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LOGIN.CONF(5)             OpenBSD Programmer's Manual            LOGIN.CONF(5)

     login.conf - login class capability database


     The login.conf file describes the various attributes of login classes.  A
     login class determines what styles of authentication are available as
     well as session resource limits and environment setup.  While designed
     primarily for the login(1) program, it is also used by other programs,
     e.g., ftpd(8), to determine what means of authentication are available.
     It is also used by programs, e.g., rexecd(8), which need to set up a user

     A special record, ``default'', in /etc/login.conf is used for any user
     without a valid login class in /etc/master.passwd.

     Refer to getcap(3) for a description of the file layout.  All entries in
     the login.conf file are either boolean or use a `=' to separate the capa-
     bility from the value.  The types are described after the capability

     Name               Type       Default      Description
     alwaysuseklogin    bool       false        Always check the .klogin file
                                                for kerberos style authentica-
                                                tion.  Normally this file is
                                                only checked if a non-null
                                                kerberos instance is provided
                                                (e.g., user.root).

     approve            program                 Default program to approve lo-

     approve-service    program                 Program to approve login for

     auth               list       passwd       Allowed authentication styles.
                                                The first value is the default

     auth-type          list                    Allowed authentication styles
                                                for the authentication type

     classify           program                 Classify type of login.

     copyright          file                    File containing additional
                                                copyright information.

     coredumpsize       size                    Maximum coredump size limit.

     cputime            time                    CPU usage limit.

     datasize           size                    Maximum data size limit.

     expire-warn        time       2w           If the user's account will ex-
                                                pire within this length of
                                                time then warn the user of

     filesize           size                    Maximum file size limit.

     hushlogin          bool       false        Same as having a
                                                $HOME/.hushlogin file.  See

     ignorenologin      bool       false        Not affected by nologin files.
                                                See login(1).

     localcipher        string     old          The cipher to use for local
                                                passwords.  Possible values
                                                are: ``old'',
                                                ``newsalt,<rounds>'', ``md5'',
                                                and ``blowfish,<rounds>''. For
                                                ``newsalt'' the value of
                                                rounds is a 24-bit integer
                                                with a minimum of 7250 rounds.
                                                For ``blowfish'' the value can
                                                be between 4 and 31.  It spec-
                                                ifies the base 2 logarithm of
                                                the number of rounds.

     ypcipher           string     old          The cipher to use for YP pass-
                                                words.  The possible values
                                                are the same as for localci-

     login-backoff      number     3            After login-backoff unsucess-
                                                ful login attempts during a
                                                single session, login(1) will
                                                start sleeping a bit in be-
                                                tween attempts.

     login-timeout      time       300          Number of seconds before lo-
                                                gin(1) times out at the pass-
                                                word prompt.  Note that this
                                                setting is only valid for the
                                                default record.

     login-tries        number     10           Number of tries a user gets to
                                                successfully login before lo-
                                                gin(1) closes the connection.

     stacksize          size                    Maximum stack size limit.

     maxproc            number                  Maximum number of process.

     memorylocked       size                    Maximum locked in core memory
                                                size limit.

     memoryuse          size                    Maximum in core memoryuse size

     minpasswordlen     number     6            The minimum length a local
                                                password may be.  If a nega-
                                                tive value or zero, no length
                                                restrictions are enforced.
                                                Used by the passwd(1) utility.

     nologin            file                    If the file exists it will be
                                                displayed and the login ses-
                                                sion will be terminated.

     openfiles          number                  Maximum number of open files
                                                per process.

     password-dead      time       0            Length of time a password may
                                                be expired but not quite dead
                                                yet.  When set (for both the
                                                client and remote server ma-
                                                chine when doing remote au-
                                                thentication), a user is al-
                                                lowed to log in just one more
                                                time after their password (but
                                                not account) has expired.
                                                This allows a grace period for
                                                updating their password.

     password-warn      time       2w           If the user's password will
                                                expire within this length of
                                                time then warn the user of

     passwordcheck      path                    An external program that
                                                checks the quality of the
                                                password.  The password is
                                                passed to the program on
                                                stdin. An exit code of 0 indi-
                                                cates that the quality of the
                                                password is sufficient, an ex-
                                                it code of 1 signals that the
                                                password failed the check.

