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ls(1B)									ls(1B)

       ls - list the contents of a directory

       /usr/ucb/ls [-aAcCdfFgilLqrRstu1] file...

       For each	filename that is a directory, ls lists the contents of the di-
       rectory;	for each filename that is a file, ls repeats its name and  any
       other information requested. By default,	the output is sorted alphabet-
       ically.	When no	argument is given, the current	directory  is  listed.
       When several arguments are given, the arguments are first sorted	appro-
       priately, but file arguments are	processed before directories and their

   Permissions Field
       The mode	printed	under the -l option contains 10	characters interpreted
       as follows. If the first	character is:

       d	Entry is a directory.

       D	Entry is a door.

       b	Entry is a block-type special file.

       c	Entry is a character-type special file.

       l	Entry is a symbolic link.

       p	Entry is a FIFO	(also known as "named pipe") special file.

       s	Entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket.

       -	Entry is a plain file.

       The next	9 characters are interpreted as	three sets of three bits each.
       The  first  set refers to owner permissions; the	next refers to permis-
       sions to	others in the same user-group; and the last refers to all oth-
       ers.  Within each set, the three	characters indicate permission respec-
       tively to read, to write, or to execute the file	as a  program.	For  a
       directory,  "execute"  permission  is interpreted to mean permission to
       search the directory. The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r	The file is readable.

       w	The file is writable.

       x	The file is executable.

       -	The indicated permission is not	granted.

       The group-execute permission character is given as s if	the  file  has
       the set-group-id	bit set; likewise the owner-execute permission charac-
       ter is given as s if the	file has the set-user-id bit set.

       The last	character of the mode (normally	x or `-') is true if the  1000
       bit  of	the mode is on.	See chmod(1) for the meaning of	this mode. The
       indications of set-ID and 1000 bits of the mode are capitalized (S  and
       T, respectively)	if the corresponding execute permission	is not set.

       A  plus	sign (+) appended to the list of permissions indicates that an
       ACL is associated with the file.

       When the	sizes of the files in a	directory are listed, a	total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks, is printed.

       The following options are supported:

       -a	Lists  all  entries;  in  the  absence of this option, entries
		whose names begin with a `.' are not listed  (except  for  the
		privileged  user,  for whom ls normally	prints even files that
		begin with a `.').

       -A	Same as	-a, except that	`.' and	`..' are not listed.

       -c	Uses time of last edit (or last	mode change)  for  sorting  or

       -C	Forces	multi-column output, with entries sorted down the col-
		umns; for ls, this is the default when output is to  a	termi-

       -d	If  argument is	a directory, lists only	its name (not its con-
		tents);	often used with	-l to get the status of	a directory.

       -f	Forces each argument to	be  interpreted	 as  a	directory  and
		lists  the  name found in each slot. This option turns off -l,
		-t, -s,	and -r,	and turns on -a; the order  is	the  order  in
		which entries appear in	the directory.

       -F	Marks  directories  with  a  trailing  slash (/), doors	with a
		trailing greater-than sign (>),	executable files with a	trail-
		ing asterisk (*), FIFOs	with a trailing	vertical bar (|), sym-
		bolic links with a trailing at-sign (@), and  AF_UNIX  address
		family sockets with a trailing equals sign (=).

       -g	For  ls,  shows	the group ownership of the file	in a long out-

       -i	For each file, prints the i-node number	in the first column of
		the report.

       -l	Lists  in  long	format,	giving mode, ACL indication, number of
		links, owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
		each  file.  If	the file is a special file the size field will
		instead	contain	the major and minor  device  numbers.  If  the
		time  of  last modification is greater than six	months ago, it
		is shown in the	 format	 `month	 date  year';  files  modified
		within	six  months  show  `month date time'. If the file is a
		symbolic link, the pathname of the linked-to file  is  printed
		preceded by `-->'.

       -L	If  argument  is  a symbolic link, lists the file or directory
		the link references rather than	the link itself.

       -q	Displays non-graphic characters	in filenames as	the  character
		?; for ls, this	is the default when output is to a terminal.

       -r	Reverses the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or	oldest
		first as appropriate.

       -R	Recursively lists subdirectories encountered.

       -s	Indicate the total number of file system  blocks  consumed  by
		each file displayed.

       -t	Sorts by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.

       -u	Uses  time  of	last  access  instead of last modification for
		sorting	(with the -t option) and/or printing (with the -l  op-

       -1	Forces	one  entry per line output format; this	is the default
		when output is not to a	terminal.

       The following operand is	supported:

       file	A path name of a file to be listed. If the file	 specified  is
		not found, a diagnostic	message	is output on standard error.

       See largefile(5)	for the	description of the behavior of ls when encoun-
       tering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

       /etc/group	       to get group ID for `ls -g'

       /etc/passwd	       to get user IDs for `ls -l' and `ls -o'

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWscpu			   |

       ls(1), attributes(5), largefile(5)

       NEWLINE and TAB are considered printing characters in filenames.

       The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

       The option setting based	on whether the output is a teletype  is	 unde-
       sirable	as  `ls	-s' is much different than `ls -s | lpr'. On the other
       hand, not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which used ls
       almost certain losers.

       Unprintable  characters	in  file names can confuse the columnar	output

				  5 May	2005				ls(1B)


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