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LaTeX2HTML(1)		    Debian GNU/Linux manual		 LaTeX2HTML(1)

       latex2html - translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

       latex2html [options] [target [target ...]]

       This  manual page explains the LaTeX2HTML utility, which	is a Perl pro-
       gram that translates LaTeX document into	HTML format. For  each	source
       file  given  as an argument the translator will create a	directory con-
       taining the corresponding HTML files. For details and examples,	please
       consult the online html documentation, a	copy of	which should be	avail-
       able in	/usr/share/doc/latex2html/	or  /usr/share/doc/la-

       This documentation has been derived from	the TeX	manual,	and may	not be
       up to date. Please refer	to the online manual for  authoritative	 docu-

Options	controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning
       -t <top-page-title>
	      Same  as	setting: $TITLE	= _top-page-title_ ; Name the document
	      using this title.

	      Same as setting: $SHORTEXTN = 1; Use a filename prefix  of  .htm
	      for  the	produced  HTML	files. This is particularly useful for
	      creating pages to	be stored on CD-ROM or other media, to be used
	      with operating systems that require a 3-character	extension.

       -long_titles <num>
	      Same  as	setting: $LONG_TITLES =	_num_; Instead of the standard
	      names: node1.html, node2.html,...	the filenames  for  each  HTML
	      page  are	 constructed from the first <num> words	of the section
	      heading for that page, separated by the `_'  character.	Commas
	      and  common  short words (a an to	by of and for the) are omitted
	      from both	title and word-count.  Warning:	Use this  switch  with
	      great  caution.  Currently there are no checks for uniqueness of
	      names or overall length. Very long names can easily result  from
	      using this feature.

	      Same  as	setting:  $CUSTOM_TITLES  = 1; Instead of the standard
	      names: node1.html, node2.html, ... the filenames for  each  HTML
	      page  are	 constructed  using a Perl subroutine named custom_ti-
	      tle_hook . The user may define his/her own version of this  sub-
	      routine, within a	.latex2html-init file say, to override the de-
	      fault (which uses	the standard names). This subroutine takes the
	      section-heading  as  a  parameter	 and  must return the required
	      name, or the empty string	(default).

       -dir <output-directory>
	      Same as setting: $DESTDIR	= _output-directory_  ;	 Redirect  the
	      output  to the specified directory.  The default behaviour is to
	      create (or reuse)	a directory having the same name as the	prefix
	      of the document being processed.

	      Same  as setting:	$NO_SUBDIR = 1;	Place the generated HTML files
	      into the current directory. This overrides any $DESTDIR setting.

       -prefix <filename-prefix>
	      Same as setting: $PREFIX = _filename-prefix_  ;  The  <filename-
	      prefix>  will be prepended to all	.gif, .pl and .html files pro-
	      duced, except for	the top-level .html file;  it  may  include  a
	      (relative) directory path. This will enable multiple products of
	      LaTeX2HTML to peacefully coexist in the same directory. However,
	      do  not  attempt to simultaneously run multiple instances	of La-
	      TeX2HTML using the same output directory,	else various temporary
	      files will overwrite each	other.

	      Same  as	setting:  $AUTO_PREFIX	=  1; Constructs the prefix as
	      `<title>-' to be prepended to all	the files produced, where <ti-
	      tle>  is	the name of the	LaTeX file being processed.  (Note the
	      `-' in this prefix.)  This overrides any $PREFIX setting.

	      Same as setting: $NO_AUTO_LINK = 1; If  $NO_AUTO_LINK  is	 empty
	      and variables $LINKPOINT and $LINKNAME are defined appropriately
	      (as is the default in the	latex2html.config file), then  a  hard
	      link  to the main	HTML page is produced, using the name supplied
	      in $LINKNAME.  Typically this is index.html; on many  systems  a
	      file  of	this  name  will be used, if it	exists,	when a browser
	      tries to view a URL which	points to a directory. On  other  sys-
	      tems  a  different value for $LINKNAME may be appropriate. Typi-
	      cally $LINKPOINT has value $FILE.html,  but  this	 may  also  be
	      changed  to match	whichever HTML page is to become the target of
	      the automatic link.  Use of  the	-no_auto_link  switch  cancels
	      this automatic linking facility, when not	required for a partic-
	      ular document.

       -split <num>
	      Same as setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH	= _num_; (default is  8)  Stop
	      splitting	sections into separate files at	this depth. Specifying
	      -split 0 will put	the entire document into a single  HTML	 file.
	      See  below  for the different levels of sectioning. Also see the
	      next item	for how	to set a ``relative'' depth for	splitting.

       -split +<num>
	      Same as setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH	= -_num_; (default is  8)  The
	      level  at	which to stop splitting	sections is calculated ``rela-
	      tive to''	the shallowest level of	sectioning that	occurs	within
	      the  document.  For  example,  if	the document contains \section
	      commands,	but no \part or	\chapter commands, then	-split +1 will
	      cause  splitting	at  each \section but not at any deeper	level;
	      whereas -split +2	or -split +3 also split	 down  to  \subsection
	      and  \subsubsection  commands respectively. Specifying -split +0
	      puts the entire document into a single HTML file.

