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LS(1)			    General Commands Manual			 LS(1)

       ls, lc -	list contents of directory

       ls [ -dlmnpqrstuFQ ] name ...

       lc [ -dlmnpqrstuFQ ] name ...

       For  each  directory  argument, ls lists	the contents of	the directory;
       for each	file argument, ls repeats its name and any  other  information
       requested.  When	no argument is given, the current directory is listed.
       By default, the output is sorted	alphabetically by name.

       Lc is the same as ls, but sets the  -p  option  and  pipes  the	output

       There are a number of options:

       -d     If argument is a directory, list it, not its contents.

       -l     List  in	long format, giving mode (see below), file system type
	      (e.g., for devices, the #	code letter that names it; see the in-
	      stance  or  subdevice  number,  owner, group, size in bytes, and
	      time of last modification	for each file.

       -m     List the name of the user	who most recently modified the file.

       -n     Don't sort the listing.

       -p     Print only the final path	element	of each	file name.

       -q     List the qid (see	of each	file; the printed fields  are  in  the
	      order path, version, and type.

       -r     Reverse the order	of sort.

       -s     Give size	in Kbytes for each entry.

       -t     Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.

       -u     Under  -t	 sort  by  time	of last	access;	under -l print time of
	      last access.

       -F     Add the character	/ after	all directory names and	the  character
	      *	after all executable files.

       -L     Print  the  character t before each file if it has the temporary
	      flag set,	and - otherwise.

       -Q     By default, printed file names are quoted	if they	contain	 char-
	      acters special to	The -Q flag disables this behavior.

       The  mode  printed  under  the -l option	contains 11 characters,	inter-
       preted as follows: the first character is

       d      if the entry is a	directory;

       a      if the entry is an append-only file;

       D      if the entry is a	Unix device;

       L      if the entry is a	symbolic link;

       P      if the entry is a	named pipe;

       S      if the entry is a	socket;

       -      if the entry is a	plain file.

       The next	letter is l if the file	is exclusive  access  (one  writer  or
       reader at a time).

       The last	9 characters are interpreted as	three sets of three bits each.
       The first set refers to owner permissions; the next to  permissions  to
       others in the same user-group; and the last to all others.  Within each
       set the three characters	indicate permission respectively to  read,  to
       write, or to execute the	file as	a program.  For	a directory, `execute'
       permission is interpreted to mean permission to	search	the  directory
       for a specified file.  The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r  if the file is readable;
       w  if the file is writable;
       x  if the file is executable;
       -  if none of the above permissions is granted.




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