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LOGIN_CAP(3)		 BSD Library Functions Manual		  LOGIN_CAP(3)

     login_close, login_getcapbool, login_getcaplist, login_getcapnum,
     login_getcapstr, login_getcapsize,	login_getcaptime, login_getclass,
     login_getclassbyname, login_getpwclass, login_getstyle,
     login_getuserclass, login_setcryptfmt -- functions	for accessing the lo-
     gin class capabilities database

     System Utilities Library (libutil,	-lutil)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <login_cap.h>

     login_close(login_cap_t *lc);

     login_cap_t *
     login_getclassbyname(const	char *nam, const struct	passwd *pwd);

     login_cap_t *
     login_getclass(const char *nam);

     login_cap_t *
     login_getpwclass(const struct passwd *pwd);

     login_cap_t *
     login_getuserclass(const struct passwd *pwd);

     char *
     login_getcapstr(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap, char *def,
	 char *error);

     char **
     login_getcaplist(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap,	const char *chars);

     char *
     login_getpath(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap, char *error);

     login_getcaptime(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap,	rlim_t def,
	 rlim_t	error);

     login_getcapnum(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap, rlim_t def,
	 rlim_t	error);

     login_getcapsize(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap,	rlim_t def,
	 rlim_t	error);

     login_getcapbool(login_cap_t *lc, const char *cap,	int def);

     char *
     login_getstyle(login_cap_t	*lc, char *style, const	char *auth);

     const char	*
     login_setcryptfmt(login_cap_t *lc,	const char *def, const char *error);

     These functions represent a programming interface to the login classes
     database provided in login.conf(5).  This database	contains capabilities,
     attributes	and default environment	and accounting settings	for users and
     programs running as specific users, as determined by the login class
     field within entries in /etc/master.passwd.

     Entries in	login.conf(5) consist of colon `:' separated fields, the first
     field in each record being	one or more identifiers	for the	record (which
     must be unique for	the entire database), each separated by	a '|', and may
     optionally	include	a description as the last 'name'.  Remaining fields in
     the record	consist	of keyword/data	pairs.	Long lines may be continued
     with a backslash within empty entries, with the second and	subsequent
     lines optionally indented for readability.	 This is similar to the	format
     used in termcap(5), except	that keywords are not limited to two signifi-
     cant characters, and are usually longer for improved readability.	As
     with termcap entries, multiple records can	be linked together (one	record
     including another)	using a	field containing tc=<recordid>.	 The result is
     that the entire record referenced by <recordid> replaces the tc= field at
     the point at which	it occurs.  See	getcap(3) for further details on the
     format and	use of a capabilities database.

     The login_cap interface provides a	convenient means of retrieving login
     class records with	all tc=	references expanded.  A	program	will typically
     call one of login_getclass(), login_getpwclass(), login_getuserclass() or
     login_getclassbyname() according to its requirements.  Each of these
     functions returns a login capabilities structure, login_cap_t, which may
     subsequently be used to interrogate the database for specific values us-
     ing the rest of the API.  Once the	login_cap_t is of no further use, the
     login_close() function should be called to	free all resources used.

     The structure of login_cap_t is defined in	login_cap.h, as:

	   typedef struct {
		   char	*lc_class;
		   char	*lc_cap;
		   char	*lc_style;
	   } login_cap_t;

     The lc_class member contains a pointer to the name	of the login class re-
     trieved.  This may	not necessarily	be the same as the one requested, ei-
     ther directly via login_getclassbyname(), indirectly via a	user's login
     record using login_getpwclass(), by class name using login_getclass(), or
     login_getuserclass().  If the referenced user has no login	class speci-
     fied in /etc/master.passwd, the class name	is NULL	or an empty string.
     If	the class specified does not exist in the database, each of these
     functions will search for a record	with an	id of "default", with that
     name returned in the lc_class field.  In addition,	if the referenced user
     has a UID of 0 (normally, "root", although	the user name is not consid-
     ered) then	login_getpwclass() will	search for a record with an id of
     "root" before it searches for the record with the id of "default".

     The lc_cap	field is used internally by the	library	to contain the ex-
     panded login capabilities record.	Programs with unusual requirements may
     wish to use this with the lower-level getcap() style functions to access
     the record	directly.