       -link <num>
	      Same as setting: $MAX_LINK_DEPTH = _num_;	 (default  is  4)  For
	      each  node, create links to child	nodes down to this much	deeper
	      than the node's sectioning-level.	 Specifying -link 0 will  show
	      no  links	 to child nodes	from that page,	-link 1	will show only
	      the immediate descendants, etc.  A value at least	as big as that
	      of  the -split <num> depth will produce a	mini table-of-contents
	      (when not	empty) on each page, for the tree structure rooted  at
	      that  node.   When the page has a	sectioning-level less than the
	      -split depth, so that the	a mini table-of-contents has links  to
	      other  HTML  pages,  this	 table is located at the bottom	of the
	      page, unless placed elsewhere using the \tableofchildlinks  com-
	      mand.   On  pages	 having	 a sectioning-level just less than the
	      -split depth the mini table-of-contents contains links  to  sub-
	      sections	etc. occurring on the same HTML	page. Now the table is
	      located at the top of this page, unless placed  elsewhere	 using
	      the \tableofchildlinks command.

       -toc_depth <num>
	      Same  as	setting: $TOC_DEPTH = _num_; (default is 4) Sectioning
	      levels down to <num> are to be included within the Table-of-Con-
	      tents tree.

	      Same  as	setting:  $TOC_STARS  =	 1; Sections created using the
	      starred-form of sectioning commands are included within the  Ta-
	      ble-of-Contents.	As  with LaTeX,	normally such sections are not

	      Same as setting: $SHOW_SECTION_NUMBERS = 1;  Show	 section  num-
	      bers. By default section numbers are not shown, so as to encour-
	      age the use of particular	sections as stand-alone	documents.  In
	      order  to	 be  shown, section titles must	be unique and must not
	      contain inlined graphics.

	      Same as setting: $UNSEGMENT = 1; Treat a segmented document (see
	      the  section  about document segmentation) like it were not seg-
	      mented. This will	cause the translator to	concatenate  all  seg-
	      ments and	process	them as	a whole. You might find	this useful to
	      check a segmented	document for consistency.  For	all  documents
	      the sectioning levels referred to	above are:
	       0  document
	       1  part
	       2  chapter
	       3  section
	       4  subsection
	       5  subsubsection
	       6  paragraph
	       7  subparagraph
	       8  subsubparagraph

       These  levels  apply  even when the document contains no	sectioning for
       the shallower levels; e.g. no \part or \chapter commands	is  most  com-
       mon, especially when using LaTeX's article document-class.

Options	controlling Extensions and Special Features
       The  switches  described	 here govern the type of HTML code that	can be
       generated, and how to choose between the	available options  when	 there
       are alternative strategies for implementing portions of LaTeX code.

       -html_version (2.0|3.0|3.2)[,(math|i18n|table)]*
	      Same  as setting:	$HTML_VERSION =	...  ; This specifies both the
	      HTML version to generate,	and any	extra (non-standard) HTML fea-
	      tures that may be	required.  The version number corresponds to a
	      published	DTD for	an HTML	standard (although 3.0 was  never  ac-
	      cepted and subsequently withdrawn). A corresponding Perl file in
	      the versions/ subdirectory is  loaded;  these  files  are	 named
	      `html<num>.pl'.  Following the version number, a comma-separated
	      list of extensions can be	given.	Each  corresponds  to  a  file
	      `<name>.pl'  also	 located  in  the versions/ subdirectory. When
	      such a file is loaded the	resulting HTML code can	no  longer  be
	      expected	to  validate  with  the	specified DTD. An exception is
	      math when	the -no_math switch is also used, which	 should	 still
	      validate.	  Currently,  versions 2.0, 3.2	and 4.0	are available.
	      (and also	2.1, 2.2, 3.0 and 3.1, for  historical	reasons).  The
	      extensions i18n, tables, math correspond roughly to what used to
	      be called	versions `2.1',	`2.2', `3.1' respectively, in releases
	      of  LaTeX2HTML  up  to  1996. Now	these extensions can be	loaded
	      with any of `2.0', `3.2' or `4.0'	 as  the  specified  standard.
	      The  default  version  is	 usually  set  to be `3.2', within la-

	      Same as setting: $TEXDEFS	= 0; (default is 1) When  $TEXDEFS  is
	      set  (default) the file texdefs.perl will	be read. This provides
	      code to allow common TEX commands	like \def, \newbox,  \newdimen
	      and  others,  to	be  recognised,	especially within the document
	      preamble.	In the case of \def, the definition may	even be	 fully
	      interpreted,  but	 this  requires	the pattern-matching to	be not
	      too complicated.	If $TEXDEFS is `0' or empty, then texdefs.perl
	      will  not	 be loaded; the	translator will	make no	attempt	to in-
	      terpret any raw TEX commands. This feature is intended to	enable
	      sophisticated  authors  the ability to insert arbitrary TEX com-
	      mands in environments that are destined to be processed by LaTeX
	      anyway;  e.g.  figures,  theorems,  pictures, etc.  However this
	      should rarely be needed, as now  there  is  better  support  for
	      these types of environment. There	are now	other methods to spec-
	      ify which	chunks of code are to be passed	to LaTeX for  explicit
	      image-generation;	 see  the discussion of	the makeimage environ-

       -external_file <filename>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_FILE =	 _filename_  ;	Specifies  the
	      prefix  of  the  .aux  file that this document should read.  The
	      .aux extension will be appended to this prefix to	get  the  com-
	      plete  filename, with directory path if needed.  This file could
	      contain necessary	information regarding citations, figure, table
	      and  section  numbers  from  LaTeX and perhaps other information
	      also. Use	of this	switch is vital	for  document  segments,  pro-
	      cessed  separately  and  linked to appear	as if generated	from a
	      single LaTeX document.