     passwordtime       time                    The lifetime of a password in
                                                seconds, reset every time a
                                                user changes their password.
                                                When this value is exceeded
                                                the user will no longer be
                                                able to login unless the
                                                password-dead option has been
                                                specified.  Used by the pass-
                                                wd(1) utility.

     passwordtries      number     3            The number of times the pass-
                                                wd(1) utility enforces a check
                                                on the password.  If 0, the
                                                new password will only be ac-
                                                cepted if it passes the pass-
                                                word quality check.

     path               path       value of _PATH_DEFPATH
                                                Default search path.  See

     priority           number                  Initial priority (nice) level.

     requirehome        bool       false        Require home directory to lo-

     shell              program                 Session shell to execute
                                                rather than the shell speci-
                                                fied in the password file.
                                                The SHELL environment variable
                                                will contain the shell speci-
                                                fied in the password file.

     term               string     su           Default terminal type if not
                                                able to determine from other

     umask              number     022          Initial umask.  Should always
                                                have a leading 0 to ensure oc-
                                                tal interpretation.  See

     welcome            file       /etc/motd    File containing welcome mes-

     The resource limit entries (cputime, filesize, datasize, memoryuse,
     memorylocked, maxproc, and openfiles) actually specify both the maximum
     and current limits (see getrlimit(2)). The current limit is the one nor-
     mally used, although the user is permitted to increase the current limit
     to the maximum limit.  The maximum and current limits may be specified
     individually by appending a -max or -cur to the capability name (e.g.,
     openfiles-max and openfiles-cur).

     OpenBSD 3.1 will never define capabilities which start with x- or X-,
     these are reserved for external use (unless included through contributed

     The argument types are defined as:

     file       Path name to a text file.

     list       A comma separated list of values.

     number     A number.  A leading 0x implies the number is expressed in
                hexadecimal.  A leading 0 implies the number is expressed in
                octal.  Any other number is treated as decimal.

     path       A space separated list of path names.  If a ~ is the first
                character in the path name, the ~ is expanded to the user's
                home directory.

     program    A path name to program.

     size       A number which expresses a size in bytes.  It may have a
                trailing b to multiply the value by 512, a k to multiply the
                value by 1 K (1024), and a m to multiply the value by 1 M

     time       A time in seconds.  A time may be expressed as a series of
                numbers which are added together.  Each number may have a
                trailing character to represent time units:

                y    Indicates a number of 365 day years.

                w    Indicates a number of 7 day weeks.

                d    Indicates a number of 24 hour days.

                h    Indicates a number of 60 minute hours.

                m    Indicates a number of 60 second minutes.

                s    Indicates a number of seconds.

                For example, to indicate 1 and 1/2 hours, the following string
                could be used: 1h30m.

     OpenBSD 3.1 uses BSD Authentication, which is made up of a variety of au-
     thentication styles.  The authentication styles currently provided are:

     activ       Authenticate using an ActivCard token.  See login_activ(8).

     auth        Authenticate using the remote authentication protocol.  Nor-
                 mally linked to another authentication type.  See

     chpass      Change user's password.  See login_chpass(8).

     crypto      Authenticate using a CRYPTOCard token.  See login_crypto(8).

     kerberos    Request a password and use it to request a ticket from the
                 kerberos server.  See kerberos(1).

     krb-or-pwd  Request a password and first try the kerberos authentication
                 style and if that fails use the same password with the passwd
                 authentication style.  See kerberos(1).

     lchpass     Change user's local password.  See login_chpass(8).

     passwd      Request a password and check it against the password in the
                 master.passwd file.

     radius      Normally linked to another authentication type, contact the
                 radius server to do authentication.  See login_radius(8).

     rchpass     Change user's rpasswd password.  See login_rchpass(8).

     reject      Request a password and reject any request.  See

     rpasswd     Request a password and check it against the password in the
                 rpasswd.db file.

     skey        Send a challenge and request a response, checking it with
                 S/Keytm authentication.  See skey(1).

     snk         Authenticate using a SecureNet Key token.  See login_snk(8).

     token       Authenticate using a generic X9.9 token.  See login_token(8).

