Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
LOGIN.CONF(5)             FreeBSD File Formats Manual            LOGIN.CONF(5)

     login.conf - login class capability database

     /etc/login.conf, ~/.login_conf

     login.conf contains various attributes and capabilities of login classes.
     A login class (an optional annotation against each record in the user
     account database, /etc/master.passwd) determines session accounting,
     resource limits and user environment settings.  It is used by various
     programs in the system to set up a user's login environment and to
     enforce policy, accounting and administrative restrictions.  It also
     provides the means by which users are able to be authenticated to the
     system and the types of authentication available.

     A special record "default" in the system user class capability database
     /etc/login.conf is used automatically for any non-root user without a
     valid login class in /etc/master.passwd.  A user with a uid of 0 without
     a valid login class will use the record "root" if it exists, or "default"
     if not.

     In FreeBSD, users may individually create a file called .login_conf in
     their home directory using the same format, consisting of a single entry
     with a record id of "me".  If present, this file is used by login(1) to
     set user-defined environment settings which override those specified in
     the system login capabilities database.  Only a subset of login
     capabilities may be overridden, typically those which do not involve
     authentication, resource limits and accounting.

     Records in a class capabilities database consist of a number of colon-
     separated fields.  The first entry for each record gives one or more
     names that a record is to be known by, each separated by a '|' character.
     The first name is the most common abbreviation.  The last name given
     should be a long name that is more descriptive of the capability entry,
     and all others are synonyms.  All names but the last should be in lower
     case and contain no blanks; the last name may contain upper case
     characters and blanks for readability.

     See getcap(3) for a more in-depth description of the format of a
     capability database.

     Fields within each record in the database follow the getcap(3)
     conventions for boolean, type string `=' and type numeric `#', although
     type numeric is deprecated in favour of the string format and either form
     is accepted for a numeric datum.  Values fall into the following

     bool     If the name is present, then the boolean value is true;
              otherwise, it is false

     file     Path name to a data file

     program  Path name to an executable file

     list     A list of values (or pairs of values) separated by commas or

     path     A space or comma separated list of path names, following the
              usual csh conventions (leading tilde with and without username
              being expanded to home directories etc.)

     number   A numeric value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with
              leading 0x), or octal (with a leading 0).  With a numeric type,
              only one numeric value is allowed.  Numeric types may also be
              specified in string format (ie. the capability tag being
              delimited from the value by '=' instead of '#').  Whichever
              method is used, then all records in the database must use the
              same method to allow values to be correctly overridden in
              interpolated records.

     size     A number which expresses a size.  The default interpretation of
              a value is the number of bytes, but a suffix may specify
              alternate units:
                    b     explicitly selects 512-byte blocks
                    k     selects kilobytes (1024 bytes)
                    m     specifies a multiplier of 1 megabyte (1048576
                    g     specifies units of gigabytes, and
                    t     represents terabytes.
              A size value is a numeric quantity and case of the suffix is not
              significant.  Concatenated values are added together.

     time     A period of time, by default in seconds.  A prefix may specify a
              different unit:
                    y     indicates the number of 365 day years,
                    w     indicates the number of weeks,
                    d     the number of days,
                    h     the number of hours,
                    m     the number of minutes, and
                    s     the number of seconds.
              Concatenated values are added together.  For example, 2 hours
              and 40 minutes may be written either as 9600s, 160m or 2h40m.

     The usual convention to interpolate capability entries using the special
     tc=value notation may be used.

     Name            Type      Notes     Description

     coredumpsize    size                Maximum coredump size limit.

     cputime         time                CPU usage limit.

     datasize        size                Maximum data size limit.

     filesize        size                Maximum file size limit.

     maxproc         number              Maximum number of processes.

     memorylocked    size                Maximum locked in core memory size
     memoryuse       size                Maximum of core memory use size
     openfiles       number              Maximum number of open files per
     sbsize          size                Maximum permitted socketbuffer size.

     vmemoryuse      size                Maximum permitted total VM useage per
     stacksize       size                Maximum stack size limit.

     These resource limit entries actually specify both the maximum and
     current limits (see getrlimit(2)).  The current (soft) limit is the one
     normally used, although the user is permitted to increase the current
     limit to the maximum (hard) limit.  The maximum and current limits may be
     specified individually by appending a -max or -cur to the capability

     Name             Type      Notes            Description

     charset          string                     Set $MM_CHARSET environment
                                                 variable to the specified
     hushlogin        bool      false            Same as having a ~/.hushlogin
     ignorenologin    bool      false            Login not prevented by
     lang             string                     Set $LANG environment
                                                 variable to the specified
     manpath          path                       Default search path for
     nologin          file                       If the file exists it will be
                                                 displayed and
                                                  the login session will be
     path             path      /bin /usr/bin    Default search path.

     priority         number                     Initial priority (nice)
     requirehome      bool      false            Require a valid home
                                                 directory to login.

     setenv           list                       A comma-separated list of
                                                 environment variables and
                                                  values to which they are to
                                                 be set.
     shell            prog                       Session shell to execute
                                                 rather than the
                                                  shell specified in the
                                                 passwd file.  The SHELL
                                                 environment variable will
                                                 contain the shell specified
                                                 in the password file.
     term             string                     Default terminal type if not
                                                 able to determine
                                                  from other means.
     timezone         string                     Default value of $TZ
                                                 environment variable.

     umask            number    022              Initial umask. Should always
                                                 have a leading 0 to
                                                  ensure octal interpretation.
     welcome          file      /etc/motd        File containing welcome