       -font_size <size>
	      Same as setting: $FONT_SIZE = _size_ ; This option provides bet-
	      ter  control over	the font size of environments made into	images
	      using LaTeX.  <size> must	be one of the font  sizes  that	 LaTeX
	      recognizes; i.e. `10pt', `11pt', `12pt', etc. Default is `10pt',
	      or whatever option may have been specified on the	\documentclass
	      or  \documentstyle  line.	 Whatever size is selected, it will be
	      magnified	 by  the  installation	variables  $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR,
	      $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR   and  $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR  as  appropriate.
	      Note: This switch	provides no control over the size of  text  on
	      the  HTML	 pages.	Such control is	subject	entirely to the	user's
	      choices of settings for the browser windows.

	      Same as setting: $SCALABLE_FONTS = 1; This is used when scalable
	      fonts,  such as PostScript versions of the TEX fonts, are	avail-
	      able  for	 image-generation.   It	 has  the  effect  of  setting
	      $PK_GENERATION  to  `1', and $DVIPS_MODE to be empty, overriding
	      any previous settings for	these variables.

	      Same as setting: $NO_SIMPLE_MATH = 1; Ordinarily	simple	mathe-
	      matical  expressions  are	 set using the ordinary	text font, but
	      italicized. When part of the expression can not  be  represented
	      this  way, an image is made of the whole formula.	This is	called
	      ``simple math''. When $NO_SIMPLE_MATH is set, then all mathemat-
	      ics is made into images, whether simple or not.  However,	if the
	      math extension is	loaded,	using  the  -html_version  switch  de-
	      scribed  earlier,	then specifying	-no_math produces a quite dif-
	      ferent effect. Now it is the special <MATH>  tags	 and  entities
	      which  are  canceled.  In	their place a sophisticated scheme for
	      parsing mathematical expressions is used.	 Images	 are  made  of
	      those  sub-parts	of  a  formula	which cannot be	adequately ex-
	      pressed using (italicized) text characters and <SUB>  and	 <SUP>
	      tags. See	the subsection on mathematics for more details.

	      Same  as	setting: $LOCAL_ICONS =	1; A copy of each of the icons
	      actually used within the document	is  placed  in	the  directory
	      along  with the HTML files and generated images. This allows the
	      whole document to	be fully self-contained,  within  this	direc-
	      tory;  otherwise the icons must be retrieved from	a (perhaps re-
	      mote) server.  The icons are normally copied from	a subdirectory
	      of the

	       set  within  latex2html.config. An alternative set of icons can
	      be used by specifying a (relative) directory path	 in  $ALTERNA-
	      TIVE_ICONS to where the customised images	can be found.

       -init_file <file>
	      Load  the	 specified initialisation file.	This Perl file will be
	      loaded after loading $HOME/.latex2html-init, or .latex2html-init
	      in the local directory, if either	file exists. It	is read	at the
	      time the switch is processed, so the contents of	the  file  may
	      change  any of the values	of any of the variables	that were pre-
	      viously established, as well as any default options.  More  than
	      one  initialisation  file	 can be	read in	this way.  [change_be-

	      Same as setting: $NOFORK = 1; When set this disables  a  feature
	      in  the  early part of the processing whereby some memory-inten-
	      sive operations are performed by `forked'	child processes.  Some
	      single-task  operating systems, such as DOS, do not support this
	      feature. Having $NOFORK set then ensures that unnecessary	 file-
	      handles  that are	needed with the	forked processes, are not con-
	      sumed unnecessarily, perhaps resulting in	a fatal	Perl error.

       -iso_language <type>
	      This enables you to specify a different language type than  'EN'
	      to  be  used  in	the  DTD  entries  of  the HTML	document, e.g.
	      'EN.US'.	[change_end] 98.1

	      Same as setting: $SHORT_INDEX = 1; Creates shorter  Index	 list-
	      ings,  using  codified  links; this is fully compatible with the
	      makeidx package.

	      Same as setting: $NO_FOOTNODE = 1; Suppresses use	of a  separate
	      file  for	 footnotes;  instead these are placed at the bottom of
	      the HTML pages where the references occur.  When this option  is
	      used,  it	 is  frequently	 desirable  to change the style	of the
	      marker used to indicate the presence of a	footnote. This is done
	      as  in  LaTeX,  using code such as follows.  \renewcommand{\the-
	      footnote}{\arabic{footnote}} All the styles \arabic, \alph, \ro-
	      man, \Alph and \Roman are	available.  [change_begin]98.1

	      Same  as	setting:  $NUMBERED_FOOTNOTES  = 1; If this is set you
	      will get every footnote applied with  a  subsequent  number,  to
	      ease readability.	 [change_end] 98.1

       -address	<author-address>
	      Same  as	setting:  $ADDRESS = _author-address_ ;	Sign each page
	      with this	address.  See latex2html.config	for an	example	 using
	      Perl  code  to  automatically  include the date.	A user-defined
	      Perl subroutine called &custom_address can be used  instead,  if
	      defined;	it  takes  the value of	$ADDRESS as a parameter, which
	      may be used or ignored as	desired. At the	time when this subrou-
	      tine  will be called, variables named $depth, $title, $file hold
	      the sectioning-level, title and filename of the HTML page	 being
	      produced;	 $FILE	holds  the name	of the filename	for the	title-
	      page of the whole	document.

