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LS(1)                   FreeBSD General Commands Manual                  LS(1)

     ls - list directory contents

     ls [-ABCFGHLPRTWabcdfghiklmnopqrstuwx1] [file ...]

     For each operand that names a file of a type other than directory, ls
     displays its name as well as any requested, associated information.  For
     each operand that names a file of type directory, ls displays the names
     of files contained within that directory, as well as any requested,
     associated information.

     If no operands are given, the contents of the current directory are
     displayed.  If more than one operand is given, non-directory operands are
     displayed first; directory and non-directory operands are sorted
     separately and in lexicographical order.

     The following options are available:

     -A      List all entries except for . and ...  Always set for the super-

     -B      Force printing of non-printable characters (as defined by
             ctype(3) and current locale settings) in file names as \xxx,
             where xxx is the numeric value of the character in octal.

     -C      Force multi-column output; this is the default when output is to
             a terminal.

     -F      Display a slash (`/') immediately after each pathname that is a
             directory, an asterisk (`*') after each that is executable, an at
             sign (`@') after each symbolic link, an equals sign (`=') after
             each socket, a percent sign (`%') after each whiteout, and a
             vertical bar (`|') after each that is a FIFO.

     -G      Enable colorized output.  This option is equivalent to defining
             CLICOLOR in the environment.  (See below.)

     -H      Symbolic links on the command line are followed.  This option is
             assumed if none of the -F, -d, or -l options are specified.

     -L      If argument is a symbolic link, list the file or directory the
             link references rather than the link itself.  This option cancels
             the -P option.

     -P      If argument is a symbolic link, list the link itself rather than
             the object the link references.  This option cancels the -H and
             -L options.

     -R      Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -T      When used with the -l (lowercase letter ``ell'') option, display
             complete time information for the file, including month, day,
             hour, minute, second, and year.

     -W      Display whiteouts when scanning directories.

     -a      Include directory entries whose names begin with a dot (.).

     -b      As -B, but use C escape codes whenever possible.

     -c      Use time when file status was last changed for sorting or

     -d      Directories are listed as plain files (not searched recursively).

     -f      Output is not sorted.

     -g      This option is deprecated and is only available for compatibility
             with 4.3BSD; it was used to display the group name in the long
             (-l) format output.

     -h      When used with the -l option, use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte,
             Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte and Petabyte in order to reduce the
             number of digits to three or less using base 2 for sizes.

     -i      For each file, print the file's file serial number (inode

     -k      If the -s option is specified, print the file size allocation in
             kilobytes, not blocks.  This option overrides the environment
             variable BLOCKSIZE.

     -l      (The lowercase letter ``ell''.) List in long format.  (See
             below.)  If the output is to a terminal, a total sum for all the
             file sizes is output on a line before the long listing.

     -m      Stream output format; list files across the page, separated by

     -n      Display user and group IDs numerically rather than converting to
             a user or group name in a long (-l) output.

     -o      Include the file flags in a long (-l) output.

     -p      Write a slash (`/') after each filename if that file is a

     -q      Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as the
             character `?'; this is the default when output is to a terminal.

     -r      Reverse the order of the sort to get reverse lexicographical
             order or the oldest entries first.

     -s      Display the number of filesystem blocks actually used by each
             file, in units of 512 bytes, where partial units are rounded up
             to the next integer value.  If the output is to a terminal, a
             total sum for all the file sizes is output on a line before the
             listing.  The environment variable BLOCKSIZE overrides the unit
             size of 512 bytes.

     -t      Sort by time modified (most recently modified first) before
             sorting the operands by lexicographical order.

     -u      Use time of last access, instead of last modification of the file
             for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

     -w      Force raw printing of non-printable characters.  This is the
             default when output is not to a terminal.

     -x      The same as -C, except that the multi-column output is produced
             with entries sorted across, rather than down, the columns.

     -1      (The numeric digit ``one''.) Force output to be one entry per
             line.  This is the default when output is not to a terminal.

     The -1, -C, -x, and -l options all override each other; the last one
     specified determines the format used.

     The -c and -u options override each other; the last one specified
     determines the file time used.

     The -B, -b, -w, and -q options all override each other; the last one
     specified determines the format used for non-printable characters.

     The -H, -L and -P options all override each other (either partially or
     fully); they are applied in the order specified.

     By default, ls lists one entry per line to standard output; the
     exceptions are to terminals or when the -C or -x options are specified.

     File information is displayed with one or more <blank>s separating the
     information associated with the -i, -s, and -l options.

   The Long Format
     If the -l option is given, the following information is displayed for
     each file: file mode, number of links, owner name, group name, number of
     bytes in the file, abbreviated month, day-of-month file was last
     modified, hour file last modified, minute file last modified, and the
     pathname.  In addition, for each directory whose contents are displayed,
     the total number of 512-byte blocks used by the files in the directory is
     displayed on a line by itself immediately before the information for the
     files in the directory.

     If the modification time of the file is more than 6 months in the past or
     future, then the year of the last modification is displayed in place of
     the hour and minute fields.

     If the owner or group names are not a known user or group name, or the -n
     option is given, the numeric ID's are displayed.

     If the file is a character special or block special file, the major and
     minor device numbers for the file are displayed in the size field.  If
     the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is
     preceded by ``->''.

