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LS(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 LS(1)

     ls	-- list	directory contents

     ls	[-ABCFHLPRTWabcdfgikloqrstu1] [file ...]

     For each operand that names a file	of a type other	than directory,	ls
     displays its name as well as any requested, associated information.  For
     each operand that names a file of type directory, ls displays the names
     of	files contained	within that directory, as well as any requested, asso-
     ciated information.

     If	no operands are	given, the contents of the current directory are dis-
     played.  If more than one operand is given, non-directory operands	are
     displayed first; directory	and non-directory operands are sorted sepa-
     rately and	in lexicographical order.

     The following options are available:

     -A	     List all entries except for `.' and `..'.	Always set for the su-

     -B	     Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as \xxx,
	     where xxx is the numeric value of the character in	octal.

     -C	     Force multi-column	output;	this is	the default when output	is to
	     a terminal.

     -F	     Display a slash (/) immediately after each	pathname that is a di-
	     rectory, an asterisk (*) after each that is executable, an	at
	     sign (@) after each symbolic link,	an equals sign (=) after each
	     socket, a percent sign (%)	after each whiteout, and a vertical
	     bar (|) after each	that is	a FIFO.

     -H	     Symbolic links on the command line	are followed.  This option is
	     assumed if	none of	the -F,	-d, or -l options are specified.

     -L	     If	argument is a symbolic link, list the file or directory	the
	     link references rather than the link itself. This option cancels
	     the -P option.

     -P	     If	argument is a symbolic link, list the link itself rather than
	     the object	the link references.  This option cancels the -H and
	     -L	options.

     -R	     Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -T	     Display complete time information for the file, including month,
	     day, hour,	minute,	second,	and year.

     -W	     Display whiteouts when scanning directories.

     -a	     Include directory entries whose names begin with a	dot (.).

     -b	     As	-B, but	use C escape codes whenever possible.

     -c	     Use time when file	status was last	changed	for sorting or print-

     -d	     Directories are listed as plain files (not	searched recursively).

     -f	     Output is not sorted.

     -g	     This option is deprecated and is only available for compatibility
	     with 4.3BSD; it was used to display the group name	in the long
	     (-l) format output.

     -i	     For each file, print the file's file serial number	(inode num-

     -k	     If	the -s option is specified, print the file size	allocation in
	     kilobytes,	not blocks.  This option overrides the environment
	     variable BLOCKSIZE.

     -l	     (The lowercase letter ``ell.'')  List in long format. (See	be-
	     low.)  If the output is to	a terminal, a total sum	for all	the
	     file sizes	is output on a line before the long listing.

     -o	     Include the file flags in a long (-l) output.

     -q	     Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as the
	     character `?'; this is the	default	when output is to a terminal.

     -r	     Reverse the order of the sort to get reverse lexicographical or-
	     der or the	oldest entries first.

     -s	     Display the number	of file	system blocks actually used by each
	     file, in units of 512 bytes, where	partial	units are rounded up
	     to	the next integer value.	 If the	output is to a terminal, a to-
	     tal sum for all the file sizes is output on a line	before the
	     listing.  The environment variable	BLOCKSIZE overrides the	unit
	     size of 512 bytes.

     -t	     Sort by time modified (most recently modified first) before sort-
	     ing the operands by lexicographical order.

     -u	     Use time of last access, instead of last modification of the file
	     for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

     -1	     (The numeric digit	``one.'')  Force output	to be one entry	per
	     line.  This is the	default	when output is not to a	terminal.

     The -1, -C, and -l	options	all override each other; the last one speci-
     fied determines the format	used.

     The -c and	-u options override each other;	the last one specified deter-
     mines the file time used.

     The -B, -b	and -q options all override each other;	the last one specified
     determines	the format used	for non-printable characters.

     The -H, -L	and -P options all override each other (either partially or
     fully); they are applied in the order specified.

     By	default, ls lists one entry per	line to	standard output; the excep-
     tions are to terminals or when the	-C option is specified.

     File information is displayed with	one or more <blank>s separating	the
     information associated with the -i, -s, and -l options.

   The Long Format
     If	the -l option is given,	the following information is displayed for
     each file:	file mode, number of links, owner name,	group name, number of
     bytes in the file,	abbreviated month, day-of-month	file was last modi-
     fied, hour	file last modified, minute file	last modified, and the path-
     name.  In addition, for each directory whose contents are displayed, the
     total number of 512-byte blocks used by the files in the directory	is
     displayed on a line by itself immediately before the information for the
     files in the directory.

     If	the modification time of the file is more than 6 months	in the past or
     future, then the year of the last modification is displayed in place of
     the hour and minute fields.

     If	the owner or group names are not a known user or group name the	nu-
     meric ID's	are displayed.

     If	the file is a character	special	or block special file, the major and
     minor device numbers for the file are displayed in	the size field.	If the
     file is a symbolic	link the pathname of the linked-to file	is preceded by

     The file mode printed under the -l	option consists	of the entry type,
     owner permissions,	and group permissions.	The entry type character de-
     scribes the type of file, as follows:

	   b	 Block special file.
	   c	 Character special file.
	   d	 Directory.
	   l	 Symbolic link.
	   s	 Socket	link.
	   p	 FIFO.
	   -	 Regular file.

     The next three fields are three characters	each: owner permissions, group
     permissions, and other permissions.  Each field has three character posi-

	   1.	If r, the file is readable; if -, it is	not readable.

	   2.	If w, the file is writable; if -, it is	not writable.

	   3.	The first of the following that	applies:

		      S	    If in the owner permissions, the file is not exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is not executable and
			    set-group-ID mode is set.

		      s	    If in the owner permissions, the file is exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is executable and set-
			    group-ID mode is set.

		      x	    The	file is	executable or the directory is search-

		      -	    The	file is	neither	readable, writable, exe-
			    cutable, nor set-user-ID nor set-group-ID mode,
			    nor	sticky.	(See below.)

		These next two apply only to the third character in the	last
		group (other permissions).

		      T	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), but not execute
			    or search permission. (See chmod(1)	or sticky(8).)

		      t	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), and is search-
			    able or executable.	 (See chmod(1) or sticky(8).)

     The ls utility exits 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ls:

     BLOCKSIZE	If the environment variable BLOCKSIZE is set, the block	counts
		(see -s) will be displayed in units of that size block.

     COLUMNS	If this	variable contains a string representing	a decimal in-
		teger, it is used as the column	position width for displaying
		multiple-text-column output.  The ls utility calculates	how
		many pathname text columns to display based on the width pro-
		vided.	(See -C.)

     TZ		The timezone to	use when displaying dates.  See	environ(7) for
		more information.

		If this	variable is set, it is considered to be	a colon-delim-
		ited list of minimum column widths.  Unreasonable and insuffi-
		cient widths are ignored (thus zero signifies a	dynamically
		sized column).	Not all	columns	have changeable	widths.	 The
		fields are, in order: inode, block count, number of links,
		user name, group name, flags, file size, file name.

     The group field is	now automatically included in the long listing for
     files in order to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2")

     chflags(1), chmod(1), symlink(7), sticky(8)

     An	ls command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

     The ls function is	expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2
     ("POSIX.2") specification.

     To	maintain backward compatibility, the relationships between the many
     options is	quite complex.

BSD				 July 29, 1994				   BSD


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