       -info <string>
	      Same as setting: $INFO =	_string_  ;  Generate  a  new  section
	      ``About  this  document''	containing information about the docu-
	      ment being translated. The default is to generate	such a section
	      with  information	 on  the original document, the	date, the user
	      and the translator. An empty string (or the value	`0')  disables
	      the  creation  of	 this extra section.  If a non-empty string is
	      given, it	will be	placed as the contents	of  the	 ``About  this
	      document'' page instead of the default information.

Switches controlling Image Generation
       These  switches	affect	whether	images are created at all, whether old
       images are reused on subsequent runs or new ones	 created  afresh,  and
       whether anti-aliasing effects are used within the images	themselves.

	      Same  as	setting:  $ASCII_MODE =	$EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use only
	      ASCII characters and do not include any images in	the final out-
	      put.  With  -ascii_mode the output of the	translator can be used
	      on character-based browsers, such	as lynx, which do not  support
	      inlined images (via the <IMG> tag).

	      Same as setting: $NOLATEX	= 1; Disable the mechanism for passing
	      unknown environments  to	LaTeX  for  processing.	 This  can  be
	      thought  of as ``draft mode'' which allows faster	translation of
	      the basic	document structure and text,  without  fancy  figures,
	      equations	 or  tables.   (This option has	been superseded	by the
	      -no_images option, see below.)

	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_IMAGES	= 1; Instead of	including  any
	      generated	 images	 inside	 the  document,	leave them outside the
	      document and provide hypertext links to them.

	      Same as setting: $PS_IMAGES = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use links to
	      external PostScript files	rather than inlined images in the cho-
	      sen graphics format.

	      Same as setting: $DISCARD_PS = 1;	The temporary PostScript files
	      are  discarded  immediately  after they have been	used to	create
	      the image	in the desired graphics	format.

	      Same as setting: $NO_IMAGES = 1; Do not attempt to  produce  any
	      inlined images. The missing images can be	generated ``off-line''
	      by restarting LaTeX2HTML with the	option -images_only .

	      Same as setting: $IMAGES_ONLY = 1; Try to	 convert  any  inlined
	      images that were left over from previous runs of LaTeX2HTML.

       -reuse <reuse_option>
	      Same  as setting:	$REUSE = _reuse_option_; This switch specifies
	      the extent to which image	files are to be	 shared	 or  recycled.
	      There  are three valid options: [*] 0 Do not ever	share or recy-
	      cle image	files.	This choice also invokes an  interactive  ses-
	      sion  prompting  the  user about what to do about	a pre-existing
	      HTML directory, if it exists.  [*] 1 Recycle image files from  a
	      previous	run  if	they are available, but	do not share identical
	      images that must be created in this run.	[*]  2	Recycle	 image
	      files  from  a previous run and share identical images from this
	      run.  This is the	default.  A later section provides  additional
	      information about	image-reuse.

	      Same as setting: $REUSE =	0; Do not share	or recycle images gen-
	      erated during previous translations.  This is equivalent to -re-
	      use 0 . (This will enable	the initial interactive	session	during
	      which the	user is	asked whether  to  reuse  the  old  directory,
	      delete its contents or quit.)

	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 1;	(Default is 0.)	 Generated im-
	      ages of figure environments and external PostScript files	should
	      use  anti-aliasing.  By  default	anti-aliasing is not used with
	      these images, since this may interfere with the contents of  the
	      images themselves.

	      Same  as	setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 1; (Default	is 1.)	Gener-
	      ated images of typeset material such as text, mathematical  for-
	      mulas,  tables and the content of	makeimage environments,	should
	      use anti-aliasing	effects.  The default is normally to use anti-
	      aliasing	for  text, since the resulting images are much clearer
	      on-screen. However the default may have been changed locally.

	      Same as setting: $ANTI_ALIAS = 0;	(Default is 0.)	 Generated im-
	      ages of figure environments and external PostScript files	should
	      not use anti-aliasing with images, though	the local default  may
	      have been	changed	to use it.

	      Same  as	setting: $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 0; (Default	is 1.)	Gener-
	      ated images of typeset material should not use anti-aliasing ef-
	      fects. Although on-screen	images of text are definitely improved
	      using anti-aliasing, printed images can be badly	blurred,  even
	      at  300dpi. Higher resolution printers do	a much better job with
	      the resulting grey-scale images.	[change_begin]98.1

       -white Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = 1; (Default is 1.)  Ensures
	      that  images  of	figure	environments  have a white background.
	      Otherwise	transparency effects may not work correctly.

