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ln(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ln(1)

       ln - link files and directories

       file1 new_file

       file1 [file2 ...]  dest_directory

       directory1 [directory2 ...]  dest_directory

       The command links:

	      o	 file1 to a new	or existing new_file,

	      o	 file1	to  a  new  or	existing  file named file1 in existing

	      o	 file1,	file2, ...  to new or existing files of	the same  name
		 in existing dest_directory,

	      o	 directory1,  directory2, ...	to new directories of the same
		 name in existing dest_directory,

	      o	 or it creates symbolic	links between files or between	direc-

       If  links  are to dest_directory, corresponding file or directory names
       in that directory are linked to file1, file2, ..., or  directory1,  di-
       rectory2, ...,  etc., as	appropriate.  If two or	more existing files or
       directories (excluding destination file name new_file)  are  specified,
       the  destination	 must be a directory.  If new_file already exists as a
       regular file (or	link to	another	file), its contents (or	 the  existing
       link)  and  its ACL are destroyed only if the option is specified.  The
       ACL on the new_file  after  the	link  is  the  same  as	 that  of  the
       source_file file.

       If the and options are specified	and the	link being created is the name
       of an existing link or ordinary file and	the access permissions of  the
       file forbid writing, asks permission to overwrite the file.  If the ac-
       cess permissions	of the directory forbid	writing,  aborts  and  returns
       with the	error message:

       (even  if the file is an	ordinary file and not a	link to	another	file).
       When asking for permission to  overwrite	 an  existing  file  or	 link,
       prints the mode (see chmod(2) and below), followed by the first letters
       of the words and	in the current native language,	prompting  for	a  re-
       sponse,	and reading one	line from the standard input.  If the response
       is affirmative and is permissible, the operation	occurs;	 if  not,  the
       command proceeds	to the next source file, if any.

       Hard  links are created with the	same ownerships	and permissions	as the
       file or directory to which they are linked.  If	ownership  or  permis-
       sions  are changed on a link or file, the same changes appear on	corre-
       sponding	hard links.  The command does not permit hard links to	a  di-

       Symbolic	 links	are  created with the ownership	of the creator and the
       permissions are of the creator's	current	umask.	Once created, the sym-
       bolic  link  ownership  and permissions will not	change,	since the mode
       and ownership of	the symbolic link is ignored by	the system.

       If file1	is a file and new_file is a link to an existing	file or	an ex-
       isting file with	other links, new_file is disassociated from the	exist-
       ing file	and links and linked to	file1.	When creates a link to	a  new
       or  existing file name, ownerships and permissions are always identical
       to those	for the	file to	which it is linked.  If	or is used  to	change
       ownership  or  permissions of a file or link, the change	applies	to the
       file and	all associated links.  The last	modification time and last ac-
       cess  time  of  the  file  and  all associated links are	identical (see
       chown(1)	and chmod(1)).

       For a discussion	of symbolic links, see symlink(4).

       The command recognizes the following options:

	      Force existing destination
		      path names to be removed to allow	the link.

	      Write a prompt to	the standard error output
		      requesting confirmation for each link that  would	 over-
		      write  an	 existing file.	 This option takes effect only
		      if used in conjunction with the option.

	      Cause   to create	symbolic  links	 instead  of  the  usual  hard
		      links.  A	symbolic link contains the name	of the file to
		      which it is linked.  The referenced file is used when an
		      operation	 is performed on the link (see open(2)).  A on
		      a	symbolic link returns the linked-to file; an  must  be
		      performed	 to  obtain  information  about	 the link (see
		      stat(2)).	 A call	can be used to read  the  contents  of
		      the symbolic link	(see readlink(2)).  Symbolic links may
		      span file	systems	and refer to directories.

   Access Control Lists	(ACLs)
       If optional ACL entries are associated with new_file, displays  a  plus
       sign  after  the	 access	 mode  when asking permission to overwrite the

       If new_file is a	new file, it  inherits	the  access  control  list  of
       file1,  altered	to reflect any difference in ownership between the two
       files (see acl(5) and aclv(5)).	In JFS file systems, new files created
       by  do  not  inherit  their  parent directory's default ACL entries (if
       any), but instead retain	their original ACLs.

   Environment Variables
       determines the interpretation of	text as	single byte  and/or  multibyte

       and determine the local language	equivalent of (for yes/no queries).

       determines the language in which	messages are displayed.

       If  is  not specified in	the environment	or is set to the empty string,
       the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or  empty	 vari-
       able.   If is not specified or is set to	the empty string, a default of
       (see lang(5)) is	used instead of	If any	internationalization  variable
       contains	 an  invalid  setting,	behaves	as if all internationalization
       variables are set to See	environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single byte and multibyte character code	sets are supported.

       The following command creates and in which are linked back to the orig-
       inal files and

       If  and/or  exists  in the destination directory, it is removed and re-
       placed by a link	to or respectively.  If	existing file or is a link  to
       another file or a file with links, the existing file remains.  Only the
       link is broken and replaced by a	new link to or

       does not	create hard links across file systems.

       Access control lists of networked files are summarized (as returned  in
       by  but not copied to the new file.  When using on such files, a	is not
       printed after the mode value when asking	for permission to overwrite  a

       was developed by	AT&T, the University of	California, Berkeley and HP.

       cp(1),  cpio(1),	 mv(1),	 rm(1),	 link(1M),  readlink(2), stat(2), sym-
       link(2),	symlink(4), acl(5), aclv(5).



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