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KNEWS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      KNEWS(1)

       knews - Karl's threaded newsreader for X

       knews [ options ]

       Knews  is  a  threaded  newsreader with an X Window interface that uses
       NNTP to get news. This manual is	intended to explain  things  that  are
       not  apparent  from  the	interface, so if you just want to get started,
       you probably don't need to read this.

       In addition to the standard X Toolkit options knews accepts the follow-
       ing options, which set various X	resources.  For	an explanation of what
       the resources do, see the sections on resources and the config file.

       You don't have to type out the entire name of the option, as long as it
       is unique.

       -nntpServer hostname
	      Sets  the	 resource 'Knews.nntpServer' to	'hostname'.  This will
	      cause knews to connect to	this server on startup.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.bell' to	True/False.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.separateWindows'	to True/False.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.readActiveFile' to True/False.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.retrieveDescriptions' to	True/False.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.fillNewsrcFile' to True/False.

	      Sets the resource	'Knews.keepThreadInfo' to True/False.

	      This will	make knews install its own colormap.

       -visual class
       -depth bits
	      These will set the resources 'Knews.visualClass' and  '

	      Will set the resource 'Knews.icaseRegexps' to True/False.

	      This will	turn on/off inline images and color allocation.

       -ncols number
	      Sets the resource	Knews.nCols to 'number', which is the max num-
	      ber of colors knews will allocate	for inline images.

	      Prints out the version and compile time to stderr	and quits.

       The articles in a thread	are displayed as nodes in a tree. A border in-
       side  a	node  indicates	that the article is unread, a border outside a
       node indicates that the article is 'tagged', and	a dashed branch	in the
       tree  indicates	a change of subject. By	default, you can scroll	around
       in the tree with	the middle mouse button. An empty box in the tree  in-
       dicates	a 'fake' article, i.e. one that	has expired on the server, has
       not yet arrived or was posted in	a different newsgroup.

       Articles	in the thread tree can be tagged with the third	mouse  button.
       Clicking	on a subject with the third mouse button causes	the unread ar-
       ticles in that thread to	be tagged in preorder (depth first). Once  you
       have  tagged  the articles, you can mark	then read/unread, save or pipe
       them in order, and so on.

       Knews supports a	simple form of clicking	on URLs.  It works by  select-
       ing  a piece of text in the article text	window and clicking on it with
       the middle mouse	button.	 If there is no	selection, knews will  make  a
       crude guess as to what the URL might be.	 The resource Knews.urlCommand
       must be set for this to work, see the section on	X  resources  for  de-

       The  all	groups list and	the kill list can be reordered by drag'n'drop.
       The default translation is the second mouse button.

       You may abort the interaction with the NNTP server at  any  time.  This
       causes  the  connection	to be closed, and a new	one to be opened. Note
       that this puts a	certain	load on	the server.

       Knews is	capable	of threading groups in the background  while  you  are
       e.g. reading another group.  To do this you click on one	or more	groups
       in the group list with the right	mouse button.  Knews then opens	a sec-
       ond connection to the server and	uses it	to thread the selected groups.
       The status of the thread	ahead is shown in the group list as a  charac-

       -       The group is scheduled for thread ahead.
       *       The group is being threaded.
       +       The group has been threaded.

       The  regular expressions	used by	knews are POSIX.2 extended regular ex-
       pressions, similar to those used	by egrep(1), by	default	case  insensi-
       tive.   Note  that  these are not anchored by default, so that e.g. the
       expression 'alt'	will match any string containing the  three  character
       sequence	 'alt'.	  See  Henry Spencer's excellent man-page for details,

       Article heads and bodies	 may  be  searched  for	 regular  expressions.
       Searching  applies  to  read  or	 unread	articles as specified with the
       'only unread' toggle, and starts	with the 'next'	 article.   The	 news-
       group list may also be searched.