     Local authentication styles may be added by creating the login script for
     the style (see below).  To prevent collisions with future official BSD
     Authentication style names all local style names should start with a dash
     (-).  Current plans are for all official BSD Authentication style names
     to begin with a lower case alphabetic character.  For example, if you
     have a new style you refer to as slick then you should create an authen-
     tication script named /usr/libexec/auth/login_-slick using the style name
     -slick. When logging in via the login(1) program, the syntax user:-slick
     would be used.

     Authentication requires several pieces of information:

     class       The login class being used.

     service     The type of service requesting authentication.  The service
                 type is used to determine what information the authentication
                 program can provide to the user and what information the user
                 can provide to the authentication program.

                 The service type login is appropriate for most situations.
                 Two other service types, challenge and response, are provided
                 for use by programs like ftpd(8) and radiusd(8). If no ser-
                 vice type is specified, login is used.

     style       The authentication style being used.

     type        The authentication type, used to determine the available au-
                 thentication styles.

     username    The name of the user to authenticate.  The name may contain
                 an instance, e.g.  ``user.root'', as used by Kerberos authen-
                 tication.  If the authentication style being used does not
                 support such instances, the request will fail.

     The program requesting authentication must specify a username and an au-
     thentication style.  (For example, login(1) requests a username from the
     user.  Users may enter usernames of the form ``user:style'' to optionally
     specify the authentication style.)  The requesting program may also spec-
     ify the type of authentication that will be done.  Most programs will on-
     ly have a single type, if any at all, i.e., ftpd(8) will always request
     the ftp type authentication, and su(1) will always request the su type
     authentication.  The login(1) utility is special in that it may select an
     authentication type based on information found in the /etc/ttys file for
     the appropriate tty (see ttys(5)).

     The class to be used is normally determined by the class field in the
     password file (see passwd(5)).

     The class is used to look up a corresponding entry in the login.conf
     file.  If an authentication type is defined and a value for auth-type ex-
     ists in that entry, it will be used as a list of potential authentication
     styles.  If an authentication type is not defined, or auth-type is not
     specified for the class, the value of auth is used as the list of avail-
     able authentication styles.

     If the user did not specify an authentication style the first style in
     the list of available styles is used.  If the user did specify an authen-
     tication style and the style is in the list of available styles it will
     be used, otherwise the request is rejected.

     For any given style, the program /usr/libexec/auth/login_style is used to
     perform the authentication.  The synopsis of this program is:

          /usr/libexec/auth/login_style [-v name=value] [-s service] username

     The -v option is used to specify arbitrary information to the authentica-
     tion programs.  Any number of -v options may be used.  The login(1) pro-
     gram provides the following through the -v option:

     auth_type       The type of authentication to use.

     fqdn            The hostname provided to login by the -h option.

     hostname        The name login(1) will place in the utmp file for the re-
                     mote hostname.

     local_addr      The local ip address given to login(1) by the -L option.

     remote_addr     The remote ip address given to login(1) by the -R option.

     style           The style of authentication used for this user (see ap-
                     proval scripts below).

     The su(1) program provides the following through the -v option:

     wheel           Set to either ``yes'' or ``no'' to indicate if the user
                     is in group wheel when they are trying to become root.
                     Some authentication types require the user to be in group
                     wheel when using the su(1) program to become super user.

