  manage  to
       break  a	 block,	 it  will report the break with	an error message.  The
       messages	may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be	displayed with the -h or  -?   option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t	is two
       seconds,	but you	should avoid small values, since slow  system  respon-
       siveness	 can  cause  short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps
       stop lsof before	it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to	break a	block during its access	of mounted file	system
       information,  it	 normally  continues,  although	 with less information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof can	also be	directed to avoid the protection of timers  and	 child
       processes  when using the kernel	functions that might block by specify-
       ing the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start	up  with  less
       overhead,  it  exposes  lsof  completely	 to the	kernel situations that
       might block it.	Use this option	cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL	BLOCKS
       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel  functions
       that would block.  Some cautions	apply.

       First,  using  this option usually requires that	your system supply al-
       ternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that  lsof	 would
       normally	 obtain	 with  the lstat(2) and	stat(2)	kernel functions.  See
       the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for	more information on  alternate
       device numbers.

       Second,	you can't specify names	for lsof to locate unless they're file
       system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and	 inode
       numbers	of files listed	with names in the lsof options,	and the	-b op-
       tion prevents lsof from obtaining them.	Moreover, since	lsof only  has
       device  numbers	for the	file systems that have alternates, its ability
       to locate files on file systems depends completely on the  availability
       and  accuracy of	the alternates.	 If no alternates are available, or if
       they're incorrect, lsof won't be	able to	locate files on	the named file
       systems.

       Third,  if  the names of	your file system directories that lsof obtains
       from your system's mount	table are symbolic links, lsof won't  be  able
       to  resolve  the	 links.	  This is because the -b option	causes lsof to
       avoid the kernel	readlink(2)  function  it  uses	 to  resolve  symbolic
       links.

       Finally,	using the -b option causes lsof	to issue warning messages when
       it needs	to use the kernel functions that the -b	option directs	it  to
       avoid.	You  can  suppress these messages by specifying	the -w option,
       but if you do, you won't	see the	alternate device numbers  reported  in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some	 dialects, when	lsof has to break a block because it can't get
       information about a mounted file	system via the	lstat(2)  and  stat(2)
       kernel  functions, or because you specified the -b option, lsof can ob-
       tain some of the	information it needs - the device number and  possibly
       the  file system	type - from the	system mount table.  When that is pos-
       sible, lsof will	report the device number it obtained.  (You  can  sup-
       press the report	by specifying the -w option.)

       You  can	 assist	 this process if your mount table is supported with an
       /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab	file that contains an options field by	adding
       a ``dev=xxxx'' field for	mount points that do not have one in their op-
       tions strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file	-  i.e.,  some
       mount  tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or	Linux /proc/mounts are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m op-
       tions,  provided	 they are supported by your dialect.  Check the	output
       of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the  +m  and  +m  m  options  are
       available.

       The  ``xxxx'' portion of	the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
       system's	device number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output	of the
       lstat(2)	and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab	for  a
       file system remotely mounted via	NFS:

	    nfs	 ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file, especially	for file systems that  are  mounted  from  remote  NFS
       servers.	  When	a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its
       users by	running	lsof on	one of its clients,  lsof  probably  won't  be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and	stat(2)	functions for the file
       system.	If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number  from  the
       mount  table,  it will be able to display the files open	on the crashed
       NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an	ASCII /etc/mtab	 or  /etc/mnttab  file
       for  the	 mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX,	Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD,	and Tru64 UNIX.	 Lsof knows how	to obtain the alterna-
       tive device number for these dialects and uses it when its  attempt  to
       lstat(2)	or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof	incantation to see  if
       it reports any alternate	device numbers:

	      lsof -b

       Look  for  standard  error  file	warning	messages that begin ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel fa-
       cilities	 (e.g.,	the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Tru64 UNIX)
       on some dialects	for most file system types, excluding AFS, and extract
       recently	 used  path  name  components  from it.	 (AFS file system path
       lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file  sys-
       tem operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all	components in a	path, it reports in  the  NAME	column
       the  file system	name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  `/'
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode	- i.e.,	with the -r option specified -
       the extent to which it can report path name  components	for  the  same
       file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running pro-
       cesses can cause	the kernel to remove entries from its name  cache  and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use of the kernel name cache to identify	the paths of files can
       lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.	  This
       can  happen when	the kernel name	cache uses device and node number as a
       key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a	key on a rapidly changing file	system
       is  reused.   If	the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge	the name cache
       entry for a file	when it	is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to  the
       wrong  entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ	(The FAQ section gives its lo-
       cation.)	 has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can	report path name components for	these dialects:

	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    OPENSTEP
	    SCO	OpenServer
	    SCO|Caldera	UnixWare
	    Solaris
	    Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these	dialects:

	    AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices)	node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be	time consuming.	 What's	 more,	the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an	ASCII text file	of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof	 where
       it's  not  needed.)  The	local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache	file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide	path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of	device cache support.	The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device cache file path that is in effect for the current in-
       vocation	of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the read-only and write
       device  cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment vari-
       ables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can	detect that the	current	device cache file  has	been  acciden-
       tally or	maliciously modified by	integrity checks, including the	compu-
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit	Cyclic Redundancy Check	 (CRC)
       sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something	wrong with the
       file, it	issues a warning and attempts to remove	the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only	to a path that the process can legiti-
       mately write.