       Note: the 'Stop'	button stops the search	as soon	as the current article
       has been	retrieved from the server.  This  is  different	 from  'Abort'
       which requires closing and reopening the	connection to the server.

       It  is also possible to use XPAT	searching, if the nntp server supports
       it.  To do this,	you fill in the	'Header' field	on  the	 search	 popup
       with  the  header  you're  interested  in (e.g. 'Content-Type') and the
       wildcard	field with a  wildcard	expression.   Pressing	'Submit'  then
       sends  this to the server, and after a while it responds	with a list of
       matching	articles.  You can then	move between those articles  with  the
       'Next' and 'First' buttons on the search	popup.

       In  most	 places	 where	knews  uses  file names, such as the save/pipe
       popup, the save/pipe action procedures, and the newsrcFile options etc,
       ~ is expanded to	$HOME, and the following %'s are expanded:

       %%      %
       %n      The name	of the current group.
       %N      The name	of the current group, capitalized.
       %g      The name	of the current group, slashed.
       %G      The name	of the current group, capitalized and slashed.
       %s      The name	of the nntp server.
       %p      The number of the port the server listens to.
       %a      The number of the currently selected article.

       Slashed	means  that  the dots are replaced with	slashes.  Note that if
       you save	an entire thread to a file continaing %a, the number will  not
       change with the article.

       The  kill  file may be used to 'kill' (mark read) or 'hot' (mark	inter-
       esting) articles, subjects and threads based on different criteria.

       Each line in the	kill file specifies an entry according to the  follow-
       ing syntax:

       (F)(S)(A)[Col] || Group regexp || Field expression

	      This  is	a  character specifying	to which header	this entry ap-
	      plies.  Legal values are:

	      'M'     The 'Message-ID:'	header,	by far the most	efficient.
	      'S'     The 'Subject:' header.
	      'F'     The 'From:' header.
	      'X'     The 'Xref:' header.

	      Note that	'X' only works if the 'Xref:' header  is  included  in
	      the  overview  files  from the server. Also note that the	'Re: '
	      prefix is	not considered part of the subject.

	      Entries applying to a message-id automatically expire  when  the
	      relevant article has expired.

	      This is a	character specifying the scope of the entry, i.e. what
	      articles are killed/'hotted' when	this entry applies to an arti-
	      cle. Legal values	are:

	      'A'     This article.
	      'S'     All articles with	the same subject.
	      'T'     The entire thread.
	      't'     The subthread starting with this article.

	      This  is	a character specifying the action of the entry.	 Legal
	      values are:

	      'K'     Kill, which means	mark read.
	      'H'     Hot, which means mark interesting.

	      In 'hot' entries,	this is	the color used to  mark	 the  relevant
	      articles with.

	      This two character sequence is used as a separator.

       Group regexp
	      Only  newsgroups	matching  this	regular	expression will	be af-
	      fected by	this entry.  This field	is empty in the	per-group kill

       Field expression
	      If  the  header  field is	'S', 'F' or 'X', this is a regular ex-
	      pression,	and the	entry applies to all matching articles.	If the
	      header  field  is	'M', this is a message id; this	id is probably
	      the fastest type of kill entry, since it can be checked  with  a
	      single hash lookup.

       To  see	what articles were killed: when	you have read all unread arti-
       cles, or	marked them read, use the 'mark	unread,	killed'	feature	on the
       misc menu.

       When  a	kill  rule is applied, hot articles are	not killed.  Since the
       entries in the kill file	are processed in order,	it is possible to  put
       kills  at  the  beginning,  so that the articles	are killed before they
       have a chance to	become hot.

       There is	one global kill	file (~/.knews/.kill-%s	by  default)  and  one
       kill file per group (~/.knews/%s/%g/KILL	by default).  The rules	in the
       global kill file	are applied before the per-group kill file.

