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ls(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ls(1)

NAME
       ls, lc, l, ll, lsf, lsr,	lsx - list contents of directories

SYNOPSIS
       [names]

       [names]

       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]
       [ls_options] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       For  each directory argument, the command lists the contents of the di-
       rectory.	 For each file argument, repeats its name and any other	infor-
       mation requested.  The output is	sorted in ascending collation order by
       default (see Environment	Variables below).  When	no argument is	given,
       the current directory is	listed.	 When several arguments	are given, the
       arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file arguments appear be-
       fore directories	and their contents.

       If you are a user with appropriate privileges, all files	except and are
       listed by default.

       There are three major listing formats.  The format  chosen  depends  on
       whether	the  output  is	going to a login device	(determined by whether
       output device file is a device),	and can	also be	controlled  by	option
       flags.	The  default format for	a login	device is to list the contents
       of directories in multicolumn format, with entries sorted vertically by
       column.	 (When	individual  file names (as opposed to directory	names)
       appear in the argument list, those file names are always	sorted	across
       the  page  rather than down the page in columns because individual file
       names can be arbitrarily	long.)	If the standard	output is not a	 login
       device,	the default format is to list one entry	per line.  The and op-
       tions enable multicolumn	formats, and the option	enables	stream	output
       format  in which	files are listed across	the page, separated by commas.
       In order	to determine output formats for	the and	options, uses an envi-
       ronment variable, to determine the number of character positions	avail-
       able on each output line.  If this variable is not set, the database is
       used to determine the number of columns,	based on the environment vari-
       able If this information	cannot be obtained, 80 columns is assumed.

       The command functions the same as except	that  the  default  output  is
       columnar, even if output	is redirected.

   Options
       recognizes the following	options:

	      List  all	 entries; usually entries whose	names begin with a pe-
	      riod
		     are not listed.

	      List nonprinting characters in the octal
		     notation.

	      Use time of last modification of the inode
		     (file created, mode changed, etc.)	for sorting or	print-
		     ing (ell)).

	      If  an argument is a directory, list only	its name (not its con-
	      tents);
		     often used	with (ell) to get the status of	a directory.

	      List the extent attributes of the	file.
		     If	any of the files has a extent attribute,  this	option
		     lists  the	 extent	 size,	space  reserved	and allocation
		     flags.  This option must be used with the (ell) option.

	      Interpret	each argument as a directory
		     and list the name found in	each slot.  This  option  dis-
		     ables  (ell),  and	 and enables the order is the order in
		     which entries appear in the directory.

	      Same as
		     (ell), except that	only the group is  printed  (owner  is
		     omitted).	 If both (ell) and are specified, the owner is
		     not printed.

	      For each file, list the inode number in the first	column of  the
	      report.
		     When  used	in multicolumn output, the number precedes the
		     file name in each column.

	      (ell) List in long format, giving	mode, number of	links,
		     owner, group, size	in bytes, and time of  last  modifica-
		     tion  for	each  file (see	further	DESCRIPTION and	Access
		     Control Lists below).  If the time	of  last  modification
		     is	 greater  than	six months ago,	or any time in the fu-
		     ture, the year is substituted for the hour	and minute  of
		     the  modification	time.	If the file is a special file,
		     the size field contains the major and minor  device  num-
		     bers rather than a	size.  If the file is a	symbolic link,
		     the filename is printed, followed by and the pathname  of
		     the referenced file.

	      Stream output format.

	      The same as
		     (ell) except that the owner's UID and group's GID numbers
		     are  printed,  rather  than  the	associated   character
		     strings.

	      The same as
		     (ell)  except  that  only	the owner is printed (group is
		     omitted).	(If both (ell) and are specified, the group is
		     not printed).

	      Put a slash
		     after each	file name if that file is a directory.

	      List nonprinting characters in file names	as the character

	      Reverse the order	of sort	to get reverse (descending) collation
		     or	oldest first, as appropriate.

	      List size	in blocks, including indirect blocks, for each entry.
		     The  first	 entry listed is the total number of blocks in
		     the directory.  When used in multicolumn output, the num-
		     ber of blocks precedes the	file name in each column.  The
		     number of indirect	blocks in a file is filesystem	depen-
		     dent.

	      Sort  by	time modified (latest first) before sorting alphabeti-
	      cally.

	      Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
		     option) or	printing (ell) option).

	      List multicolumn output with entries sorted across  rather  than
	      down the page.

	      The same as
		     except  that  the	current	directory and parent directory
		     are not listed.  For a user with appropriate  privileges,
		     this flag defaults	to on, and is turned off by

	      List multicolumn output with entries sorted down the columns.

	      After each file name, put	one of:

		     o	A  slash if the	file is	a directory or a symbolic link
			to a directory.
		     o	An asterisk if the file	is executable;
		     o	An at-sign if the file is a symbolic link to a file;
		     o	A vertical bar if the file is a	fifo.

	      Evaluate the file	information and	file  type  for	 all  symbolic
	      links
		     (whether  named  on  the command line or encountered in a
		     file hierarchy) to	be those of the	file referenced	by the
		     link,  and	 not the link itself. However, shall write the
		     name of the link itself and not the  file	referenced  by
		     the  link.	  When is used with write the contents of sym-
		     bolic links in the	long format.

