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LOGIN.CONF(5)		    BSD	File Formats Manual		 LOGIN.CONF(5)

     login.conf	-- login class capability database

     /etc/login.conf, ~/.login_conf

     login.conf	contains various attributes and	capabilities of	login classes.
     A login class (an optional	annotation against each	record in the user ac-
     count database, /etc/master.passwd) determines session accounting,	re-
     source limits and user environment	settings.  It is used by various pro-
     grams in the system to set	up a user's login environment and to enforce
     policy, accounting	and administrative restrictions.  It also provides the
     means by which users are able to be authenticated to the system and the
     types of authentication available.

     A special record "default"	in the system user class capability database
     /etc/login.conf is	used automatically for any non-root user without a
     valid login class in /etc/master.passwd.  A user with a uid of 0 without
     a valid login class will use the record "root" if it exists, or "default"
     if	not.

     In	FreeBSD, users may individually	create a file called .login_conf in
     their home	directory using	the same format, consisting of a single	entry
     with a record id of "me".	If present, this file is used by login(1) to
     set user-defined environment settings which override those	specified in
     the system	login capabilities database.  Only a subset of login capabili-
     ties may be overridden, typically those which do not involve authentica-
     tion, resource limits and accounting.

     Records in	a class	capabilities database consist of a number of colon-
     separated fields.	The first entry	for each record	gives one or more
     names that	a record is to be known	by, each separated by a	'|' character.
     The first name is the most	common abbreviation.  The last name given
     should be a long name that	is more	descriptive of the capability entry,
     and all others are	synonyms.  All names but the last should be in lower
     case and contain no blanks; the last name may contain upper case charac-
     ters and blanks for readability.

     See getcap(3) for a more in-depth description of the format of a capabil-
     ity database.

     Fields within each	record in the database follow the getcap(3) conven-
     tions for boolean,	type string `='	and type numeric `#', although type
     numeric is	depreciated in favour of the string format and either form is
     accepted for a numeric datum.  Values fall	into the following categories:

     file     Path name	to a data file

     program  Path name	to an executable file

     list     A	list of	values (or pairs of values) separated by commas	or

     path     A	space or comma separated list of path names, following the
	      usual csh	conventions (leading tilde with	and without username
	      being expanded to	home directories etc.)

     number   A	numeric	value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with
	      leading 0x), or octal (with a leading 0).	 With a	numeric	type,
	      only one numeric value is	allowed.  Numeric types	may also be
	      specified	in string format (ie. the capability tag being delim-
	      ited from	the value by '=' instead of '#').  Whichever method is
	      used, then all records in	the database must use the same method
	      to allow values to be correctly overridden in interpolated

     size     A	number which expresses a size.	The default interpretation of
	      a	value is the number of bytes, but a suffix may specify alter-
	      nate units:
		    b	  explicitly selects 512-byte blocks
		    k	  selects kilobytes (1024 bytes)
		    m	  specifies a multiplier of 1 megabyte (1048576
		    g	  specifies units of gigabytes,	and
		    t	  represents terabytes.
	      A	size value is a	numeric	quantity and case of the suffix	is not
	      significant.  Concatenated values	are added together.

     time     A	period of time,	by default in seconds.	A prefix may specify a
	      different	unit;
		    y	  indicates the	number of 365 day years,
		    w	  indicates the	number of weeks,
		    d	  the number of	days,
		    h	  the number of	minutes, and
		    s	  the number of	seconds.
	      Concatenated values are added together.  For example, 2 hours
	      and 40 minutes may be written either as 9600s, 160m or 2h40m.

     The usual convention to interpolate capability entries using the special
     tc=value notation may be used.

     Name	     Type      Notes	 Description
     cputime	     time		 CPU usage limit.
     filesize	     size		 Maximum file size limit.
     datasize	     size		 Maximum data size limit.
     stacksize	     size		 Maximum stack size limit.
     coredumpsize    size		 Maximum coredump size limit.
     memoryuse	     size		 Maximum of core memory	use size
     memorylocked    size		 Maximum locked	in core	memory size
     maxproc	     number		 Maximum number	of processes.
     openfiles	     number		 Maximum number	of open	files per

     These resource limit entries actually specify both	the maximum and	cur-
     rent limits (see getrlimit(2) ). The current (soft) limit is the one nor-
     mally used, although the user is permitted	to increase the	current	limit
     to	the maximum (hard) limit.  The maximum and current limits may be spec-
     ified individually	by appending a -max or -cur to the capability name.

     Name	      Type	Notes		 Description
     charset	      string			 Set $MM_CHARSET environment
						 variable to the specified
     hushlogin	      bool	false		 Same as having	a ~/.hushlogin
     ignorenologin    bool	false		 Login not prevented by
     lang	      string			 Set $LANG environment
						 variable to the specified
     manpath	      path			 Default search	path for
     nologin	      file			 If the	file exists it will be
						 displayed and the login ses-
						 sion will be terminated.
     path	      path	/bin /usr/bin	 Default search	path.
     priority	      number			 Initial priority (nice)
     requirehome      bool	false		 Require a valid home
						 directory to login.
     setenv	      list			 A comma-separated list	of
						 environment variables and
						 values	to which they are to
						 be set.
     shell	      prog			 Session shell to execute
						 rather	than the shell speci-
						 fied in the passwd file. The
						 SHELL environment variable
						 will contain the shell	speci-
						 fied in the password file.
     term	      string	su		 Default terminal type if not
						 able to determine from	other
     timezone	      string			 Default value of $TZ
						 environment variable.
     umask	      number	022		 Initial umask.	Should always
						 have a	leading	0 to ensure
						 octal interpretation.
     welcome	      file	/etc/motd	 File containing welcome