	      Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = ''; (Default	is  1.)	  Can-
	      cels the requirement that	figure environments have a white back-

       -ldump Same as setting: $LATEX_DUMP = 1;	(Default is 0.)	 Use  this  if
	      you  want	to speed up image processing during the	2nd and	subse-
	      quent runs of LaTeX2HTML on the same  document.  The  translator
	      now  produces  a LaTeX format-dump of the	preamble to images.tex
	      which is used on subsequent runs.	This significantly reduces the
	      startup time when	LaTeX reads the	images.tex file	for image-gen-
	      eration.	This process actually consumes additional time on  the
	      first  run,  since  LaTeX	 is called twice -- once to create the
	      format-dump, then	again to load and use it.  The	pay-off	 comes
	      with  the	faster loading on subsequent runs. Approximately 1 Meg
	      of disk space is consumed	by the dump file.  [change_end]	98.1

Switches controlling Navigation	Panels
       The following switches govern whether to	include	one or more navigation
       panels  on  each	HTML page, also	which buttons to include within	such a

	      Same as setting: $NO_NAVIGATION =	1; Disable the	mechanism  for
	      putting  navigation links	in each	page.  This overrides any set-
	      GATION variables.

	      Same  as	setting:  $TOP_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
	      the top of each page.

	      Same as setting: $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
	      the bottom of each page as well as the top.

	      Same  as	setting: $AUTO_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
	      the top of each page. Also put one at the	bottom of the page, if
	      the page exceeds $WORDS_IN_PAGE number of	words (default = 450).

	      Same as setting: $NEXT_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION	= 1; Put a link	to the
	      next logical page	in the navigation panel.

	      Same as setting: $PREVIOUS_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to
	      the previous logical page	in the navigation panel.

	      Same  as setting:	$CONTENTS_IN_NAVIGATION	= 1; Put a link	to the
	      table-of-contents	in the navigation panel	if there is one.

	      Same as setting: $INDEX_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the in-
	      dex-page in the navigation panel if there	is an index.

Switches for Linking to	other documents
       When  processing	 a single stand-alone document,	the switches described
       in this section should not be needed at all,  since  the	 automatically
       generated navigation panels, described on the previous page should gen-
       erate all the required navigation links.	However	if a document is to be
       regarded	 as  part of a much larger document, then links	from its first
       and final pages,	to locations in	other parts of	the  larger  (virtual)
       document, need to be provided explicitly	for some of the	buttons	in the
       navigation panel.  The following	switches allow for such	links to other
       documents,  by  providing the title and URL for navigation panel	hyper-
       links. In particular, the ``Document Segmentation'' feature necessarily
       makes great use of these	switches. It is	usual for the text and targets
       of these	navigation hyperlinks to be recorded in	a Makefile,  to	 avoid
       tedious typing of long command-lines having many	switches.

       -up_url <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_LINK = _URL_ ; Specifies a univer-
	      sal resource locator (URL) to associate with the	``UP''	button
	      in the navigation	panel(s).

       -up_title <string>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE = _string_ ; Specifies a ti-
	      tle associated with this URL.

       -prev_url <URL>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_LINK = _URL_ ; Specifies	a  URL
	      to  associate  with  the	``PREVIOUS''  button in	the navigation

       -prev_title <string>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE = _string_ ;  Specifies  a
	      title associated with this URL.

       -down_url <URL>
	      Same  as	setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_LINK = _URL_ ; Specifies a URL
	      for the ``NEXT'' button in the navigation	panel(s).

       -down_title <string>
	      Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE = _string_ ;  Specifies  a
	      title associated with this URL.

       -contents <URL>
	      Same  as	setting:  $EXTERNAL_CONTENTS = _URL_ ; Specifies a URL
	      for the ``CONTENTS'' button, for document	 segments  that	 would
	      not otherwise have one.

       -index <URL>
	      Same  as	setting: $EXTERNAL_INDEX = _URL_ ; Specifies a URL for
	      the ``INDEX'' button, for	document segments that otherwise would
	      not have an index.

       -biblio <URL>
	      Same  as	setting:  $EXTERNAL_BIBLIO = _URL_ ; Specifies the URL
	      for the bibliography page	to be used, when not  explicitly  part
	      of  the  document	itself.	 Warning: On some systems it is	diffi-
	      cult to give text-strings	<string> containing space  characters,
	      on  the command-line or via a Makefile. One way to overcome this
	      is to use	the corresponding variable. Another way	is to  replace
	      the spaces with underscores (_).

Switches for Help and Tracing
       The  first  two	of  the	 following switches are	self-explanatory. When
       problems	arise in processing a document,	the switches -debug and	 -ver-
       bosity  will  each  cause  LaTeX2HTML  to  generate  more output	to the
       screen. These extra messages should help	to locate  the	cause  of  the

       -tmp <path>
	      Define  a	 temporary  directory  to use for image	generation. If
	      <path> is	0, the standard	temporary directory /tmp is used.

	      Print out	the list of all	command-line options.

       -v     Print the	current	version	of LaTeX2HTML.

       -debug Same as setting: $DEBUG =	1; Run in debug-mode, displaying  mes-
	      sages and/or diagnostic information about	files read, and	utili-
	      ties called by LaTeX2HTML.  Shows	any messages produced by these
	      calls.   More extensive diagnostics, from	the Perl debugger, can
	      be obtained by appending the string `-w-'	to the 1st line	of the
	      latex2html (and other) Perl script(s).