       Knews  has  internal  support  for   content-types   text/plain,	  mes-
       sage/rfc822,  message/partial,  multipart/mixed	and  multipart/digest.
       For other types,	knews will look	for a mailcap entry for	that type (see
       mailcap(5)).  If	one is found, a	clickable line will be inserted	in the
       article text window that	is used	to start the viewer.  If there	is  no
       viewer,	then  if the type is a subtype of text,	knews will display it,
       if it is	a  subtype  of	multipart,  knews  will	 treat	it  as	multi-
       part/mixed, and otherwise knews will give the user opportunity to 'Save
       or Pipe'.

       Mailcap files are found via the environment variable MAILCAPS, which is
       a  colon	 separated list	of path	names.	If this	variable is not	set, a
       default list of


       will be used.  Note that	all files found	will be	merged to produce  the
       mailcap database.

       As  a  hack  around miss/over designed mailcap files, knews will	ignore
       entries for text/plain and multipart/mixed.

       The following resources determine how knews will	display	an article  of
       type text/plain with a particular charset:


       The header, body	and quote fonts	are used for displaying	headers, ordi-
       nary text and quoted text in the	article	window.	 Knews also  has  some
       support	for encoded 16-bit charsets, this is specified with the	encod-
       ing resource.  Legal values for this are:

       utf-7	   The encoding	specified for unicode in rfc 1642.
       16-bit	   Straight 16-bit network byte	order.
       hz-gb-2312  The encoding	for chinese described in rfc 1842.
       ksc-5601	   Also	called iso-2022-kr, described in rfc 1557.
       big5	   Another encoding for	chinese.

       Note that due to	the authors non-existent understanding of  asian  lan-
       guages these encodings have not been extensively	tested.	 Lots of guess
       work here.

       For every newsgroup it is possible to specify a	default	 charset  (see
       the  section  on	 THE CONFIG FILE).  The	fonts for this charset will be
       used to display articles	without	proper MIME-headers.  Also, the	 list-
       Font and	treeFont (which	may not	be encoded) will be used in the	thread
       list and	article	tree, respectively.

       When specifying an encoded charset as defaultCharset, it	may be	desir-
       able  to	still assume that headers are ascii.  This may be accomplished
       by setting the 'headEncHack' resource listed  above,  and  setting  the
       headerFont to an	ascii (superset) font.

       Unless  the config option assemblePartials is False (see	the section on
       THE CONFIG FILE), when knews encounters an article of type message/par-
       tial,  it  will	be rememberered.  When all the parts have been seen, a
       notice will be popped up	offering to assemble the parts.

       There is	also an	entry on the misc menu that allows a number  of	 arti-
       cles to be tagged and processed to look for message/partial articles.

       When  you post an article containing 8 bit characters that doesn't have
       a Content-Type header, knews will add such a header with	charset	 equal
       to  the	value of the defaultCharset config option.  Also, when quoting
       articles	with Content-Type: text/plain and charset  equal  to  the  de-
       faultCharset,  knews  will  decode the article before quoting.  In both
       these contexts, the charset iso-8859-1 will be used  if	defaultCharset
       is not set.

       Knews supports a	rather obscure mechanism for communicating with	an ar-
       bitrary program instead of an nntp server.  Using knewsd(1),  this  can
       be  used	for reading news (in)directly from the spool dir, or even mail
       folders if they are in the correct format.  This	is how	it  works:  If
       the  nntp server	is given as #str, where	str is an arbitrary string not
       containing white	space or the characters	'/', '.' or '*',  knews	 finds
       the value of the	resource Knews.#str and	tries to execute that program.
       The program has its standard input and output connected to  knews.   If
       you use this resource setting:

       Knews.#spool: knewsd -spool /var/spool/news \
	       -active /usr/local/news/active

       with  the appropriate paths for your system, you	can read the spool di-
       rectory by specifying the nntp server as	'#spool' in e.g.  the  connect
       dialogue.   This	 could easily be used to read mh(1) style mail folders

       There are a number of X resources that affect the behaviour and appear-
       ance  of	 knews.	   Most	 widgets in the	widget hierarchy has resources
       named background	, foreground , shadowWidth , and so on.	For  more  in-
       formation  see  the  application	defaults file included	in the
       distribution. To	get a feeling for resources, try editres(1).

