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LAST(1)                 FreeBSD General Commands Manual                LAST(1)

NAME
     last - indicate last logins of users and ttys

SYNOPSIS
     last [-n] [-y] [-d [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [-f file] [-h host] [-s]
          [-t tty] [-w] [user ...]

DESCRIPTION
     Last will either list the sessions of specified users, ttys, and hosts,
     in reverse time order, or list the users logged in at a specified date
     and time.  Each line of output contains the user name, the tty from which
     the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for the
     session, and the duration of the session.  If the session is still
     continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last will so
     indicate.

     -n          Limits the report to n lines.

     -d date     Specify the snapshot date and time.  All users logged in at
                 the snapshot date and time will be reported.  This may be
                 used with the -f option to derive the results from stored
                 wtmp files.  When this argument is provided, all other
                 options except for -f and -n are ignored.  The argument
                 should be in the form [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS] where each pair
                 of letters represents the following:

                       CC      The first two digits of the year (the century).
                       YY      The second two digits of the year.  If YY is
                               specified, but CC is not, a value for YY
                               between 69 and 99 results in a CC value of 19.
                               Otherwise, a CC value of 20 is used.
                       MM      Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
                       DD      Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
                       hh      Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
                       mm      Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
                       SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

                 If the CC and YY letter pairs are not specified, the values
                 default to the current year.  If the SS letter pair is not
                 specified, the value defaults to 0.

     -f file     Last reads the file file instead of the default,
                 /var/log/wtmp.

     -h host     Host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -s          Report the duration of the login session in seconds, instead
                 of the default days, hours and minutes.

     -t tty      Specify the tty.  Tty names may be given fully or
                 abbreviated, for example, ``last -t 03'' is equivalent to
                 ``last -t tty03''.

     -w          Widen the duration field to show seconds, as well as the
                 default days, hours and minutes.

     -y          Report the year in the session start time.

     If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
     the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
     ``last root -t console'' would list all of ``root's'' sessions as well as
     all sessions on the console terminal.  If no users, hostnames or
     terminals are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus ``last
     reboot'' will give an indication of mean time between reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has
     progressed.  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

FILES
     /var/log/wtmp  login data base

SEE ALSO
     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)

BUGS
     If a login shell should terminate abnormally for some reason, it is
     likely that a logout record won't be written to the wtmp file.  In this
     case, last will indicate the logout time as "shutdown".

HISTORY
     Last appeared in 3.0BSD.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          March 1, 2002         FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | HISTORY

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