       -verbosity <num>
	      Same  as setting:	$VERBOSITY = _num_; Display messages revealing
	      certain aspects of the processing	performed by LaTeX2HTML	on the
	      provided input file(s). The <num>	parameter can be an integer in
	      the range	0 to 8.	Each higher value adds to  the	messages  pro-

       0.     No  special  tracing;  as	 for  versions	of LaTeX2HTML prior to

       1.     (This is the default.) Show section-headings and the correspond-
	      ing  HTML	 file  names,  and indicators that major stages	in the
	      processing have been completed.

       2.     Print environment	names and identifier numbers, and new theorem-
	      types.  Show  warnings  as  they	occur, and indicators for more
	      stages of	processing. Print names	of files for storing auxiliary
	      data arrays.

       3.     Print  command names as they are encountered and processed; also
	      any unknown  commands  encountered  while	 pre-processing.  Show
	      names  of	 new  commands,	 environments,	theorems, counters and
	      counter-dependencies, for	each document partition.

       4.     Indicate command-substitution the	pre-process  of	 math-environ-
	      ments. Print the contents	of unknown environments	for processing
	      in LaTeX,	both before and	after reverting	to LaTeX source.  Show
	      all  operations  affecting  the  values  of  counters. Also show
	      links, labels and	sectioning keys, at the	stages of processing.

       5.     Detail the processing in the document preamble.  Show  substitu-
	      tions  of	 new environments. Show	the contents of	all recognised
	      environments,  both  before  and	after  processing.  Show   the
	      cached/encoded  information for the image	keys, allowing two im-
	      ages to be tested	for equality.

       6.     Show replacements	of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.

       7.     Trace the	processing of commands in math mode; both  before  and

       8.     Trace  the  processing  of  all commands,	both before and	after.
	      The command-line option sets an initial value only. During  pro-
	      cessing the value	of $VERBOSITY can be set dynamically using the
	      \htmltracing{...}	command, whose argument	is the desired	value,
	      or  by  using  the  more	general	 \HTMLset  command as follows:

Other Configuration Variables, without switches
       The configuration variables described here do not warrant having	a com-
       mand-line switch	to assign values. Either they represent	aspects	of La-
       TeX2HTML	that are specific to the local site, or	they govern properties
       that  should  apply  to all documents, rather than something that typi-
       cally would change for the different documents within a particular sub-
       directory.   Normally  these  variables have their value	set within the
       latex2html.config file. In  the	following  listing  the	 defaults  are
       shown,  as  the lines of	Perl code used to establish these values. If a
       different value is required, then these can be assigned	from  a	 local
       .latex2html-init	 initialisation	 file,	without	affecting the defaults
       for other users,	or documents processed from other directories.

       $dd    holds the	string to be used in file-names	 to  delimit  directo-
	      ries;  it	 is set	internally to `/', unless the variable has al-
	      ready been given a value within latex2html.config	.  Note:  This
	      value  cannot  be	 set  within a .latex2html-init	initialisation
	      file, since its value needs to be	known in order to find such  a

	      Read  by	the  install-test  script  from	latex2html.config, its
	      value is inserted	into the latex2html Perl script	as part	of the
	      installation process.

	      Read  from the latex2html.config file by install-test, its value
	      is checked to locate the styles/ directory.

	      The value	of this	variable should	be set within  latex2html.con-
	      fig  to  specify the directory path where	the version and	exten-
	      sion files can be	found.

	      This may contain the (relative) directory	path to	a set of  cus-
	      tomised  icons  to  be used in conjunction with the -local_icons

       $TEXEXPAND = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/texexpand ;
	      Read by the install-test Perl script from	latex2html.config, its
	      value is used to locate the texexpand Perl script.

       $PSTOIMG	= $LATEX2HTMLDIR/pstoimg ;
	      Read by the install-test Perl script from	latex2html.config, its
	      value is used to locate the pstoimg Perl script.

       $IMAGE_TYPE = '<image-type>';
	      Set in latex2html.config,	the currently supported	 <image-type>s
	      are: gif and png.

       $DVIPS =	'dvips';
	      Read  from  latex2html.config  by	 install-test,	its  value  is
	      checked to locate	the dvips program or script.  There  could  be
	      several reasons to change	the value here:

		     add  a  switch  -P<printer> to load a specific configura-
		     tion-file;	e.g. to	 use  a	 specific  set	of  PostScript
		     fonts, for	improved image-generation.

		     to	 prepend  a  path to a different version of dvips than
		     normally available	as the system default (e.g. the	print-
		     ing requirements are different).

		     to	append debugging switches, in case of poor quality im-
		     ages; one can see which  paths  are  being	 searched  for
		     fonts and other resources.

		     to	prepend	commands for setting path variables that dvips
		     may need in order to locate fonts or other	resources.

	      If automatic generation of fonts is  required,  using  Metafont,
	      the following configuration variables are	important.

	      $PK_GENERATION = 1;
		     This  variable  must be set, to initiate font-generation;
		     otherwise fonts will be scaled from existing resources on
		     the  local	 system.  In particular	this variable must not
		     be	set, if	one wishes to use PostScript  fonts  or	 other
		     scalable font resources (see the -scalable_fonts switch).

