Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
LS(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 LS(1)

NAME
     ls	-- list	directory contents

SYNOPSIS
     ls	[-AaBbCcdFfghikLlMmnopqRrSsTtuWwx1] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     For each operand that names a file	of a type other	than directory,	ls
     displays its name as well as any requested, associated information.  For
     each operand that names a file of type directory, ls displays the names
     of	files contained	within that directory, as well as any requested, asso-
     ciated information.

     If	no operands are	given, the contents of the current directory are dis-
     played.  If more than one operand is given, non-directory operands	are
     displayed first; directory	and non-directory operands are sorted sepa-
     rately and	in lexicographical order.

     The following options are available:

     -A	     List all entries except for `.' and `..'.	Always set for the su-
	     per-user.

     -a	     Include directory entries whose names begin with a	dot (`.').

     -B	     Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as \xxx,
	     where xxx is the numeric value of the character in	octal.

     -b	     As	-B, but	use C escape codes whenever possible.

     -C	     Force multi-column	output;	this is	the default when output	is to
	     a terminal.

     -c	     Use time when file	status was last	changed, instead of time of
	     last modification of the file for sorting (-t) or printing	(-l).

     -d	     Directories are listed as plain files (not	searched recursively)
	     and symbolic links	in the argument	list are not followed.

     -F	     Display a slash (`/') immediately after each pathname that	is a
	     directory,	an asterisk (`*') after	each that is executable, an at
	     sign (`@')	after each symbolic link, a percent sign (`%') after
	     each whiteout, an equal sign (`=')	after each socket, and a ver-
	     tical bar (`|') after each	that is	a FIFO.

     -f	     Output is not sorted.

     -g	     The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.

     -h	     Modifies the -s and -l options, causing the sizes to be reported
	     in	bytes displayed	in a human readable format.  Overrides -k and
	     -M.

     -i	     For each file, print the file's file serial number	(inode num-
	     ber).

     -k	     Modifies the -s option, causing the sizes to be reported in kilo-
	     bytes.  The rightmost of the -k and -h flags overrides the	previ-
	     ous flag.	See also -h and	-M.

     -L	     For each file, if it's a link, evaluate file information and file
	     type of the referenced file and not the link itself; however
	     still print the link name,	unless used with -l, for example.

     -l	     (The lowercase letter "ell").  List in long format.  (See below.)
	     A total sum for all the file sizes	is output on a line before the
	     long listing.

     -M	     Modifies the -l and -s options, causing the sizes or block	counts
	     reported to be separated with commas (or a	locale appropriate
	     separator)	resulting in a more readable output.  Overrides	-h.
	     Does not override -k.

     -m	     Stream output format; list	files across the page, separated by
	     commas.

     -n	     The same as -l, except that the owner and group IDs are displayed
	     numerically rather	than converting	to a owner or group name.

     -o	     Include the file flags in a long (-l) output.  If no file flags
	     are set, "-" is displayed.	 (See chflags(1) for a list of possi-
	     ble flags and their meanings.)

     -p	     Display a slash (`/') immediately after each pathname that	is a
	     directory.

     -q	     Force printing of non-printable characters	in file	names as the
	     character `?'; this is the	default	when output is to a terminal.

     -R	     Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -r	     Reverse the order of the sort to get reverse lexicographical or-
	     der or the	smallest or oldest entries first.

     -S	     Sort by size, largest file	first.

     -s	     Display the number	of file	system blocks actually used by each
	     file, in units of 512 bytes or BLOCKSIZE (see ENVIRONMENT)	where
	     partial units are rounded up to the next integer value.  If the
	     output is to a terminal, a	total sum for all the file sizes is
	     output on a line before the listing.

     -T	     When used with the	-l (the	lowercase letter "ell")	option,	dis-
	     play complete time	information for	the file, including month,
	     day, hour,	minute,	second,	and year.

     -t	     Sort by time modified (most recently modified first) before sort-
	     ing the operands by lexicographical order.

     -u	     Use time of last access, instead of last modification of the file
	     for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

     -W	     Display whiteouts when scanning directories.

     -w	     Force raw printing	of non-printable characters.  This is the de-
	     fault when	output is not to a terminal.

     -x	     Multi-column output sorted	across the page	rather than down the
	     page.

