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ls(1)									 ls(1)

NAME
       ls, lc, l, ll, lsf, lsr,	lsx - list contents of directories

SYNOPSIS
       [names]

       [names]

       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       For  each  directory  argument,	the  command lists the contents	of the
       directory.  For each file argument, repeats  its	 name  and  any	 other
       information  requested.	 The  output  is sorted	in ascending collation
       order by	default	(see Environment Variables below).  When  no  argument
       is  given, the current directory	is listed.  When several arguments are
       given, the arguments are	first sorted appropriately, but	file arguments
       appear before directories and their contents.

       If you are a user with appropriate privileges, all files	except and are
       listed by default.

       There are three major listing formats.  The format  chosen  depends  on
       whether	the  output  is	going to a login device	(determined by whether
       output device file is a device),	and can	also be	controlled  by	option
       flags.	The  default format for	a login	device is to list the contents
       of directories in multicolumn format, with entries sorted vertically by
       column.	 (When	individual  file names (as opposed to directory	names)
       appear in the argument list, those file names are always	sorted	across
       the  page  rather than down the page in columns because individual file
       names can be arbitrarily	long.)	If the standard	output is not a	 login
       device,	the  default  format  is  to list one entry per	line.  The and
       options enable multicolumn formats, and the option enables stream  out-
       put format in which files are listed across the page, separated by com-
       mas.  In	order to determine output formats for the and options, uses an
       environment  variable,  to  determine the number	of character positions
       available on each output	line.  If this variable	is not set, the	 data-
       base  is	used to	determine the number of	columns, based on the environ-
       ment variable If	this information cannot	be  obtained,  80  columns  is
       assumed.

       The  command  functions	the  same as except that the default output is
       columnar, even if output	is redirected.

   Options
       recognizes the following	options:

	      List all entries;	usually	 entries  whose	 names	begin  with  a
	      period
		     are not listed.

	      List nonprinting characters in the octal
		     notation.

	      Use time of last modification of the inode
		     (file created, mode changed, etc.)	for sorting or	print-
		     ing (ell)).

	      If  an argument is a directory, list only	its name (not its con-
	      tents);
		     often used	with (ell) to get the status of	a directory.

	      List the extent attributes of the	file.
		     If	 any  of the files has a extent	attribute, this	option
		     lists the extent  size,  space  reserved  and  allocation
		     flags.  This option must be used with the (ell) option.

	      Interpret	each argument as a directory
		     and  list	the name found in each slot.  This option dis-
		     ables (ell), and and enables the order is	the  order  in
		     which entries appear in the directory.

	      Same as
		     (ell),  except  that  only	the group is printed (owner is
		     omitted).	If both	(ell) and are specified, the owner  is
		     not printed.

	      For  each	file, list the inode number in the first column	of the
	      report.
		     When  used	in multicolumn output, the number precedes the
		     file name in each column.

	      (ell) List in long format, giving	mode, number of	links,
		     owner, group, size	in bytes, and time of  last  modifica-
		     tion  for	each  file (see	further	DESCRIPTION and	Access
		     Control Lists below).  If the time	of  last  modification
		     is	 greater  than	six  months  ago,  or  any time	in the
		     future, the year is substituted for the hour  and	minute
		     of	the modification time.	If the file is a special file,
		     the size field contains the major and minor  device  num-
		     bers rather than a	size.  If the file is a	symbolic link,
		     the filename is printed, followed by and the pathname  of
		     the referenced file.

	      Stream output format.

	      The same as
		     (ell) except that the owner's UID and group's GID numbers
		     are  printed,  rather  than  the	associated   character
		     strings.

	      The same as
		     (ell)  except  that  only	the owner is printed (group is
		     omitted).	(If both (ell) and are specified, the group is
		     not printed).

	      Put a slash
		     after each	file name if that file is a directory.

	      List nonprinting characters in file names	as the character

	      Reverse the order	of sort	to get reverse (descending) collation
		     or	oldest first, as appropriate.

	      List  size in blocks, including indirect blocks, for each	entry.
		     The  first	 entry listed is the total number of blocks in
		     the directory.  When used in multicolumn output, the num-
		     ber of blocks precedes the	file name in each column.  The
		     number of indirect	blocks in a file is filesystem	depen-
		     dent.

	      Sort  by	time modified (latest first) before sorting alphabeti-
	      cally.

	      Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
		     option) or	printing (ell) option).

	      List  multicolumn	 output	with entries sorted across rather than
	      down the page.

	      The same as
		     except  that  the	current	directory and parent directory
		     are not listed.  For a user with appropriate  privileges,
		     this flag defaults	to on, and is turned off by

	      List multicolumn output with entries sorted down the columns.

	      After each file name, put	one of:

		     o	A  slash if the	file is	a directory or a symbolic link
			to a directory.
		     o	An asterisk if the file	is executable;
		     o	An at-sign if the file is a symbolic link to a file;
		     o	A vertical bar if the file is a	fifo.

	      Evaluate the file	information and	file  type  for	 all  symbolic
	      links
		     (whether named on the command line	or  encountered	 in  a
		     file hierarchy) to	be those of the	file referenced	by the
		     link, and not the link itself. However, shall  write  the
		     name  of  the  link itself	and not	the file referenced by
		     the link.	When is	used with write	the contents  of  sym-
		     bolic links in the	long format.

