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LS(1)				      FSF				 LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information  about	 the FILEs (the	current	directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are	mandatory  for	short  options

       -a, --all
	      do not hide entries starting with	.

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and	..

	      print the	author of each file

       -b, --escape
	      print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

	      use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt:	sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
	      file status information) with -l:	show ctime and	sort  by  name
	      otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

	      control  whether	color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
	      may be `never', `always',	or `auto'

       -d, --directory
	      list directory entries instead of	contents

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired	mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

	      across -x, commas	-m, horizontal -x, long	-l, single-column  -1,
	      verbose -l, vertical -C

	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       -G, --no-group
	      inhibit display of group information

       -h, --human-readable
	      print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise,	but use	powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links on the command line

       --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry	names:
	      none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

       -i, --inode
	      print index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when showing file	information for	a symbolic link, show informa-
	      tion for the file	the link references rather than	for  the  link

       -m     fill width with a	comma separated	list of	entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list	numeric	UIDs and GIDs

       -N, --literal
	      print  raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe-

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --file-type
	      append indicator (one of /=@|) to	entries

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of non graphic characters

	      show non graphic characters as-is	 (default  unless  program  is
	      `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

	      use  quoting style WORD for entry	names: literal,	locale,	shell,
	      shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

	      extension	-X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v

	      status -c, time -t, atime	-u, access -u, use -u

	      show time	as WORD	instead	of modification	time:  atime,  access,
	      use,  ctime  or  status;	use  specified	time  as  sort	key if

	      show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,	 iso,  locale,

	      FORMAT  is  interpreted  like  `date'; if	FORMAT is FORMAT1<new-
	      line>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files	and FORMAT2 to
	      recent  files;  if  STYLE	is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE takes
	      effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt:	sort by, and show, access time with  -l:  show	access
	      time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list	entries	in directory order

       -v     sort by version

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per	line

       --help display this help	and exit

	      output version information and exit

       SIZE  may  be (or may be	an integer optionally followed by) one of fol-
       lowing: kB 1000,	K 1024,	MB 1,000,000, M	1,048,576, and so on for G, T,
       P, E, Z,	Y.

       By  default,  color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using	the --color option without the
       optional	 WHEN  argument	 is  equivalent	to using --color=always.  With
       --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard  output  is  con-
       nected to a terminal (tty).

       Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not	even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR	 A  PARTICULAR

       The  full  documentation	 for ls	is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info	and ls programs	are properly installed at your site, the  com-

	      info ls

       should give you access to the complete manual.

ls (coreutils) 4.5.3		 February 2003				 LS(1)


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