       Knews contains a	small xpm-file to pixmap converter, so it is  possible
       to use settings like e.g.

       Knews*backgroundPixmap:	~/pixmaps/texture.xpm

	      If  this	resource  is set, knews	automatically connects to this
	      nntp server on startup. This overrides the  NNTPSERVER  environ-
	      ment variable. If	the server listens to a	non-standard port, you
	      may specify this e.g as If you don't want knews to
	      autoconnect, don't set this or $NNTPSERVER.

	      This  resource specifies the editor used to edit posts. Possible
	      values include:

	      Knews.editCommand:  xemacs +%i %s
	      Knews.editCommand:  emacs	+%i %s
	      Knews.editCommand:  xterm	-e vi +%i %s

	      %s stands	for the	name of	a temporary file, and %i for the  line
	      where  editing  should begin. The	default	value of this resource
	      is a compile time	option.

	      This command is used for clicking	on URLs.  %s  is  expanded  to
	      the URL, and the result is passed	to the shell.  As a simple se-
	      curity measure, URLs will	not  be	 allowed  to  contain  quotes,
	      parentheses, whitespace or ampersands.

	      If  this resource	is set,	the misc menu will have	a print	option
	      which invokes this command.

	      These are	two shell command templates  that  will	 be  used  for
	      mailcap viewers that have	the needsterminal or the copiousoutput
	      flag set,	respectively.  In these, %C will be  expanded  to  the
	      relevant mailcap command.	 An example should explain it:

	      Knews.needsTerminal:     exec xterm -e /bin/sh -c	'%C'
	      Knews.copiousOuptut:     exec xterm -e /bin/sh '(%C) | less'

	      This  should point to a file whose contents maps filename	exten-
	      sions to mime types.  The	syntax of this file is examplified  by
	      the following list of compiled in	types:

	      image/jpeg	      jpg jpeg
	      image/gif		      gif
	      application/postscript  ps

	      This is used to guess the	Content-Type of	attachments.

	      Setting this resource to False will turn off the bell.

	      If  this	is  set	to True, knews will keep newsgroups alphabeti-
	      cally sorted when	new groups are subscribed.

	      Setting this resource to True will make knews  use  a  different
	      top level	window for the article text widget.

	      When  knews  starts  a pipe or similar, it captures the standard
	      error output and displays	it in a	notice popup.	This  resource
	      is  the time in milliseconds this	popup should stay up.  The de-
	      fault is 10000.  Setting this to 0 means stay  up	 indefinitely,
	      and negative means no popups.

	      If this is True, knews will show the state of the	article	caches
	      in a small popup.	 See the config	options	cacheAheadSize and ca-
	      cheTrailSize for details.

	      If  you  have a mail address which isn't of the form 'userid@do-', you can set this to the part	of  the	 address  that
	      goes before the '@', e.g.

	      Knews.mailName:	   FirstName.LastName

	      Note that	your userid will still be used for the 'Sender'	header
	      if necessary.

	      If this is set to	True (the default), knews will use an icon.

	      Setting this to True will	make knews ask for confirmation	before
	      disconnecting or quitting.

	      If  this	is set to True,	knews will ask for confirmation	before
	      catching up a group.

	      If this is set to	'True',	knews will ask for confirmation	before
	      leaving  a  group.  If set to 'tagged', knews will ask confirma-
	      tion when	exiting	a group	if there are tagged articles.

       Knews.visualClass   class
       Knews.visualDepth   bits
	      If these are set knews will use a	visual of the specified	 class
	      and  depth.  Typical values for depth are	8 or 24.  Legal	values
	      for class	are 'StaticGray)', 'GrayScale',	'StaticColor',	'Pseu-
	      doColor',	 'TrueColor' and 'DirectColor'.	 The depth will	be ig-
	      nored if no class	is specified.