     When the authentication program is executed, the environment will only
     contain the values PATH=/bin:/usr/bin and SHELL=/bin/sh. File descriptor
     3 will be open for reading and writing.  The authentication program
     should write one or more of the following strings to this file descrip-

     authorize  The user has been authorized.

     authorize secure
                The user has been authorized and root should be allowed to lo-
                gin even if this is not a secure terminal.  This should only
                be sent by authentication styles that are secure over insecure

     reject     Authorization is rejected.  This overrides any indication that
                the user was authorized (though one would question the wisdom
                in sending both a reject and an authorize command).

     reject challenge
                Authorization was rejected and a challenge has been made
                available via the value challenge.

     reject silent
                Authorization is rejected, but no error messages should be

     remove file
                If the login session fails for any reason, remove file before
                termination (a kerberos ticket file, for example).

     setenv name value
                If the login session succeeds, the environment variable name
                should be set to the specified value.

     unsetenv name
                If the login session succeeds, the environment variable name
                should be removed.

     value name value
                Set the internal variable name to the specified value. The
                value should only contain printable characters.  Several \ se-
                quences may be used to introduce non printing characters.
                These are:

                \n      A newline

                \r      A carriage return

                \t      A tab

                \xxx    The character represented by the octal value xxx. The
                        value may be one, two, or three octal digits.

                \c      The string is replaced by the value of c. This allows
                        quoting an initial space or the \ character itself.

                The following values are currently defined:

                        See section on challenges below.

                        If set, the value is the reason authentication failed.
                        The calling program may choose to display this when
                        rejecting the user, but display is not required.

     In order for authentication to be successful, the authentication program
     must exit with a value of 0 as well as provide an authorize or authorize
     root statement on file descriptor 3.

     An authentication program must not assume it will be called as root, nor
     must it assume it will not be called as root.  If it needs special per-
     missions to access files it should be setuid or setgid to the appropriate
     user/group.  See chmod(1).

     When an authentication program is called with a service of challenge it
     should do one of three things:

     If this style of authentication supports challenge response it should set
     the internal variable challenge to be the appropriate challenge for the
     user.  This is done by the value command listed above.  The program
     should also issue a reject challenge and then exit with a 0 status.  See
     the section on responses below.

     If this style of authentication does not support challenge response, but
     does support the response service (described below) it should issue
     reject silent and then exit with a 0 status.

     If this style of authentication does not support the response service it
     should simply fail, complaining about an unknown service type.  It should
     exit with a non-zero status.

     When an authentication program is called with a service of response, and
     this style supports this mode of authentication, it should read two null
     terminated strings from file descriptor 3.  The first string is a chal-
     lenge that was issued to the user (obtained from the challenge service
     above).  The second string is the response the user gave (i.e., the pass-
     word).  If the response is correct for the specified challenge, the au-
     thentication should be accepted, else it should be rejected.  It is pos-
     sible for the challenge to be any empty string, which implies the calling
     program did first obtain a challenge prior to getting a response from the
     user.  Not all authentication styles support empty challenges.

     An approval program has the synopsis of:

          approve [-v name=value] username class service

     Just as with an authentication program, file descriptor 3 will be open
     for writing when the approval program is executed.  The -v option is the
     same as in the authentication program.  Unlike an authentication program,
     the approval program need not explicitly send an authorize or authorize
     root statement, it only need exit with a value of 0 or non-zero.  An exit
     value of 0 is equivalent to an authorize statement, and non-zero to a
     reject statement.  This allows for simple programs which have no informa-
     tion to provide other than approval or denial.

     A classify program has the synopsis of:

          classify [-v name=value] [-f] [user]

     See login(1) for a description of the -f, option.  The -v option is the
     same as for the authentication programs.  The user is the username passed
     to login(1) login, if any.

     The typical job of the classify program is to determine what authentica-
     tion type should actually be used, presumably based on the remote IP ad-
     dress.  It might also re-specify the hostname to be included in the
     utmp(5) file, reject the login attempt out right, or even print an addi-
     tional login banner (e.g., /etc/issue).

     The classify entry is only valid for the default class as it is used pri-
     or to knowing who the user is.  The classify script may pass environment
     variables or other commands back to login(1) on file descriptor 3, just
     as an authentication program does.  The two variables AUTH_TYPE and
     REMOTE_NAME are used to specify a new authentication type (the type must
     have the form auth-type) and override the -h option to login, respective-

     login(1), authenticate(3), bsd_auth(3), getcap(3), login_cap(3),
     passwd(5), ttys(5), ftpd(8)

OpenBSD 3.1                      June 18, 2001                               9


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