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LS(1)									 LS(1)

NAME
       ls - list contents of directory

SYNOPSIS
       ls [ -1AaCcdFfgikLlqRrstu ] [ file ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       For  each  directory  argument, ls lists	the contents of	the directory;
       for each	file argument, ls repeats its name and any  other  information
       requested.   By	default, the output is sorted alphabetically.  When no
       argument	is given, the current directory	is listed.  When several argu-
       ments are given,	the arguments are first	sorted appropriately, but file
       arguments are processed before directories and their contents.

       The options are as follows:

       -1     force one	entry per line output format; this is the default when
	      output is	not to a terminal.

       -A     List  all	 entries  except for ``.'' and ``..''.	Always set for
	      the super-user.

       -a     List all entries;	in the absence of this option,	entries	 whose
	      names begin with a period	(.)  are not listed.

       -C     force multi-column output; this is the default when output is to
	      a	terminal.

       -c     Use time when file status	was last changed for sorting or	print-
	      ing.

       -d     If  argument is a	directory, list	only its name; often used with
	      -l to get	the status of a	directory.

       -f     Don't sort the output.

       -F     cause directories	to be marked with a trailing `/', sockets with
	      a	 trailing  `=',	 symbolic  links with a	trailing `@', and exe-
	      cutable files with a trailing `*'.

       -g     Include the group	ownership of the file in a long	output.

       -i     For each file, print the i-number	in the	first  column  of  the
	      report.

       -k     Modifies	the  -s	 option,  causing  the sizes to	be reported in
	      kilobytes.

       -L     If argument is a symbolic	link, list the file or	directory  the
	      link references rather than the link itself.

       -l     List  in	long  format,  giving  type  and  mode	(in the	format
	      described	by strmode(3)),	number of links, owner,	size in	bytes,
	      and  time	 of last modification for each file.  If the file is a
	      special file the size field will instead contain the  major  and
	      minor  device numbers.  If the file is a symbolic	link the path-
	      name of the linked-to file is printed preceded by	``->''.

       -q     force printing of	non-graphic characters in file	names  as  the
	      character	`?'; this is the default when output is	to a terminal.

       -R     recursively list subdirectories encountered.

       -r     Reverse the order	of sort	to get reverse	alphabetic  or	oldest
	      first as appropriate.

       -s     Display the sizes	of files and directories in 512-byte blocks.

       -t     Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.

       -u     Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
	      (with the	-t option) and/or printing (with the -l	option).

       The -1, -C, and -l options all override each other; the last one	speci-
       fied determines the format used.

       The  -c,	 and  -u  options  override each other;	the last one specified
       determines the file time	used.

       When the	sizes of the files in a	directory are listed, a	total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

FILES
       /etc/passwd to get user id's for	`ls -l'.
       /etc/group to get group id's for	`ls -g'.

BUGS
       The  option  setting based on whether the output	is a teletype is unde-
       sirable as ``ls -s'' is much different than  ``ls -s | lpr''.   On  the
       other  hand,  not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which
       used ls almost certain losers.

3rd Berkeley Distribution	      1Q				 LS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | BUGS

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