       The path	from which a lsof process may attempt to read a	 device	 cache
       file  may  not  be  the	same  as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device	 cache
       file,  it may choose a different	path for writing it from the path from
       which it	read an	incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of	a  new	device
       cache  file.  (It's always available when specified without a path name
       argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache  file  may
       need  to	 be  recreated.	  Since	 lsof compares the mtime of the	device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev	(or  /devices)	direc-
       tory, it	usually	detects	that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device	 cache
       file.

       Whenever	 lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership	to the
       real UID	of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to	 0600,
       this restricting	its reading and	writing	to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access de-
       vice cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system adminis-
       trator when lsof	is installed.

       The  first  and	rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into	effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID	is then	root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of	the logged-on user) UID	is not.	 The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions	for these dialects run setuid-root.

	    HP-UX 11.11	and 11.23
	    Linux

       The second and more common permission is	setgid.	 It comes into	effect
       when  the  effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel  memory  devices  -	 e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof	process	that has setgid	permission usually surrenders the per-
       mission after it	has accessed the kernel	memory devices.	 When it  does
       that,  lsof  can	 allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX	5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
	    Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
	    FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x	for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.x, [6789].x and 1[012].8for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64
		based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x	and 3.x	for Alpha, x86,	and SPARC-based
		systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for	NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    SCO	OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera	UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
	    Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above	needs setuid-root permission if	its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for	these dialects does not	support	a device cache,	so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the	device cache file.

	    Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE	-D OPTION
       The  -D	option	provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will	report the read-only and write	device
       cache file paths	that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and	u functions are	available, you can use them to
       request that the	cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]);	or read	and rebuilt (u[path]).	The b,
       r, and u	functions are restricted under some conditions.	 They are  re-
       stricted	when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path	specified with
       the r function is always	read-only, even	when it	is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the	 lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS	THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section	for  a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i	(for ignore), is always	available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the	kernel with the	stat(2)	function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated	path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the	 device	 cache
       file,  but  not	update	it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device	cache file path.  The r	function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name	argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning setuid-root	and surrenders its setgid permission, a	path name  ar-
       gument may accompany the	r function.

       When  available,	 the  u	function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache	file.  If it can't read	the file, or if	it  finds  the
       contents	 of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the	kernel,	and attempt to write an	updated	version	of the	device
       cache  file,  but  only	to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for	the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It	avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to	a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not	write a	device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its	setgid
       permission.   (See  the	LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide	device
       cache file when building	lsof.  That file will generally	be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is	booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,	it  is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof	help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?	 option.

       Lsof  will never	write to the system-wide device	cache file path	by de-
       fault.  It must be explicitly named with	a -D function in a  root-owned
       procedure.   Once  the file has been written, the procedure must	change
       its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read	and  owner-write,  group-read,
       and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE	CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution	is one
       recorded	in the home directory of the  real  UID	 that  executes	 lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory	is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and	is usually the
       default.	 If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This	is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the	second component is the	base name of the  exe-
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first	 `.'   in  the	gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output	if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file	 belongs  to  the  user	ID and is readable and
       writable	by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis-
       tinct  real  user  ID on	a given	host that executes lsof	has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname	part of	the path distinguishes	device
       cache  files  in	 an NFS-mounted	home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different	hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that	lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents	be incorrect  or  out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a	path name argument will	inhibit	the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?	option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal	 device	cache file.  The conversions used in the format	speci-
       fication	are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the	local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a	component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are	inserted in the	 path  at  the
       place  marked by	the local system administrator with the	``%p'' conver-
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect's  machine.h
       header  file.   (It's  placed right after the home directory in the de-
       fault lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home	direc-
       tory  is	``/Homes/abe'',	the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),	 the  modified
       personal	device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment	 variable  is  ignored	when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a	modified personal device cache	file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn't surrender setgid permission.	 (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT	AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS	section	for a list  of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If,  for	example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal	device
       cache file paths	by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  to
       name  it,  and  lsof  doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you will
       have to allow lsof to create device cache files at  the	standard  per-
       sonal path and move them	to your	subdirectory with shell	commands.