     -1	     (The numeric digit	"one").	 Force output to be one	entry per
	     line.  This is the	default	when output is not to a	terminal.

     The -B, -b, -w, and -q options all	override each other; the last one
     specified determines the format used for non-printable characters.

     The -1, -C, -g, -l, -m, and -x options all	override each other; the last
     one specified determines the format used with the exception that if both
     -l	and -g are specified, -l will always override -g, even if -g was spec-
     ified last.

     The -c and	-u options override each other;	the last one specified deter-
     mines the file time used.

     By	default, ls lists one entry per	line to	standard output; the excep-
     tions are to terminals or when the	-C or -m options are specified.

     File information is displayed with	one or more <blank> separating the in-
     formation associated with the -i, -s, and -l options.

   The Long Format
     If	the -l option is given,	the following information is displayed for
     each file:
	   file	mode
	   number of links
	   owner name
	   group name
	   file	flags (if -o given)
	   number of bytes in the file
	   abbreviated month file was last modified
	   day-of-month	file was last modified
	   hour	and minute file	was last modified
	   pathname

     In	addition, for each directory whose contents are	displayed, the total
     number of 512-byte	blocks used by the files in the	directory is displayed
     on	a line by itself immediately before the	information for	the files in
     the directory.

     If	the owner or group names are not a known owner or group	name, or the
     -n	option is given, the numeric ID's are displayed.

     If	the file is a character	special	or block special file, the major and
     minor device numbers for the file are displayed in	the size field.	 If
     the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is pre-
     ceded by "->".

     The file mode printed under the -l	option consists	of the entry type,
     owner permissions,	group permissions, and other permissions.  The entry
     type character describes the type of file,	as follows:

	   a	 Archive state 1.
	   A	 Archive state 2.
	   b	 Block special file.
	   c	 Character special file.
	   d	 Directory.
	   l	 Symbolic link.
	   s	 Socket	link.
	   p	 FIFO.
	   w	 Whiteout.
	   -	 Regular file.

     The next three fields are three characters	each: owner permissions, group
     permissions, and other permissions.  Each field has three character posi-
     tions:

	   1.	If r, the file is readable; if -, it is	not readable.

	   2.	If w, the file is writable; if -, it is	not writable.

	   3.	The first of the following that	applies:

		      S	    If in the owner permissions, the file is not exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is not executable and
			    set-group-ID mode is set.

		      s	    If in the owner permissions, the file is exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is executable and set-
			    group-ID mode is set.

		      x	    The	file is	executable or the directory is search-
			    able.

		      -	    The	file is	neither	readable, writable, exe-
			    cutable, nor set-user-ID nor set-group-ID mode,
			    nor	sticky.	 (See below.)

		These next two apply only to the third character in the	last
		group (other permissions).

		      T	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), but not execute
			    or search permission.  (See	chmod(1) or
			    sticky(7).)

		      t	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), and is search-
			    able or executable.	 (See chmod(1) or sticky(7).)

     The number	of bytes displayed for a directory is a	function of the	number
     of	dirent(3) structures in	the directory, not all of which	may be allo-
     cated to any existing file.

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ls:

     BLOCKSIZE	If the environment variable BLOCKSIZE is set, and the -h and
		-k options are not specified, the block	counts (see -s)	will
		be displayed in	units of that size block.

     COLUMNS	If this	variable contains a string representing	a decimal in-
		teger, it is used as the column	position width for displaying
		multiple-text-column output.  The ls utility calculates	how
		many pathname text columns to display based on the width pro-
		vided.	(See -C.)

     TZ		The timezone to	use when displaying dates.  See	environ(7) for
		more information.

EXIT STATUS
     The ls utility exits 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

COMPATIBILITY
     The group field is	now automatically included in the long listing for
     files in order to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2")
     specification.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), stat(2), dirent(3), getbsize(3), sticky(7),
     symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The ls utility is expected	to be a	superset of the	IEEE Std 1003.2
     ("POSIX.2") specification.

HISTORY
     An	ls utility appeared in Version 5 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				 April 2, 2011				   BSD

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | ENVIRONMENT | EXIT STATUS | COMPATIBILITY | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ls&sektion=1&manpath=NetBSD+6.0>

home | help