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LD(1)                   FreeBSD General Commands Manual                  LD(1)

     ld - link editor

     ld [-fMNnrSstXxz] [-A symbol-file] [-assert keyword] [-Blinkmode]
        [-D datasize] [-d c] [-d p] [-e entry] [-llibrary-specifier]
        [-Llibrary-search-path] [-nostdlib] [-O filename] [-o filename]
        [-Rrecord-library-search-path] [-T address] [-u symbol]
        [-V shlib-version] [-y symbol]

     ld combines the object and archive files given on the command line into a
     new object file. The output object file is either an executable program,
     a shared object suitable for loading at run-time, or an object file that
     can once again be processed by ld. Object files and archives are
     processed in the order given on the command line.

     The options are as follows:

     -A symbol-file
             The the symbol-file is taken as a base for link-editing the
             object files on the command line.

     -assert keyword
             This option is here mainly for compatibility with SunOS ld.  Most
             conditions which would cause a Sun assertion to fail will
             currently always cause error or warning messages from ld.  The
             only keyword implemented by ld is pure-text, which generates a
             warning if a position independent object is being created and
             some of the files being linked are not position independent.

             Specifies that linking against dynamic libraries can take place.
             If a library specifier of the form -lx appears on the command
             line, ld searches for a library of the from (see the
             -l option) according to the search rules in effect. If such a
             file can not be found a traditional archive is looked for.  This
             options can appear anywhere on the command line and is
             complementary to -Bstatic.

             This is similar to -Bdynamic except that if no dynamic libraries
             are linked against, ld will still produce a dynamic executable.
             This is useful for programs which are static but still need to
             load dynamic objects at runtime.

             The counterpart of -Bdynamic.  This option turns off dynamic
             linking for all library specifiers until a -Bdynamic is once
             again given. Any explicitly mentioned shared object encountered
             on the command line while this option is in effect is flagged as
             an error.

             Instructs the linker to build a shared object from the object
             files rather than a normal executable image.

             This option causes all symbolic references in the output to be
             resolved in this link-edit session. The only remaining run-time
             relocation requirements are base-relative relocations, ie.
             translation with respect to the load address. Failure to resolve
             any symbolic reference causes an error to be reported.

             Force all members of archives to be loaded, whether or not such
             members contribute a definition to any plain object files. Useful
             for making a shared library from an archive of PIC objects
             without having to unpack the archive.

             Search for .sa silly archive companions of shared objects. Useful
             for compatibility with version 3 shared objects.

     -D data-size
             Set the size of the data segment. For sanity's sake, this should
             be larger than the cumulative data sizes of the input files.

     -d c    Force allocation of commons even producing relocatable output.

     -d p    Force alias definitions of procedure calls in non-PIC code.
             Useful to obtain shareable code in the presence of run-time
             relocations as such calls will be re-directed through the
             Procedure Linkage Table (see link(5))

     -e entry-symbol
             Specifies the entry symbol for an executable.

     -f      List the resolved paths of all the object files and libraries on
             the standard output, and exit.

     -Lpath  Add path to the list of directories to search for libraries
             specified with the -l option.

             This option specifies a library to be considered for inclusion in
             the output. If the -Bdynamic option is in effect, a shared
             library of the form lib<spec>.so.m.n (where  m is the major, and
             n is the minor version number, respectively) is searched for
             first. The library with the highest version found in the search
             path is selected.  If no shared library is found or the -Bstatic
             options is in effect, an archive of the form lib<spec>.a is
             looked for in the library search path.

     -M      Produce output about the mapping of segments of the input files
             and the values assigned to (global) symbols in the output file.

     -N      Produce a OMAGIC output file.

     -n      Produce a NMAGIC output file.

             Do not search the built-in path (usually ``/usr/lib'') for -l
             specified libraries.

     -O filename
             Specifies the name of the output file.  The file is created as
             filename .tmp and when output is complete renamed to filename.

     -o filename
             Specifies the name of the output file. Defaults to ``a.out.''

     -Q      Produce a QMAGIC (FreeBSD/BSDi-i386) output file.  This is the

     -r      Produce relocatable object file, suitable for another pass
             through ld.

     -R      Record the given path within the executable for run-time library
             search.  This only applies to dynamically linked executables.

     -S      Strip all debugger symbols from the output.

     -s      Strip all symbols from the output.

     -T      Specifies the start address of the text segment, with respect to
             which all input files will be relocated.

     -t      Leave a trace of the input files as they are processed.

     -u symbol
             Force symbol to be marked as undefined. Useful to force loading
             of an archive member in the absence of any other references to
             that member.

     -V version
             Put the given version number into the output shared library (if
             one is created).  Useful to make shared libraries compatible with
             other operating systems. E.g., SunOS 4.x libraries use version
             number 3. Defaults to 8.

     -X      Discard local symbols in the input files that start with the
             letter ``L''

     -x      Discard all local symbols in the input files.

     -y symbol
             Trace the manipulations inflicted on symbol

     -Z      Make a 386BSD ZMAGIC output file.

     -z      Make a NetBSD ZMAGIC output file.

     ld utilizes the following environment variables:

     LD_LIBRARY_PATH  This colon-separated list of directories is inserted
                      into the search path for libraries following any
                      directories specified via -L options and preceding the
                      built-in path.

     rtld(1), link(5), ldconfig(8)

     An entry point must now explicitly be given if the output is intended to
     be a normal executable program. This was not the case for the previous
     version of ld.

     Shared objects are not properly checked for undefined symbols.

     Cascading of shared object defeats the ``-Bstatic'' option.

     All shared objects presented to ld are marked for run-time loading in the
     output file, even if no symbols are needed from them.

     A ld command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.  The shared library model
     employed by ld appeared first in SunOS 4.0

FreeBSD                        October 14, 1993                        FreeBSD


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