       The  local  system  administrator may: disable this option when lsof is
       built; change the name of the environment variable from	LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to  something else; change the HASPERSDC	format to include the personal
       path component in another place;	or exclude the personal	path component
       entirely.   Consult  the	 output	of the -D?  option for the environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format	specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names,	file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If	the -V
       option  is  specified, lsof will	indicate the search items it failed to
       list.

       It returns a zero (0) if	no errors were detected	and if it was able  to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot	open access to /dev (or	/devices) or one of its	subdi-
       rectories, or get information on	a file in them with stat(2), it	issues
       a warning message and continues.	 That lsof will	issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files	in /dev	(or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output -	requested with the -h or >B -?	options	-  with	the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning message may	be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator	when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.	In this	case, the out-
       put from	the help options will include the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after  lsof  has
       created a working device	cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For  a  more  extensive set of examples,	documented more	fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the	lsof distribution.

       To list all open	files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open	Internet, x.25 (HP-UX),	and UNIX domain	files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open	IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID  is
       1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4	-a -p 1234

       Presuming  the  UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only	open IPv6 net-
       work files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of  host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list	all files using	any protocol on	any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open	files for login	name ``abe'',  or  user	 ID  1234,  or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open	files on device	/dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that	has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP	to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP	`lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find	any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
       the name	/dev/log, use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To find processes  with	open  files  on	 the  NFS  file	 system	 named
       /nfs/mount/point	whose server is	inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number	for /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages	suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file,	use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file  de-
       scriptor,  file	device	number,	and file inode number for each file of
       each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors	1 and 3	of every process  running  the
       lsof command for	login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3	-u abe -r10

       To  list	 the  current working directory	of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and	has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i	-a -d cwd

       To  find	an IP version 4	socket file by its associated numeric dot-form
       address,	use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6) by	its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To  find	 an  IP	 version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by	an associated numeric colon-form address that has a run	of ze-
       roes in it - e.g., the loop-back	address	- use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

       To  obtain  a  repeat  mode marker line that contains the current time,
       use:

	      lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to	the previous marker line, use:

	      lsof -r "m==== %T	===="

BUGS
       Since lsof reads	kernel memory in its  search  for  open	 files,	 rapid
       changes in kernel memory	may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a file has	multiple record	locks, the lock	status character (fol-
       lowing the file descriptor) is derived from a test of  the  first  lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be	described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with	restrictive access permissions by name
       unless  it  is installed	with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is
       limited to searching for	files to which its user	or its	set-GID	 group
       (if any)	has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's	protocol control block,	some do	not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1) does.  For	example, the major and minor device numbers  that  the
       lstat(2)	and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which	CD-ROM
       files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are	not the	same as	the ones  that
       it  reports for the device on which CD-ROM files	are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for	BSD and	 Tru64
       UNIX  dialects,	Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g., Free-
       BSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and	 file  size  -
       are  unavailable	in some	dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
       system may require that the full	path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for	Linux processes.   All
       entries	for  files  other than the current working directory, the root
       directory, and numerical	file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX	named pipes  by	 name,	because	 their
       kernel implementation of	lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01,  10.20,  and	 11.00
       locks  because  of  insufficient	access to kernel data or errors	in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section	gives  its  location.)
       for details.

       The  AIX	 SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file	struc-
       tures whose type	(15) isn't defined in the AIX  /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header  file.   One  way	 to  create  such  file	structures is to run X
       clients with the	DISPLAY	variable set to	``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux	 lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may	access these environment variables.

       LANG		 defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
			 names of other	variables that can be used in place of
			 LANG -	e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DE-
			 VICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE  section
			 for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines  the  middle component	of a modified personal
			 device	cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
			 DEVICE	CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked	 questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel	virtual	memory device

       /dev/mem		 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system	paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's	 device	 cache	file (The suffix, hostname, is
			 the first component of	the host's  name  returned  by
			 gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was  written by Victor A.Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of	Purdue Univer-
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They're  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via	anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof	 distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use	this URL:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is	also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory,	you'll be given	a list
       of  some	mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof	 executables  are  available on	lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu,	but their use is discouraged - it's better that	you build your
       own  from  the  sources.	  If you feel you must use a pre-compiled exe-
       cutable,	please read the	cautions that appear in	the  README  files  of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries	subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof	 distribution  can  be	found  in  its
       README.lsof__version_ file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof__version_ and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not  all	 the following manual pages may	exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),	 isprint(3),  kill(1),	localtime(3),  lstat(2),  mod-
       load(8),	mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2),
       setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

				 Revision-4.90			       LSOF(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | AFS | SECURITY | OUTPUT | LOCKS | OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS | BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS | AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS | ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS | KERNEL NAME CACHE | DEVICE CACHE FILE | LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS | DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION | DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE | SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH | PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT) | MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH | DIAGNOSTICS | EXAMPLES | BUGS | ENVIRONMENT | FAQ | FILES | AUTHORS | DISTRIBUTION | SEE ALSO

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