     Name	       Type	 Notes	   Description
     minpasswordlen    number	 6	   The minimum length a	local password
					   may be.
     auth	       list	 passwd	   Allowed authentication styles. The
					   first value is the default style.
     auth-<type>       list		   Allowed authentication styles for
					   the authentication type 'type'.
     copyright	       file		   File	containing additional
					   copyright information
     host.allow	       list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which users in the class may	ac-
     host.deny	       list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which users in the class may	not
     times.allow       list		   List	of time	periods	during which
					   logins are allowed.
     times.deny	       list		   List	of time	periods	during which
					   logins are disallowed.
     tty.allow	       list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups which
					   users in the	class may use for ac-
     tty.deny	       list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups which
					   users in the	class may not use for

     These fields are intended to be used by passwd(1) and other programs in
     the login authentication system.

     Capabilities that set environment variables are scanned for both `~' and
     `$' characters, which are substituted for a user's	home directory and
     name respectively.	 To pass these characters literally into the environ-
     ment variable, escape the character by preceding it with a	backslash '\'.

     The host.allow and	host.deny entries are comma separated lists used for
     checking remote access to the system, and consist of a list of hostnames
     and/or IP addresses against which remote network logins are checked.
     Items in these lists may contain wildcards	in the form used by shell pro-
     grams for wildcard	matching (See fnmatch(3) for details on	the implemen-
     tation).  The check on hosts is made against both the remote system's In-
     ternet address and	hostname (if available).  If both lists	are empty or
     not specified, then logins	from any remote	host are allowed.  If
     low contains one or more hosts, then only remote systems matching any of
     the items in that list are	allowed	to log in.  If host.deny contains one
     or	more hosts, then a login from any matching hosts will be disallowed.

     The times.allow and times.deny entries consist of a comma-separated list
     of	time periods during which the users in a class are allowed to be
     logged in.	 These are expressed as	one or more day	codes followed by a
     start and end times expressed in 24 hour format, separated	by a hyphen or
     dash.  For	example, MoThSa0200-1300 translates to Monday, Thursday	and
     Saturday between the hours	of 2 am	and 1 p.m..  If	both of	these time
     lists are empty, users in the class are allowed access at any time.  If
     times.allow is specified, then logins are only allowed during the periods
     given.  If	times.deny is specified, then logins are denied	during the pe-
     riods given, regardless of	whether	one of the periods specified in
     times.allow applies.

     Note that login(1)	enforces only that the actual login falls within peri-
     ods allowed by these entries.  Further enforcement	over the life of a
     session requires a	separate daemon	to monitor transitions from an allowed
     period to a non-allowed one.

     The tty.allow and tty.deny	entries	contain	a comma-separated list of tty
     devices (without the /dev/	prefix)	that a user in a class may use to ac-
     cess the system, and/or a list of ttygroups (See getttyent(3) and ttys(5)
     for information on	ttygroups).  If	neither	entry exists, then the choice
     of	login device used by the user is unrestricted.	If only	tty.allow is
     specified,	then the user is restricted only to ttys in the	given group or
     device list.  If only tty.deny is specified, then the user	is prevented
     from using	the specified devices or devices in the	group.	If both	lists
     are given and are non-empty, the user is restricted to those devices al-
     lowed by tty.allow	that are not available by tty.deny.

     Name	       Type	 Notes	   Description
     accounted	       bool	 false	   Enable session time accounting for
					   all users in	this class.
     autodelete	       time		   Time	after expiry when account is
     bootfull	       bool	 false	   Enable 'boot	only if	ttygroup is
					   full' strategy when terminating
     daytime	       time		   Maximum login time per day.
     expireperiod      time		   Time	for expiry allocation.
     graceexpire       time		   Grace days for expired account.
     gracetime	       time		   Additional grace login time
     host.accounted    list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which login sessions	will be	ac-
     host.exempt       list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which login session accounting is
     idletime	       time		   Maximum idle	time before logout.
     monthtime	       time		   Maximum login time per month.
     passwordtime      time		   Time	for password expiry.
     refreshtime       time		   New time allowed on account
     refreshperiod     str		   How often account time is
     sessiontime       time		   Maximum login time per session.
     sessionlimit      number		   Maximum number of concurrent	login
					   sessions on ttys in any group.
     tty.accounted     list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups for
					   which login accounting is active.
     tty.exempt	       list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups for
					   which login accounting is exempt.
     warnexpire	       time		   Advance notice for pending account
     warnpassword      time		   Advance notice for pending password
     warntime	       time		   Advance notice for pending
     weektime	       time		   Maximum login time per week.

     These fields are used by the time accounting system, which	regulates,
     controls and records user login access.

     The ttys.accounted	and ttys.exempt	fields operate in a similar manner to
     ttys.allow	and ttys.deny as explained above.  Similarly with the
     host.accounted and	host.exempt lists.

     login(1), getcap(3), getttyent(3),	login_cap(3), login_class(3),
     passwd(5),	ttys(5)

FreeBSD			       November	22, 1996		       FreeBSD


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