     The file mode printed under the -l option consists of the entry type,
     owner permissions, and group permissions.  The entry type character
     describes the type of file, as follows:

           b     Block special file.
           c     Character special file.
           d     Directory.
           l     Symbolic link.
           s     Socket link.
           p     FIFO.
           -     Regular file.

     The next three fields are three characters each: owner permissions, group
     permissions, and other permissions.  Each field has three character

           1.   If r, the file is readable; if -, it is not readable.

           2.   If w, the file is writable; if -, it is not writable.

           3.   The first of the following that applies:

                      S     If in the owner permissions, the file is not
                            executable and set-user-ID mode is set.  If in the
                            group permissions, the file is not executable and
                            set-group-ID mode is set.

                      s     If in the owner permissions, the file is
                            executable and set-user-ID mode is set.  If in the
                            group permissions, the file is executable and
                            setgroup-ID mode is set.

                      x     The file is executable or the directory is

                      -     The file is neither readable, writable,
                            executable, nor set-user-ID nor set-group-ID mode,
                            nor sticky.  (See below.)

                These next two apply only to the third character in the last
                group (other permissions).

                      T     The sticky bit is set (mode 1000), but not execute
                            or search permission.  (See chmod(1) or

                      t     The sticky bit is set (mode 1000), and is
                            searchable or executable.  (See chmod(1) or

     The following is how to do an ls listing sorted by size (and shows why ls
     does not need a separate option for this):

           ls -l | sort -n +4

     Additionally, the -r flag to sort(1) may be used to get the results
     sorted from largest to smallest (a reverse sort).

     The ls utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     The following environment variables affect the execution of ls:

     BLOCKSIZE           If the environment variable BLOCKSIZE is set, the
                         block counts (see -s) will be displayed in units of
                         that size block.

     CLICOLOR            Use ANSI color sequences to distinguish file types.
                         See LSCOLORS below.  In addition to the file types
                         mentioned in the -F option some extra attributes
                         (setuid bit set, etc.) are also displayed.  The
                         colorization is dependent on a terminal type with the
                         proper termcap(5) capabilities.  The default
                         ``cons25'' console has the proper capabilities, but
                         to display the colors in an xterm(1), for example,
                         the TERM variable must be set to ``xterm-color''.
                         Other terminal types may require similar adjustments.
                         Colorization is silently disabled if the output isn't
                         directed to a terminal unless the CLICOLOR_FORCE
                         variable is defined.

     CLICOLOR_FORCE      Color sequences are normally disabled if the output
                         isn't directed to a terminal.  This can be overridden
                         by setting this flag.  The TERM variable still needs
                         to reference a color capable terminal however
                         otherwise it is not possible to determine which color
                         sequences to use.

     COLUMNS             If this variable contains a string representing a
                         decimal integer, it is used as the column position
                         width for displaying multiple-text-column output.
                         The ls utility calculates how many pathname text
                         columns to display based on the width provided.  (See
                         -C and -x.)

     LANG                The locale to use when determining the order of day
                         and month in the long -l format output.  See
                         environ(7) for more information.

     LSCOLORS            The value of this variable describes what color to
                         use for which attribute when colors are enabled with
                         CLICOLOR.  This string is a concatenation of pairs of
                         the format fb, where f is the foreground color and b
                         is the background color.

                         The color designators are as follows:

                               a     black
                               b     red
                               c     green
                               d     brown
                               e     blue
                               f     magenta
                               g     cyan
                               h     light grey
                               A     bold black, usually shows up as dark grey
                               B     bold red
                               C     bold green
                               D     bold brown, usually shows up as yellow
                               E     bold blue
                               F     bold magenta
                               G     bold cyan
                               H     bold light grey; looks like bright white
                               x     default foreground or background

                         Note that the above are standard ANSI colors.  The
                         actual display may differ depending on the color
                         capabilities of the terminal in use.

                         The order of the attributes are as follows:

                               1.   directory
                               2.   symbolic link
                               3.   socket
                               4.   pipe
                               5.   executable
                               6.   block special
                               7.   character special
                               8.   executable with setuid bit set
                               9.   executable with setgid bit set
                               10.  directory writable to others, with sticky
                               11.  directory writable to others, without
                                    sticky bit

                         The default is "exfxcxdxbxegedabagacad", i.e. blue
                         foreground and default background for regular
                         directories, black foreground and red background for
                         setuid executables, etc.

     LS_COLWIDTHS        If this variable is set, it is considered to be a
                         colon-delimited list of minimum column widths.
                         Unreasonable and insufficient widths are ignored
                         (thus zero signifies a dynamically sized column).
                         Not all columns have changeable widths.  The fields
                         are, in order: inode, block count, number of links,
                         user name, group name, flags, file size, file name.

     TERM                The CLICOLOR functionality depends on a terminal type
                         with color capabilities.

     TZ                  The timezone to use when displaying dates.  See
                         environ(7) for more information.

     The group field is now automatically included in the long listing for
     files in order to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'')

     chflags(1), chmod(1), sort(1), xterm(1), termcap(5), symlink(7),

     The ls utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'').

     An ls command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

     To maintain backward compatibility, the relationships between the many
     options are quite complex.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        December 29, 2002       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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