     The lc_style field	is set by the login_getstyle() function	to the autho-
     risation style, according to the requirements of the program handling a
     login itself.

     As	noted above, the get*class() functions return a	login_cap_t object
     which is used to access the matching or default record in the capabili-
     ties database.  getclassbyname() accepts two arguments: the first one is
     the record	identifier of the record to be retrieved, the second is	an op-
     tional directory name.  If	the first name argument	is NULL, an empty
     string, or	a class	that does not exist in the supplemental	or system lo-
     gin class database, then the system default record	is returned instead.
     If	the second dir parameter is NULL, then only the	system login class
     database is used, but when	not NULL, the named directory is searched for
     a login database file called ".login_conf", and capability	records	con-
     tained within it may override the system defaults.	 This scheme allows
     users to override some login settings from	those in the system login
     class database by creating	class records for their	own private class with
     a record id of `me'.  In the context of a login, it should	be noted that
     some options cannot by overridden by users	for two	reasons; many options,
     such as resource settings and default process priorities, require root
     privileges	in order to take effect, and other fields in the user's	file
     are not be	consulted at all during	the early phases of login for security
     or	administrative reasons.	 See login.conf(5) for more information	on
     which settings a user is able to override.	 Typically, these are limited
     purely to the user's default login	environment which might	otherwise have
     been overridden in	shell startup scripts in any case.  The	user's
     .login_conf merely	provides a convenient way for a	user to	set up their
     preferred login environment before	the shell is invoked on	login.

     If	the specified record is	NULL, empty or does not	exist, and the system
     has no "default" record available to fall back to,	there is a memory al-
     location error or for some	reason cgetent(3) is unable to access the lo-
     gin capabilities database,	this function returns NULL.

     The functions login_getpwclass(), login_getclass()	and
     login_getuserclass() retrieve the applicable login	class record for the
     user's passwd entry or class name by calling login_getclassbyname().  On
     failure, NULL is returned.	 The difference	between	these functions	is
     that login_getuserclass() includes	the user's overriding .login_conf that
     exists in the user's home directory, and login_getpwclass() and
     login_getclass() restrict lookup only to the system login class database
     in	/etc/login.conf.  As explained earlier,	login_getpwclass() only	dif-
     fers from login_getclass()	in that	it allows the default class for	user
     'root' as "root" if none has been specified in the	password database.
     Otherwise,	if the passwd pointer is NULL, or the user record has no login
     class, then the system "default" entry is retrieved.

     Once a program no longer wishes to	use a login_cap_t object,
     login_close() may be called to free all resources used by the login
     class.  login_close() may be passed a NULL	pointer	with no	harmful	side-

     The remaining functions may be used to retrieve individual	capability
     records.  Each function takes a login_cap_t object	as its first parame-
     ter, a capability tag as the second, and remaining	parameters being de-
     fault and error values that are returned if the capability	is not found.
     The type of the additional	parameters passed and returned depend on the
     type of capability	each deals with, be it a simple	string,	a list,	a time
     value, a file or memory size value, a path	(consisting of a colon-sepa-
     rated list	of directories)	or a boolean flag.  The	manpage	for
     login.conf(5) deals in specific tags and their type.

     Note that with all	functions in this group, you should not	call free(3)
     on	any pointers returned.	Memory allocated during	retrieval or process-
     ing of capability tags is automatically reused by subsequent calls	to
     functions in this group, or deallocated on	calling	login_close().

     login_getcapstr()	 This function returns a simple	string capability.  If
			 the string is not found, then the value in def	is re-
			 turned	as the default value, or if an error occurs,
			 the value in the error	parameter is returned.

     login_getcaplist()	 This function returns the value corresponding to the
			 named capability tag as a list	of values in a NULL
			 terminated array.  Within the login class database,
			 some tags are of type list, which consist of one or
			 more comma- or	space separated	values.	 Usually, this
			 function is not called	directly from an application,
			 but is	used indirectly	via login_getstyle().

     login_getpath()	 This function returns a list of directories separated
			 by colons `&:'.  Capability tags for which this func-
			 tion is called	consist	of a list of directories sepa-
			 rated by spaces.