	      Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

	      (one) List the file names	in single column format
		     regardless	of the output device.  This forces single col-
		     umn format	to the user's terminal.

       Specifying  more	 than one of the options in the	following mutually ex-
       clusive pairs is	not considered an error: and  (ell),  and  (ell),  and
       (ell), and (one), and and

       is known	by several shorthand-version names for the various formats:

	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to
		     (ell)
	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to
	      is equivalent to

       The shorthand notations are implemented as links	to Option arguments to
       the shorthand versions behave exactly as	if the	long  form  above  had
       been  used with the additional arguments.  The mode printed in listings
       produced	by the (ell) option consists of	10 characters, for example,

       The first character indicates the entry type:

	      Block special file
	      Character	special	file
	      Directory
	      Symbolic link
	      Network special file
	      Fifo (also called	a "named pipe")	special	file
	      Socket
	      Ordinary file

       The next	9 characters are interpreted as	three sets of three characters
       each  which  identify  access  and execution permissions	for the	owner,
       group, and others categories, as	described in chmod(1).	The  indicates
       the  permission is not granted.	The various permissions	can be put to-
       gether in any combination, except that the and characters are  mutually
       exclusive, as implied below.

	      Read by owner
	      Write by owner
	      Execute  (or  search  directory) by owner; do not	set user ID on
	      execution
	      Execute/search by	owner; set user	ID on execution
	      No execute/search	by owner; set user ID on execution
	      Read by group
	      Write by group
	      Execute/search by	group; do not set group	ID on execution
	      Execute/search by	group; set group ID on execution
	      No execute/search	by group; set group ID on execution
	      Read by others
	      Write by others
	      Execute/search by	others;	do not set sticky bit on execution
	      Execute/search by	others;	set sticky bit on execution
	      No execute/search	by others; set sticky bit on execution

       The mode	characters are interpreted as follows:

	      Deny all permissions in the corresponding	position.

	      Grant read permission to the corresponding user class.

	      Grant write permission to	the corresponding user class.

	      Grant execute (or	search in directory) permission
		     to	the corresponding user class.

	      Grant execute (search)  permission  to  the  corresponding  user
	      class.
		     Execute  the  file	as if by the owner (set	user ID, SUID)
		     or	group (set group ID, SGID), as indicated by position.

	      Deny execute  (search)  permission  to  the  corresponding  user
	      class.
		     Execute  the  file	as if by the owner (set	user ID, SUID)
		     or	group (set group ID, SGID), as indicated by position.

	      Grant execute (search) permission	to others.
		     The "sticky" (save	text image) bit	is set	(see  the  de-
		     scription of in chmod(2)).

	      Deny execute (search directory) permission to others.
		     The "sticky" (save	text image) bit	is set.

       When  an	 option	 is  specified	that results in	a listing of directory
       and/or file sizes in bytes or blocks (such as the or (ell)  option),  a
       total  count  of	 blocks, including indirect blocks, is also printed at
       the beginning of	the listing.

   Access Control Lists	(ACLs)
       If a file has optional ACL entries, the (ell) option  displays  a  plus
       sign after the file's permissions.  The permissions shown are a summary
       representation of the file's access control list, as returned by	in the
       field  (see  stat(2)).  To list the contents of an access control list,
       use the command (see lsacl(1) and acl(5)) for HFS file systems, or  the
       command (see getacl(1) and aclv(5)) for JFS file	systems.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   Environment Variables
       If  the	variable  is set, uses the width provided in determining posi-
       tioning of columnar output.

       determines the locale to	use for	the locale categories  when  both  and
       the corresponding environment variable (beginning with do not specify a
       locale.	If is not set or is null, it defaults to (see lang(5)).

       determines the order in which the output	is sorted.

       determines which	characters are classified as nonprinting for  the  and
       options,	 and the interpretation	of single- and/or multibyte characters
       within file names.

       determines the date and time strings output by the (ell), and options.

       determines the language in which	messages (other	than the date and time
       strings)	are displayed.

       If  any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, they
       all default to (see environ(5)).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

RETURN VALUE
       exits with one of the following values:

	      All input	files were listed successfully.

	      was aborted because errors occurred when accessing files.
		     The following conditions cause an error:

		     o	Specified file not found.
		     o	User has no permission to read the directory.
		     o	Process	could not get enough memory.
		     o	Invalid	option specified.

EXAMPLES
       Print a long listing of all the files in	the current working  directory
       (including the file sizes).  List the most recently modified (youngest)
       file first, followed by the next	older file, and	so forth, to the  old-
       est.  Files whose names begin with a are	also printed.

WARNINGS
       Setting	options	based on whether the output is a login (tty) device is
       undesirable because is very different from On the other hand, not using
       this setting makes old shell scripts that used almost inevitably	fail.

       Nonprinting  characters in file names (without the or option) may cause
       columnar	output to be misaligned.

DEPENDENCIES
   NFS
       The (ell) option	does not display a plus	sign after the access  permis-
       sion  bits of networked files to	represent existence of optional	access
       control list entries.

AUTHOR
       was developed by	AT&T, the University of	California, Berkeley and HP.

FILES
       For group IDs for	     (ell) and
       For user	IDs for		     (ell) and
       For terminal information.

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), find(1), getacl(1), lsacl(1), stat(2),	acl(5),	aclv(5).

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
									 ls(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | RETURN VALUE | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | DEPENDENCIES | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

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