	      $DVIPS_MODE = 'toshiba';
		     The  mode	given  here  must be available in the
		     file, located with	the Metafont resource  files,  perhaps
		     in	the misc/ subdirectory.

	      $METAFONT_DPI = 180;
		     The  required  resolution,	 in  dots-per-inch,  should be
		     listed specifically within	the MakeTeXPK  script,	called
		     by	 dvips	to invoke Metafont with	the correct parameters
		     for the required fonts.

       $LATEX =	'latex';
	      Read  from  latex2html.config  by	 install-test,	its  value  is
	      checked to locate	the latex program or script.  If LaTeX is hav-
	      ing trouble finding style-files and/or packages,	then  the  de-
	      fault  command can be prepended with other commands to set envi-
	      ronment variables	intended to resolve these  difficulties;  e.g.
	      $LATEX  =	 'setenv  TEXINPUTS _path to search_ ; latex' .	 There
	      are several variables to help control exactly  which  files  are
	      read by LaTeX2HTML and by	LaTeX when processing images:

		     This is normally set from the environment variable	of the
		     same name.	If difficulties	occur so that styles and pack-
		     ages  are not being found,	then extra paths can be	speci-
		     fied here,	to resolve these difficulties.

		     This provides a list of filenames and extensions  to  not
		     include,  even if requested to do so by an	\input or \in-
		     clude command.  (Consult latex2html.config	 for  the  de-
		     fault list.)

	      $DO_INCLUDE = '';
		     List  of  exceptions within the $DONT_INCLUDE list. These
		     files are to be read if requested by an  \input  or  \in-
		     clude command.

       $ICONSERVER = '<URL>';
	      This  is	used  to  specify a URL	to find	the standard icons, as
	      used for the navigation buttons.	Names for the specific	images
	      size,  as	 well  as  size	 information,  can  be	found  in  la-
	      tex2html.config. The icons themselves can	be  replaced  by  cus-
	      tomised versions,	provided this information is correctly updated
	      and the location of the customised images	specified as the value
	      of $ICONSERVER.  When the	-local_icons switch is used, so	that a
	      copy of the icons	is placed with the HTML	files and other	gener-
	      ated  images,  the value of $ICONSERVER is not needed within the
	      HTML files themselves. However it	is needed to find the original
	      icons to be copied to the	local directory.

       $NAV_BORDER = <num>;
	      The  value  given	 here results in a border, measured in points,
	      around each icon.	 A value of `0'	is common, to maintain	strict
	      alignment	of inactive and	active buttons in the control panels.

       $LINKNAME = '"index.$EXTN"';
	      This  is used when the $NO_AUTO_LINK variable is empty, to allow
	      a	URL to the working directory to	be  sufficient	to  reach  the
	      main  page  of  the completed document. It specifies the name of
	      the HTML file which will be automatically	linked to  the	direc-
	      tory  name.   The	 value	of $EXTN is .html unless $SHORTEXTN is
	      set, in which case it is .htm .

       $LINKPOINT = '"$FILE$EXTN"';
	      This specifies the name of the HTML file to  be  duplicated,  or
	      symbolically  linked,  with the name specified in	$LINKNAME.  At
	      the appropriate time the value of	$FILE is  the  document	 name,
	      which usually coincides with the name of the working directory.

       $CHARSET	= 'iso_8859_1';
	      This specifies the character set used within the HTML pages pro-
	      duced by LaTeX2HTML.  If no value	is set in a  configuration  or
	      initialisation file, the default value will be assumed. The low-
	      ercase form $charset is also recognised, but this	is  overridden
	      by the uppercase form.

       $ACCENT_IMAGES =	'large';
	      Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can
	      be generated by making an	image using LaTeX.  This variable con-
	      tains a (comma-separated)	list of	LaTeX commands for setting the
	      style to be used when these images are made.  If	the  value  of
	      this  variable is	empty then the accent is simply	ignored, using
	      an un-accented font character (not an image) instead.

       Within the color.perl package, the following two	variables are used  to
       identify	the names of files containing specifications for named colors.
       Files having these names	are provided, in the $LATEX2HTMLSTYLES	direc-
       tory,  but  they	 could	be moved elsewhere, or replaced	by alternative
       files having different names.  In such a	case the values	of these vari-
       ables should be altered accordingly.

       $RGBCOLORFILE = 'rgb.txt';

       $CRAYOLAFILE = 'crayola.txt';

       The  following  variables may well be altered from the system defaults,
       but this	is best	done using  a  local  .latex2html-init	initialisation
       file,  for overall consistency of style within documents	located	at the
       same site, or sites in close proximity.

       $default_language = 'english';
	      This establishes which language code is to be placed within  the
	      <!DOCTYPE	... > tag that may appear at the beginning of the HTML
	      pages produced. Loading a	package	for  an	 alternative  language
	      can  be expected to change the value of this variable.  See also
	      the $TITLES_LANGUAGE variable, described next.

       $TITLES_LANGUAGE	= 'english';
	      This variable is used to specify the  actual  strings  used  for
	      standard	document  sections,  such  as  ``Contents'',  ``Refer-
	      ences'', ``Table of Contents'', etc.   Support  for  French  and
	      German  titles  is  available in corresponding packages. Loading
	      such a package will normally alter the value of  this  variable,
	      as well as the $default_language variable	described above.