     login_getcaptime()	 This function returns a time value associated with a
			 particular capability tag with	the value expressed in
			 seconds (the default),	minutes, hours,	days, weeks or
			 (365 day) years or any	combination of these.  A suf-
			 fix determines	the units used:	S for seconds, M for
			 minutes, H for	hours, D for days, W for weeks and Y
			 for 365 day years.  Case of the units suffix is ig-

			 Time values are normally used for setting resource,
			 accounting and	session	limits.	 If supported by the
			 operating system and compiler (which is true of
			 FreeBSD), the value returned is a quad	(long long),
			 of type rlim_t.  A value "inf"	or "infinity" may be
			 used to express an infinite value, in which case
			 RLIM_INFINITY is returned.

     login_getcapnum()	 This function returns a numeric value for a tag, ex-
			 pressed either	as tag=<value> or the standard
			 cgetnum() format tag#<value>.	The first format
			 should	be used	in preference to the second, the sec-
			 ond format is provided	for compatibility and consis-
			 tency with the	getcap(3) database format where	nu-
			 meric types use the `#' as the	delimiter for numeric
			 values.  If in	the first format, then the value given
			 may be	"inf" or "infinity" which results in a return
			 value of RLIM_INFINITY.  If the given capability tag
			 cannot	be found, the def parameter is returned, and
			 if an error occurs, the error parameter is returned.

     login_getcapsize()	 login_getcapsize() returns a value representing a
			 size (typically, file or memory) which	may be ex-
			 pressed as bytes (the default), 512 byte blocks,
			 kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and on systems that
			 support the long long type, terabytes.	 The suffix
			 used determines the units, and	multiple values	and
			 units may be used in combination (e.g.	1m500k = 1.5
			 megabytes).  A	value with no suffix is	interpreted as
			 bytes,	 B as 512-byte blocks, K as kilobytes, M as
			 megabytes, G as gigabytes and T as terabytes.	Case
			 is ignored.  The error	value is returned if there is
			 a login capabilities database error, if an invalid
			 suffix	is used, or if a numeric value cannot be in-

     login_getcapbool()	 This function returns a boolean value tied to a par-
			 ticular flag.	It returns 0 if	the given capability
			 tag is	not present or is negated by the presence of a
			 "tag@"	(See getcap(3) for more	information on boolean
			 flags), and returns 1 if the tag is found.

     login_getstyle()	 This function is used by the login authorisation sys-
			 tem to	determine the style of login available in a
			 particular case.  The function	accepts	three parame-
			 ters, the login_cap entry itself and two optional pa-
			 rameters, and authorisation type 'auth' and 'style',
			 and applies these to determine	the authorisation
			 style that best suites	these rules.

			 +o   If	'auth' is neither NULL nor an empty string,
			     look for a	tag of type "auth-<auth>" in the capa-
			     bility record.  If	not present, then look for the
			     default tag "auth=".

			 +o   If	no valid authorisation list was	found from the
			     previous step, then default to "passwd" as	the
			     authorisation list.

			 +o   If	'style'	is not NULL or empty, look for it in
			     the list of authorisation methods found from the
			     pprevious step.  If 'style' is NULL or an empty
			     string, then default to "passwd" authorisation.

			 +o   If	'style'	is found in the	chosen list of autho-
			     risation methods, then return that, otherwise re-
			     turn NULL.

			 This scheme allows the	administrator to determine the
			 types of authorisation	methods	accepted by the	sys-
			 tem, depending	on the means by	which the access oc-
			 curs.	For example, the administrator may require
			 skey or kerberos as the authentication	method used
			 for access to the system via the network, and stan-
			 dard methods via direct dialup	or console logins,
			 significantly reducing	the risk of password discovery
			 by "snooping" network packets.

			 The login_setcryptfmt() function is used to set the
			 crypt(3) format using the `passwd_format' configura-
			 tion entry.  If no entry is found, def	is taken to be
			 used as the fallback.	If calling crypt_set_format(3)
			 on the	specifier fails, error is returned to indicate

     crypt(3), getcap(3), login_class(3), login.conf(5), termcap(5)

BSD			       December	27, 1996			   BSD


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