	      If this is set to	True, knews will create	its own	colormap.

	      This boolean resource turns on/off inline	images and color allo-
	      cation.	Knews  can  show jpeg, gif and png images (if compiled
	      with support for this).

	      This is the maximum number of colors knews will allocate for in-
	      line  images.   The  default  is 137 (17 greys and a 5x5x5 color
	      cube minus the 5 greys in	that cube).

	      If this is set to	True, knews try	to allocate the	same colors as
	      other  programs  have  already  allocated,  thus	increasing the
	      chances for color	sharing.  The number of	colors	is  controlled
	      by the resource Knews.nCols.

       The  following  resources can be	used to	change various color, font and
       geometry	settings:

	      These resources specify the number  of  lines  and  columns  the
	      grouplist	widget will start up with. The default is 14 for lines
	      and 84 for columns.

	      These resources specify the number of lines and columns the  ar-
	      ticle text widget	start up with. The default is 32 for lines and
	      84 for columns.

	      The width	of the nodes in	the article tree in  characters.   The
	      default is 16.

	      The color	used for rubberbanding in one or two widgets.  The de-
	      fault is red.

	      The colors used for headers, ordinary text and quoted  text  re-
	      spectiely	in the article window.

	      The  color and line style	used for the border of unread articles
	      in the article tree. The defaults	are Red	and False.

	      The color	and line style used for	the border of tagged  articles
	      in the article tree. The defaults	are foreground and False.

	      The font used in the lists.

	      The  color used for hot entries in the kill file when the	speci-
	      fied color is invalid or cannot be allocated.

       Some miscellaneous resources:

	      Setting this to False will make regular expressions case	sensi-
	      tive.  They are case insensitive by default.

	      These set	the default values for the corresponding configuration
	      options.	Their main purpose is to allow command line arguments.
	      Read the section on the config file for details.

	      These set	the default values for the configuration options news-
	      rcFile and oldNewsrcFile,	the default  values  are  ~/.newsrc-%s
	      and  ~/.oldnewsrc-%s.  A value not containing %s will not	be ac-
	      cepted; if you want the traditional ~/.newsrc for	 a  particular
	      server, see the resource Knews.configNntpServer below.

	      This  sets the default value of the config option	killFile.  The
	      default value is ~/.knews/.kill-%s.

	      This is the template for the per-group kill file.	  The  default
	      is  ~/.knews/%s/%g/KILL,	so  that e.g. the newsgroup news.soft-
	      ware.readers will	have ~/.knews/%s/news/software/readers/KILL as
	      kill file, where %s is the name of the server, as	usual.

	      The  configuration  file	used  by  knews.  The default value is
	      ~/.knews/config-%s, a value not containing %s will  not  be  ac-

	      Setting configNntpServer will make knews Do The Right Thing when
	      the user first connects to this server, which means setting  the
	      newsrc  file for this server to ~/.newsrc	when creating the con-
	      fig file.

	      If the configPostingAgent	is set	this  will  be	used  for  the
	      postingAgent config option for the configNntpServer.

	      If  this	is  set	to True, knews will generate a Path header for
	      articles.	 The header will be 'Path: d!u'	where d	and u are such
	      that the From header generated by	knews would be 'From: u@d'.

	      The  value  of  this  resource  will be used when	creating a new
	      newsrc file.  If it starts with a	'/', it	is taken as a pathname
	      of  a  file  whose contents will be inserted into	the new	newsrc
	      file, otherwise the literal value	of this	resource will  be  in-
	      serted into the newsrc file.  The	default	value is


	      When  knews  checks  for	new groups, it uses the	atime (time of
	      last access) of the config file.	Some  filesystems  (e.g.  AFS)
	      have  no concept of atime, but fakes it with mtime (time of last
	      modification) instead.  Setting this resource to True will  make
	      knews forcibly update the	mtime of the config file.

