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LAST,LASTB(1)	      Linux System Administrator's Manual	 LAST,LASTB(1)

NAME
       last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users

SYNOPSIS
       last  [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [-adiox] [ -f file ] [ -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS ]
       [name...]  [tty...]
       lastb [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [ -f file ]	[ -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS ] [-adiox]
       [name...]  [tty...]

DESCRIPTION
       Last  searches  back through the	file /var/log/wtmp (or the file	desig-
       nated by	the -f flag) and displays a list of all	users logged  in  (and
       out)  since  that  file	was  created.  Names of	users and tty's	can be
       given, in which case last will show only	those entries matching the ar-
       guments.	  Names	of ttys	can be abbreviated, thus last 0	is the same as
       last tty0.

       When last catches a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usu-
       ally control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal (generated by the quit key, usually
       control-\), last	will show how far it has searched through the file; in
       the case	of the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.

       The  pseudo user	reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus
       last reboot will	show a log of all reboots since	the log	file was  cre-
       ated.

       Lastb is	the same as last, except that by default it shows a log	of the
       file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts.

OPTIONS
       -num   This is a	count telling last how many lines to show.

       -n num The same.

       -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	      Display the state	of logins as of	the specified time.   This  is
	      useful, e.g., to determine easily	who was	logged in at a partic-
	      ular time	-- specify that	time  with  -t	and  look  for	"still
	      logged in".

       -R     Suppresses the display of	the hostname field.

       -a     Display  the  hostname in	the last column. Useful	in combination
	      with the next flag.

       -d     For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name	of the
	      remote  host  but	 its IP	number as well.	This option translates
	      the IP number back into a	hostname.

       -i     This option is like -d in	that it	displays the IP	number of  the
	      remote  host,  but it displays the IP number in numbers-and-dots
	      notation.

       -o     Read an old-type wtmp  file  (written  by	 linux-libc5  applica-
	      tions).

       -x     Display the system shutdown entries and run level	changes.

NOTES
       The files wtmp and btmp might not be found. The system only logs	infor-
       mation in these files if	they are present. This is a  local  configura-
       tion  issue. If you want	the files to be	used, they can be created with
       a simple	touch(1) command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).

FILES
       /var/log/wtmp
       /var/log/btmp

AUTHOR
       Miquel van Smoorenburg, miquels@cistron.nl

SEE ALSO
       shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)

				 Jul 29, 1999			 LAST,LASTB(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | NOTES | FILES | AUTHOR | SEE ALSO

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