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lockf(3C)		 Standard C Library Functions		     lockf(3C)

NAME
       lockf - record locking on files

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<unistd.h>

       int lockf(int fildes, int function, off_t size);

DESCRIPTION
       The  lockf()  function allows sections of a file	to be locked; advisory
       or mandatory write locks	depending  on the mode bits of the  file  (see
       chmod(2)). Calls	to lockf() from	other threads that attempt to lock the
       locked file section will	either return an error	value  or  be  put  to
       sleep  until the	resource becomes unlocked. All the locks for a process
       are removed when	the process terminates.	See fcntl(2) for more informa-
       tion about record locking.

       The  fildes  argument  is  an open file descriptor. The file descriptor
       must have O_WRONLY or O_RDWR permission in  order  to  establish	 locks
       with this function call.

       The  function  argument is a control value that specifies the action to
       be taken. The permissible values	for function are defined in <unistd.h>
       as follows:

       #define	 F_ULOCK   0   /* unlock previously locked section */
       #define	 F_LOCK	   1   /* lock section for exclusive use */
       #define	 F_TLOCK   2   /* test & lock section for exclusive use	*/
       #define	 F_TEST	   3   /* test section for other locks */

       All  other  values  of  function	are reserved for future	extensions and
       will result in an error if not implemented.

       F_TEST is used to detect	if a lock by another process is	present	on the
       specified  section. F_LOCK and F_TLOCK both lock	a section of a file if
       the section is available. F_ULOCK removes locks from a section  of  the
       file.

       The  size  argument  is	the number of contiguous bytes to be locked or
       unlocked. The resource to be locked or unlocked starts at  the  current
       offset in the file and extends forward for a positive size and backward
       for a negative size (the	preceding bytes	up to but  not	including  the
       current	offset).  If size is zero, the section from the	current	offset
       through the largest file	offset is locked (that is,  from  the  current
       offset through the present or any future	end-of-file). An area need not
       be allocated to the file	in order to be locked as such locks may	 exist
       past the	end-of-file.

       The  sections  locked  with F_LOCK or F_TLOCK may, in whole or in part,
       contain or be contained by a previously locked  section	for  the  same
       process.	 Locked	sections will be unlocked starting at the point	of the
       offset through size bytes or to the end of file if size is  (off_t)  0.
       When  this  situation  occurs,  or if this situation occurs in adjacent
       sections, the sections are combined  into  a  single  section.  If  the
       request	requires  that	a  new element be added	to the table of	active
       locks and this table is already full, an	error is returned, and the new
       section is not locked.

       F_LOCK  and  F_TLOCK  requests  differ  only by the action taken	if the
       resource	is not available. F_LOCK blocks	the calling thread  until  the
       resource	is available. F_TLOCK causes the function to return -1 and set
       errno to	EAGAIN if the section is already locked	by another process.

       File locks are released on first	close by the locking  process  of  any
       file descriptor for the file.

       F_ULOCK	requests  may, in whole	or in part, release one	or more	locked
       sections	controlled  by	the  process.  When  sections  are  not	 fully
       released,  the  remaining  sections  are	 still	locked by the process.
       Releasing the center section of a locked	section	requires an additional
       element	in  the	table of active	locks. If this table is	full, an errno
       is set to EDEADLK and the requested section is not released.

       An F_ULOCK request in which size	is non-zero and	the offset of the last
       byte  of	 the  requested	 section is the	maximum	value for an object of
       type off_t, when	the process has	an existing lock in which  size	 is  0
       and  which  includes  the  last	byte of	the requested section, will be
       treated as a request to unlock from the start of	the requested  section
       with  a	size equal to 0. Otherwise, an F_ULOCK request will attempt to
       unlock only the requested section.

       A potential for deadlock	occurs if the threads of a process controlling
       a  locked  resource  is	put  to	 sleep by requesting another process's
       locked resource.	Thus calls to lockf() or fcntl(2) scan for a  deadlock
       prior  to  sleeping  on	a  locked resource. An error return is made if
       sleeping	on the locked resource would cause a deadlock.

       Sleeping	on a resource is interrupted with  any	signal.	 The  alarm(2)
       function	may be used to provide a timeout facility in applications that
       require this facility.

RETURN VALUES
       Upon successful completion, 0 is	returned.  Otherwise, -1  is  returned
       and errno is set	to indicate the	error.

ERRORS
       The lockf() function will fail if:

       EBADF		       The  fildes  argument  is not a valid open file
			       descriptor; or function is  F_LOCK  or  F_TLOCK
			       and  fildes is not a valid file descriptor open
			       for writing.

       EACCES or EAGAIN	       The function argument is	F_TLOCK	or F_TEST  and
			       the   section  is  already  locked  by  another
			       process.

       EDEADLK		       The function argument is	F_LOCK and a  deadlock
			       is detected.

       EINTR		       A  signal  was  caught  during execution	of the
			       function.

       ECOMM		       The fildes argument is on a remote machine  and
			       the link	to that	machine	is no longer active.

       EINVAL		       The  function  argument	is  not	one of F_LOCK,
			       F_TLOCK,	F_TEST,	or F_ULOCK; or size  plus  the
			       current file offset is less than	0.

       EOVERFLOW	       The  offset  of	the first, or if size is not 0
			       then the	last, byte in  the  requested  section
			       cannot be represented correctly in an object of
			       type off_t.

       The lockf() function may	fail if:

       EAGAIN		       The function argument is	F_LOCK or F_TLOCK  and
			       the file	is mapped with mmap(2).

       EDEADLK or ENOLCK       The  function  argument	is F_LOCK, F_TLOCK, or
			       F_ULOCK and the request would cause the	number
			       of locks	to exceed a system-imposed limit.

       EOPNOTSUPP or EINVAL    The  locking  of	files of the type indicated by
			       the fildes argument is not supported.

USAGE
       Record-locking should not be used in combination	 with  the  fopen(3C),
       fread(3C),  fwrite(3C)  and  other  stdio functions.  Instead, the more
       primitive, non-buffered functions (such as  open(2))  should  be	 used.
       Unexpected results may occur in processes that do buffering in the user
       address space.  The process may	later  read/write  data	 which	is/was
       locked.	 The  stdio functions are the most common source of unexpected
       buffering.

       The alarm(2) function may be used to  provide  a	 timeout  facility  in
       applications requiring it.

       The  lockf() function has a transitional	interface for 64-bit file off-
       sets.  See lf64(5).

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |MT-Level		     |MT-Safe			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       intro(2), alarm(2), chmod(2), close(2),	creat(2),  fcntl(2),  mmap(2),
       open(2),	read(2), write(2), attributes(5), lf64(5), standards(5)

SunOS 5.10			  10 Apr 2002			     lockf(3C)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | USAGE | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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