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LS(1)				 User Commands				 LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information  about	 the FILEs (the	current	directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX	nor --sort  is	speci-

       Mandatory  arguments  to	 long  options are mandatory for short options

       -a, --all
	      do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and	..

	      with -l, print the author	of each	file

       -b, --escape
	      print C-style escapes for	nongraphic characters

	      scale sizes by SIZE before printing them;	e.g., '--block-size=M'
	      prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes;	see SIZE format	below

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt:	sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
	      file status information);	with -l: show ctime and	sort by	 name;
	      otherwise: sort by ctime,	newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

	      colorize	the  output;  WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always'
	      (the default); more info below

       -d, --directory
	      list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired	mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

	      likewise,	except do not append '*'

	      across -x, commas	-m, horizontal -x, long	-l, single-column  -1,
	      verbose -l, vertical -C

	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

	      group directories	before files;

	      can   be	augmented  with	 a  --sort  option,  but  any  use  of
	      --sort=none (-U) disables	grouping

       -G, --no-group
	      in a long	listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
	      with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise,	but use	powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links listed on the command line

	      follow each command line symbolic	link

	      that points to a directory

	      do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
	      by -a or -A)

	      append indicator with style WORD to entry	names: none (default),
	      slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
	      print the	index number of	each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
	      default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when showing file	information for	a symbolic link, show informa-
	      tion  for	 the file the link references rather than for the link

       -m     fill width with a	comma separated	list of	entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list	numeric	user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
	      print raw	entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters  spe-

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
	      append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of nongraphic characters

	      show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
	      'ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

	      use quoting style	WORD for entry names: literal, locale,	shell,
	      shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print the	allocated size of each file, in	blocks

       -S     sort by file size

	      sort  by	WORD instead of	name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
	      version (-v), extension (-X)

	      with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
	      atime or access or use (-u) ctime	or status (-c);	also use spec-
	      ified time as sort key if	--sort=time

	      with -l, show times using	style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
	      locale,  or  +FORMAT;  FORMAT  is	interpreted like in 'date'; if
	      FORMAT  is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  then  FORMAT1  applies  to
	      non-recent  files	 and FORMAT2 to	recent files; if STYLE is pre-
	      fixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside  the	 POSIX

       -t     sort by modification time, newest	first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show	access
	      time and sort by name; otherwise:	sort by	access time

       -U     do not sort; list	entries	in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version)	numbers	within text

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
	      print any	security context of each file

       -1     list one file per	line

       --help display this help	and exit

	      output version information and exit

       The SIZE	argument is an integer and  optional  unit  (example:  10K  is
       10*1024).   Units  are  K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y	(powers	 of 1024) or KB,MB,...
       (powers of 1000).

       Using color to distinguish file types is	disabled both by  default  and
       with  --color=never.  With --color=auto,	ls emits color codes only when
       standard	output is connected to a terminal.  The	LS_COLORS  environment
       variable	can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit	status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems	(e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g.,	cannot access command-line argument).

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David	MacKenzie.

       GNU coreutils online help: <>
       Report ls translation bugs to <>

       Copyright  (C) 2014 Free	Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or	later <>.
       This is free software: you are free  to	change	and  redistribute  it.
       There is	NO WARRANTY, to	the extent permitted by	law.

       Full documentation at: <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'

GNU coreutils 8.23		  March	2015				 LS(1)


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