	      Specifies	 how many words	to use from section titles, within the
	      textual hyperlinks which accompany the navigation	buttons.

       $WORDS_IN_PAGE =	450;
	      Specifies	the minimum page length	required before	 a  navigation
	      panel  is	placed at the bottom of	a page,	when the $AUTO_NAVIGA-
	      TION variable is set.

       $CHILDLINE = "<BR><HR>\n";
	      This gives the HTML code to be placed  between  the  child-links
	      table and	the ordinary contents of the page on which it occurs.

       $NETSCAPE_HTML =	0;
	      When  set, this variable specifies that HTML code	may be present
	      which does not conform to	any official standard. This  restricts
	      the  contents  of	any <!DOCTYPE ... > tag	which may be placed at
	      the beginning of the HTML	pages produced.

       $BODYTEXT = '';
	      The value	of this	variable is used within	the <BODY ...  >  tag;
	      e.g.  to set text	and/or background colors.  It's	value is over-
	      ridden by	the \bodytext command, and can be  added-to  or	 parts
	      changed  using  the  \htmlbody  command or \color	and \pagecolor
	      from the color package.

       $INTERLACE = 1;
	      When set,	interlaced images should be produced.	This  requires
	      graphics	utilities  to  be available to perform the interlacing

	      When set,	the background of images should	be  made  transparent;
	      otherwise	 it  is	white.	This requires graphics utilities to be
	      available	which can specify the color to be made transparent.

       $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
	      Scale factor applied to all images of figure and other  environ-
	      ments,  when  being made into an image.  Note that this does not
	      apply to recognised mathematics environments, which instead  use
	      the  contents  of	 $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  and $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR to
	      specify scaling.

       $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
	      Scale factor applied to all images of mathematics,  both	inline
	      and  displayed. A	value of 1.4 is	a good alternative, with anti-
	      aliased images.

       $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR = 1;
	      Extra scale factor applied to images of displayed	math  environ-
	      ments.   When  set,  this	value multiplies $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR to
	      give the total scaling. A	value of `1.2' is a good choice	to ac-
	      company $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.4;.

	      This  may	 hold an extra scale factor that can be	applied	to all
	      generated	images.	 When set, it specifies	that a scaling of $EX-
	      TRA_IMAGE_SCALE  be applied when images are created, but to have
	      their height and width recorded as the un-scaled size.  This  is
	      to coax browsers into scaling the	(usually larger) images	to fit
	      the desired size;	when printed a better quality can be obtained.
	      Values of	`1.5' and `2' give good	print quality at 600dpi.

       $PAPERSIZE = 'a5';
	      Specifies	 the  size  of	a page for typesetting figures or dis-
	      played math, when	an image is to be generated.  This affects the
	      lengths  of lines	of text	within images. Since images of text or
	      mathematics should use larger  sizes  than  when	printed,  else
	      clarity is lost at screen	resolutions, then a smaller paper-size
	      is generally advisable.  This  is	 especially  so	 if  both  the
	      $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  and  $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR  scaling factors are
	      being used, else some images may become excessively  large,  in-
	      cluding a	lot of blank space.

       $LINE_WIDTH = 500;
	      Formerly specified the width of an image,	when the contents were
	      to be right- or center-justified.	(No longer used.)

       The following variables are used	to access the utilities	required  dur-
       ing  image-generation.  File  and program locations on the local	system
       are established by the configure-pstoimg	Perl script and	stored	within
       $LATEX2HTMLDIR/	as  Perl  code,	to be read by pstoimg when re-
       quired.	After running the configure-pstoimg Perl script	it should  not
       be  necessary  to alter the values obtained. Those shown	below are what
       happens on the author's system; they are	for illustration only  and  do
       not represent default values.

	$GS_LIB	= '/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02';
	$PNMCAT	= '/usr/local/bin/pnmcat';
	$PPMQUANT = '/usr/local/bin/ppmquant';
	$PNMFLIP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmflip';
	$PPMTOGIF = '/usr/local/bin/ppmtogif';
	$GS_DEVICE = 'pnmraw';
	$GS = '/usr/local/bin/gs';
	$PNMFILE = '/usr/local/bin/pnmfile';
	$PBMMAKE = '/usr/local/bin/pbmmake';
	$PNMCROP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcrop';
	$TMP  =	 '/usr/var/tmp'; The following variables are no	longer needed,
       having been replaced by the more	specific  information  obtained	 using
       the Perl	script configure-pstoimg.
	$PBMPLUSDIR = '/usr/local/bin';


       Nikos  Drakos,	Computer  Based	 Learning  Unit,  University  of Leeds
       <>.	Several	people have  contributed  suggestions,
       ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.  The current maintainer is
       Ross Moore.  This manual	page was written  by  Manoj  Srivastava	 <sri->,  for the Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the LaTeX
       documentation accompanying the program.

Debian				 March 1 2000			 LaTeX2HTML(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CAVEAT | Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning | Options controlling Extensions and Special Features | Switches controlling Image Generation | Switches controlling Navigation Panels | Switches for Linking to other documents | Switches for Help and Tracing | Other Configuration Variables, without switches | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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