	      Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

	      (one) List the file names	in single column format
		     regardless	of the output device.  This forces single col-
		     umn format	to the user's terminal.

       Specifying more than one	of  the	 options  in  the  following  mutually
       exclusive  pairs	 is not	considered an error: and (ell),	and (ell), and
       (ell), and (one), and and

       is known	by several shorthand-version names for the various formats:

	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to
		     (ell)
	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to

       The shorthand notations are implemented as links	to Option arguments to
       the  shorthand  versions	 behave	 exactly as if the long	form above had
       been used with the additional arguments.	 The mode printed in  listings
       produced	by the (ell) option consists of	10 characters, for example,

       The first character indicates the entry type:

	      Block special file
	      Character	special	file
	      Directory
	      Symbolic link
	      Network special file
	      Fifo (also called	a "named pipe")	special	file
	      Socket
	      Ordinary file

       The next	9 characters are interpreted as	three sets of three characters
       each which identify access and execution	 permissions  for  the	owner,
       group,  and others categories, as described in chmod(1).	 The indicates
       the permission is not granted.  The  various  permissions  can  be  put
       together	 in  any combination, except that the and characters are mutu-
       ally exclusive, as implied below.

	      Read by owner
	      Write by owner
	      Execute (or search directory) by owner; do not set  user	ID  on
	      execution
	      Execute/search by	owner; set user	ID on execution
	      No execute/search	by owner; set user ID on execution
	      Read by group
	      Write by group
	      Execute/search by	group; do not set group	ID on execution
	      Execute/search by	group; set group ID on execution
	      No execute/search	by group; set group ID on execution
	      Read by others
	      Write by others
	      Execute/search by	others;	do not set sticky bit on execution
	      Execute/search by	others;	set sticky bit on execution
	      No execute/search	by others; set sticky bit on execution

       The mode	characters are interpreted as follows:

	      Deny all permissions in the corresponding	position.

	      Grant read permission to the corresponding user class.

	      Grant write permission to	the corresponding user class.

	      Grant execute (or	search in directory) permission
		     to	the corresponding user class.

	      Grant execute (search)  permission  to  the  corresponding  user
	      class.
		     Execute the file as if by the owner (set user  ID,	 SUID)
		     or	 group (set group ID, SGID), as	indicated by position.

	      Deny execute  (search)  permission  to  the  corresponding  user
	      class.
		     Execute the file as if by the owner (set user  ID,	 SUID)
		     or	 group (set group ID, SGID), as	indicated by position.

	      Grant execute (search) permission	to others.
		     The "sticky" (save	 text  image)  bit  is	set  (see  the
		     description of in chmod(2)).

	      Deny execute (search directory) permission to others.
		     The "sticky" (save	text image) bit	is set.

       When  an	 option	 is  specified	that results in	a listing of directory
       and/or file sizes in bytes or blocks (such as the or (ell)  option),  a
       total  count  of	 blocks, including indirect blocks, is also printed at
       the beginning of	the listing.

   Access Control Lists	(ACLs)
       If a file has optional ACL entries, the (ell) option  displays  a  plus
       sign after the file's permissions.  The permissions shown are a summary
       representation of the file's access control list, as returned by	in the
       field  (see  stat(2)).  To list the contents of an access control list,
       use the command (see lsacl(1) and acl(5)) for HFS file systems, or  the
       command (see getacl(1) and aclv(5)) for JFS file	systems.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   Environment Variables
       If  the	variable  is set, uses the width provided in determining posi-
       tioning of columnar output.

       determines the locale to	use for	the locale categories  when  both  and
       the corresponding environment variable (beginning with do not specify a
       locale.	If is not set or is null, it defaults to (see lang(5)).

       determines the order in which the output	is sorted.

       determines which	characters are classified as nonprinting for  the  and
       options,	 and the interpretation	of single- and/or multibyte characters
       within file names.

       determines the date and time strings output by the (ell), and  options.

       determines the language in which	messages (other	than the date and time
       strings)	are displayed.

       If any internationalization variable contains an	invalid	setting,  they
       all default to (see environ(5)).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

RETURN VALUE
       exits with one of the following values:

	      All input	files were listed successfully.

	      was aborted because errors occurred when accessing files.
		     The following conditions cause an error:

		     o	Specified file not found.
		     o	User has no permission to read the directory.
		     o	Process	could not get enough memory.
		     o	Invalid	option specified.

EXAMPLES
       Print  a	long listing of	all the	files in the current working directory
       (including the file sizes).  List the most recently modified (youngest)
       file  first, followed by	the next older file, and so forth, to the old-
       est.  Files whose names begin with a are	also printed.

WARNINGS
       Setting options based on	whether	the output is a	login (tty) device  is
       undesirable because is very different from On the other hand, not using
       this setting makes old shell scripts that used almost inevitably	 fail.

       Nonprinting  characters in file names (without the or option) may cause
       columnar	output to be misaligned.

DEPENDENCIES
   NFS
       The (ell) option	does not display a plus	sign after the access  permis-
       sion  bits of networked files to	represent existence of optional	access
       control list entries.

AUTHOR
       was developed by	AT&T, the University of	California, Berkeley and HP.

FILES
       For group IDs for	     (ell) and
       For user	IDs for		     (ell) and
       For terminal information.

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), find(1), getacl(1), lsacl(1), stat(2),	acl(5),	aclv(5).

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
									 ls(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | RETURN VALUE | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | DEPENDENCIES | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

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