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lfcompile(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	  lfcompile(5)

NAME
       lfcompile - large file compilation environment for 32-bit applications

DESCRIPTION
       All  64-bit  applications  can  manipulate  large files by default. The
       methods described on this page allow 32-bit applications	to  manipulate
       large files.

       In  the large file compilation environment, source interfaces are bound
       to appropriate 64-bit functions,	structures, and	types.	 Compiling  in
       this  environment allows	32-bit applications to access files whose size
       is greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

       Each interface named xxx() that needs  to  access  64-bit  entities  to
       access  large files maps	to a xxx64() call in the resulting binary. All
       relevant	data types are defined to be of	 correct  size	(for  example,
       off_t has a typedef definition for a 64-bit entity).

       An  application	compiled  in this environment is able to use the xxx()
       source interfaces to access both	large and  small  files,  rather  than
       having  to  explicitly utilize the transitional xxx64() interface calls
       to access large files. See the lfcompile64(5) manual page for  informa-
       tion regarding the transitional compilation environment.

       Applications  can be compiled in	the large file compilation environment
       by using	the following methods:

	 o  Use	the getconf(1) utility with  one  or  more  of	the  arguments
	    listed in the table	below. This method is recommended for portable
	    applications.

       +------------------+----------------------------------------+
       |    argument	  |		   purpose		   |
       |LFS_CFLAGS	  | obtain compilation flags necessary	to |
       |		  | enable   the  large	 file  compilation |
       |		  | environment				   |
       |LFS_LDFLAGS	  | obtain link	editor options		   |
       |LFS_LIBS	  | obtain link	library	names		   |
       |LFS_LINTFLAGS	  | obtain lint	options			   |
       +------------------+----------------------------------------+

	 o  Set	the compile-time flag _FILE_OFFSET_BITS	to 64 before including
	    any	 headers.  Applications	 may  combine  objects produced	in the
	    large file compilation environment with objects  produced  in  the
	    transitional  compilation  environment,  but  must be careful with
	    respect to interoperability	between	 those	objects.  Applications
	    should  not	 declare  global variables of types whose sizes	change
	    between  compilation environments.

   Access to Additional	Large File Interfaces
       The fseek() and	ftell()	 functions  do	not  map  to  functions	 named
       fseek64()  and ftell64(); rather, the large file	additions fseeko() and
       ftello(), have functionality identical to fseek() and  ftell()  and  do
       map  to	the  64-bit  functions fseeko64() and ftello64(). Applications
       wishing to access large files should use	fseeko() and ftello() in place
       of  fseek()  and	 ftell(). See the fseek(3C) and	ftell(3C) manual pages
       for information about  fseeko() and ftello().

       Applications wishing to access  fseeko()	and ftello() as	 well  as  the
       POSIX  and X/Open specification-conforming interfaces should define the
       macro _LARGEFILE_SOURCE to be 1 and set whichever feature  test	macros
       are appropriate to obtain the desired environment (see standards(5)).

EXAMPLES
       In  the	following  examples, the large file compilation	environment is
       accessed	by invoking the	getconf	utility	 with  one  of	the  arguments
       listed  in  the	table  above. The additional large file	interfaces are
       accessed	by specifying -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE.

       The examples that use the form of command substitution  specifying  the
       command	within	parentheses  preceded by a dollar sign can be executed
       only in a POSIX-conforming shell	such as	the Korn Shell	(see  ksh(1)).
       In  a shell that	is not POSIX-conforming, such as the Bourne Shell (see
       sh(1)) and the C	Shell (see csh(1)), the	getconf	calls must be enclosed
       within grave accent marks, as shown in the second example.

       Example 1: An example of	compiling a program with a "large"  off_t, and
       that uses fseeko(), ftello(), and yacc(1)

       $ c89 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE		\
	     -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -o foo	\
	     $(getconf LFS_CFLAGS) y.tab.c b.o	\
	     $(getconf LFS_LDFLAGS)		\
	     -ly $(getconf LFS_LIBS)

       Example 2: An example of	compiling a program with a "large" off_t  that
       does  not  use  fseeko()	 and  ftello() and has no application specific
       libraries:

       % c89 -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64	\
	     `getconf LFS_CFLAGS` a.c	\
	     `getconf LFS_LDFLAGS`	\
	     `getconf LFS_LIBS`		\

       Example 3: An example of	compiling a program with  a  "default"	 off_t
       and that	uses fseeko() and ftello():

       $ c89 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE  a.c

SEE ALSO
       csh(1),	getconf(1),  ksh(1),  lint(1B),	 sh(1),	 fseek(3C), ftell(3C),
       lf64(5),	lfcompile64(5),	standards(5)

NOTES
       Certain system-specific or non-portable interfaces are  not  usable  in
       the large file compilation environment.	Known cases are:

	 o  Kernel data	structures read	from /dev/kmem.

	 o  Interfaces in the kernel virtual memory library, -lkvm.

	 o  Interfaces in the ELF access library, -lelf.

	 o  Interfaces to /proc	defined	in <procfs.h>.

	 o  The	ustat(2) system	call.

       Programs	 that use these	interfaces should not be compiled in the large
       file compilation	environment.  As a partial  safeguard  against	making
       this  mistake,  including  either  of  the <libelf.h> or	<sys/procfs.h>
       header files will induce	a compilation error when the large file	compi-
       lation environment is enabled.

       In  general, caution should be exercised	when using any separately-com-
       piled library whose interfaces include data items of type off_t or  the
       other  redefined	 types	either	directly  or  indirectly, such as with
       'struct stat'. (The redefined types are off_t, rlim_t, ino_t, blkcnt_t,
       fsblkcnt_t, and fsfilcnt_t.) For	the large file compilation environment
       to work correctly with such a  library,	the  library  interfaces  must
       include	the appropriate	xxx64()	binary entry points and	must have them
       mapped to the corresponding primary functions when _FILE_OFFSET_BITS is
       set to 64.

       Care  should be exercised using any of the printf() or scanf() routines
       on variables of the types mentioned above.  In the large	file  compila-
       tion  environment,  these  variables should be printed or scanned using
       long long formats.

BUGS
       The  lint(1B)  utility  will  generate  spurious	 error	messages  when
       _FILE_OFFSET_BITS  is  set to 64.  This is because the binary libc lint
       library,	/usr/lib/llib-lc.ln, is	compiled only for the standard	inter-
       faces,  not  with _FILE_OFFSET_BITS set to 64.  This deficiency hampers
       static error-checking for programs compiled in the large	file  compila-
       tion environment.

       Symbolic	 formats  analogous to those found in <sys/int_fmtio.h>	do not
       exist for printing or scanning variables	of the types  that  are	 rede-
       fined in	the large file compilation environment.

SunOS 5.10			  23 Jul 2001			  lfcompile(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | BUGS

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