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LS(1)                                 FSF                                LS(1)

NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       -a, --all
              do not hide entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
              file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
              otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              control whether color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
              may be `never', `always', or `auto'

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

       --format=WORD
              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       -G, --no-group
              inhibit display of group information

       -h, --human-readable
              print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links on the command line

       --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
              none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

       -i, --inode
              print index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show
              information for the file the link references rather than for the
              link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters
              specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --file-type
              append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is
              `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v

              status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

       --time=WORD
              show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access,
              use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if
              --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,
              +FORMAT

              FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
              FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and
              FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-',
              STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access
              time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     sort by version

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of
       following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1,000,000, M 1,048,576, and so on for G,
       T, P, E, Z, Y.

       By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
       optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always.  With
       --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is
       connected to a terminal (tty).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info ls

       should give you access to the complete manual.

ls (coreutils) 4.5.3             February 2003                           LS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | REPORTING BUGS | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO

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