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LAT_CTX(8)			    LMBENCH			    LAT_CTX(8)

       lat_ctx - context switching benchmark

       lat_ctx [ -P _parallelism_ ] [ -W _warmups_ ] [ -N _repetitions_	] [ -s
       _size_in_kbytes_	] #procs [ #procs ...  ]

       lat_ctx measures	context	switching time for any	reasonable  number  of
       processes  of  any  reasonable  size.  The processes are	connected in a
       ring of Unix pipes.  Each process reads a token from its	pipe, possibly
       does some work, and then	writes the token to the	next process.

       Processes  may  vary in number.	Smaller	numbers	of processes result in
       faster context switches.	 More than 20 processes	is not supported.

       Processes may vary in size.  A size of zero  is	the  baseline  process
       that  does  nothing  except  pass  the token on to the next process.  A
       process size of greater than zero means that the	process	does some work
       before  passing	on the token.  The work	is simulated as	the summing up
       of an array of the specified size.  The summing is an unrolled loop  of
       about a 2.7 thousand instructions.

       The effect is that both the data	and the	instruction cache get polluted
       by some amount before the token is passed on.  The data cache gets pol-
       luted  by  approximately	 the  process ``size''.	 The instruction cache
       gets polluted by	a constant amount, approximately 2.7 thousand instruc-

       The  pollution  of the caches results in	larger context switching times
       for the larger processes.  This may be confusing	because	the  benchmark
       takes  pains to measure only the	context	switch time, not including the
       overhead	of doing the work.  The	subtle point is	that the  overhead  is
       measured	using hot caches.  As the number and size of the processes in-
       creases,	the caches are more and	more polluted until the	 set  of  pro-
       cesses  do  not	fit.  The context switch times go up because a context
       switch is defined as the	switch time plus the time it takes to  restore
       all  of	the process state, including cache state.  This	means that the
       switch includes the time	for the	cache misses on	larger processes.

       Output format is	intended as input to xgraph or some  similar  program.
       The  format is multi line, the first line is a title that specifies the
       size and	non-context switching overhead of the test.   Each  subsequent
       line  is	 a  pair of numbers that indicates the number of processes and
       the cost	of a context switch.  The  overhead  and  the  context	switch
       times are in micro second units.	 The numbers below are for a SPARCsta-
       tion 2.

       "size=0 ovr=179
       2 71
       4 104
       8 134
       16 333
       20 438

       The numbers produced by this benchmark are  somewhat  inaccurate;  they
       vary  by	about 10 to 15%	from run to run.  A series of runs may be done
       and the lowest numbers reported.	 The lower the number the  more	 accu-
       rate the	results.

       The  reasons  for the inaccuracies are possibly interaction between the
       VM system and the processor caches.  It is possible that	sometimes  the
       benchmark  processes  are  laid out in memory such that there are fewer
       TLB/cache conflicts than	other times.  This is pure speculation on  our

       Funding	for the	development of this tool was provided by Sun Microsys-
       tems Computer Corporation.


       Carl Staelin and	Larry McVoy

       Comments, suggestions, and bug reports are always welcome.

(c)1994-2000 Carl Staelin and Larry $Date$			    LAT_CTX(8)


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