     Name              Type      Notes     Description

     copyright         file                File containing additional
                                           copyright information

     host.allow        list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                           which users in
                                            the class may access.
     host.deny         list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                           which users
                                            in the class may not access.
     login_prompt      string              The login prompt given by
     minpasswordlen    number    6         The minimum length a local password
                                            may be.
     mixpasswordcase   bool      true      Whether passwd(1) will warn the user if an
                                           all lower case password is entered.
     login-backoff     number    3         The number of login attempts
                                            allowed before the backoff delay
                                           is inserted after each subsequent
     login-retries     number    10        The number of login attempts
                                            allowed before the login fails.
     passwd_format     string    md5       The encryption format that new or
                                            changed passwords will use.  Valid
                                           values include "des", "md5" and
                                           "blf".  NIS clients using a non-Fx
                                           NIS server should probably use
     passwd_prompt     string              The password prompt presented by
     times.allow       list                List of time periods during which
                                            logins are allowed.
     times.deny        list                List of time periods during which
                                           logins are
     ttys.allow        list                List of ttys and ttygroups which
                                           users in the class may use for access.
     ttys.deny         list                List of ttys and ttygroups which
                                           users in the class may not use for

     These fields are intended to be used by passwd(1) and other programs in
     the login authentication system.

     Capabilities that set environment variables are scanned for both `~' and
     `$' characters, which are substituted for a user's home directory and
     name respectively.  To pass these characters literally into the
     environment variable, escape the character by preceding it with a
     backslash '\'.

     The host.allow and host.deny entries are comma separated lists used for
     checking remote access to the system, and consist of a list of hostnames
     and/or IP addresses against which remote network logins are checked.
     Items in these lists may contain wildcards in the form used by shell
     programs for wildcard matching (See fnmatch(3) for details on the
     implementation).  The check on hosts is made against both the remote
     system's Internet address and hostname (if available).  If both lists are
     empty or not specified, then logins from any remote host are allowed.  If
     host.allow contains one or more hosts, then only remote systems matching
     any of the items in that list are allowed to log in.  If host.deny
     contains one or more hosts, then a login from any matching hosts will be

     The times.allow and times.deny entries consist of a comma-separated list
     of time periods during which the users in a class are allowed to be
     logged in.  These are expressed as one or more day codes followed by a
     start and end times expressed in 24 hour format, separated by a hyphen or
     dash.  For example, MoThSa0200-1300 translates to Monday, Thursday and
     Saturday between the hours of 2 am and 1 p.m..  If both of these time
     lists are empty, users in the class are allowed access at any time.  If
     times.allow is specified, then logins are only allowed during the periods
     given.  If times.deny is specified, then logins are denied during the
     periods given, regardless of whether one of the periods specified in
     times.allow applies.

     Note that login(1) enforces only that the actual login falls within
     periods allowed by these entries.  Further enforcement over the life of a
     session requires a separate daemon to monitor transitions from an allowed
     period to a non-allowed one.

     The ttys.allow and ttys.deny entries contain a comma-separated list of
     tty devices (without the /dev/ prefix) that a user in a class may use to
     access the system, and/or a list of ttygroups (See getttyent(3) and
     ttys(5) for information on ttygroups).  If neither entry exists, then the
     choice of login device used by the user is unrestricted.  If only
     ttys.allow is specified, then the user is restricted only to ttys in the
     given group or device list.  If only ttys.deny is specified, then the
     user is prevented from using the specified devices or devices in the
     group.  If both lists are given and are non-empty, the user is restricted
     to those devices allowed by ttys.allow that are not available by

     Name              Type      Notes     Description

     accounted         bool      false     Enable session time accounting for
                                           all users in this class.
     autodelete        time                Time after expiry when account is

     bootfull          bool      false     Enable 'boot only if ttygroup is
                                           full' strategy
                                            when terminating sessions.
     daytime           time                Maximum login time per day.

     expireperiod      time                Time for expiry allocation.

     graceexpire       time                Grace days for expired account.

     gracetime         time                Additional grace login time
     host.accounted    list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                           which login sessions will be accounted.
     host.exempt       list                List of remote host wildcards from
                                           which login session accounting is
     idletime          time                Maximum idle time before logout
     monthtime         time                Maximum login time per month.

     passwordtime      time                Used by passwd(1) to set next password
                                           expiry date.
     refreshtime       time                New time allowed on account
     refreshperiod     str                 How often account time is

     sessiontime       time                Maximum login time per session.

     sessionlimit      number              Maximum number of concurrent
                                            login sessions on ttys in any
     ttys.accounted    list                List of ttys and ttygroups for
                                           which login accounting is active.
     ttys.exempt       list                List of ttys and ttygroups for
                                           which login accounting
                                            is exempt.
     warnexpire        time                Advance notice for pending account
     warnpassword      time                Advance notice for pending password
     warntime          time                Advance notice for pending

     weektime          time                Maximum login time per week.

     These fields are used by the time accounting system, which regulates,
     controls and records user login access.

     The ttys.accounted and ttys.exempt fields operate in a similar manner to
     ttys.allow and ttys.deny as explained above.  Similarly with the
     host.accounted and host.exempt lists.

     The idletime setting is not enforced.

     cap_mkdb(1), login(1), getcap(3), getttyent(3), login_cap(3),
     login_class(3), passwd(5), ttys(5)

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        November 22, 1996       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help