       When  knews  connects  to  an NNTP server it reads a configuration file
       that will  affect  its  behavior.   This	 file  is  by  default	called
       ~/.knews/config-%s where	%s expands to the name of the server, but this
       may be changed with the Knews.configFile	resource.

       The syntax of the config	file is	the same  as  for  X  resource	files.
       When  knews  can't  find	 the configure file, a new one will be created
       containing some default settings	 and  a	 few  examples	settings  that
       should be sufficient to clue you	in as to how it	works.

       It  is  possible	 to used #include statements in	the config file	to in-
       clude other files.  Relative pathnames are considered relative  to  the
       current	working	 directory,  which for knews is	always $HOME.  ~ path-
       names are not handled in	#includes (if you want that you	have  to  hack

       The following global (i.e. per server) options exist.

	      These  specify  the  newsrc  file	 and  oldnewsrc	 file for this
	      server.  ~ pathnames and the same	% expansions as	for saving are
	      handled.	 If  oldnewsrc is set to an empty string, no backup of
	      the newsrc file will be created.

	      The default values for these are the  values  of	the  resources
	      Knews.newsrcTemplate  and	Knews.oldNewsrcTemplate, whose default
	      values are ~/.newsrc-%s and ~/.oldnewsrc-%s, respectively.

	      For a way	of automatically using the standard file ~/.newsrc for
	      a	 specific  server,  see	 the  resource	Knews.configNntpServer

	      The kill file. The default value is the value  of	 the  resource
	      Knews.killFileTemplate, whose default value is ~/.kill-%s.

	      This  directory  is  used	for storing cached articles and	thread
	      data for groups.	The default is ~/.knews/cache-%s.

	      Setting this to False will stop knews from  reading  the	active
	      file  when  connecting,  using the groups	in the newsrc file in-
	      stead.  This will	speed up connection on slow lines if you don't
	      have  too	 many  subscribed groups.  The default is the value of
	      the resource Knews.readActiveFile, whose default is True.

	      A	boolean	option indicating whether to  retrieve	newsgroup  de-
	      scriptions  from the server. The default is the value of the re-
	      source Knews.retrieveDescriptions, whose default is True.	  Set-
	      ting this	to False may slightly speed up connection time.

	      If  this	is set,	the given file will be used to cache group de-
	      scriptions: when retrieveDescriptions is True, knews  saves  the
	      descriptions  to	this  file  and	 when  retrieveDescriptions is
	      False, knews reads descriptions from this	file instead  of  from
	      the server.

	      Setting  this  to	True will make knews write all groups it knows
	      about to the newsrc file,	which may be a good idea if the	option
	      readActiveFile is	set to False.  The default is the value	of the
	      resource Knews.fillNewsrcFile, whose  default  is	 False,	 which
	      means only put information in the	newsrc file.

	      When  this  is  True  (the default) and readActiveFile is	False,
	      knews will try the "LIST ACTIVE  wildmat"	 nntp  extension.   If
	      this  fails knews	will complain and fall back to the old "GROUP"

	      This is a	boolean	option indicating whether  to  check  for  new
	      groups when connecting to	this server. The default is True.  The
	      atime (time of last access) of the config	file will be used  for
	      the check.

	      This  is	a white-space separated	list of	groups to be automati-
	      cally scheduled for thread ahead when connecting.	  The  special
	      values  'all'  and 'All' may be used to designate	all subscribed
	      groups with unread articles and all subscribed  groups,  respec-

	      Setting  this to True will allow 'thread ahead' data to be saved
	      between sessions:	knews will not remove the files	with this data
	      when  quitting,  and  when connecting knews will check for these
	      files for	all subscribed groups.	If this	is  set,  the  options
	      threadAheadGroups	and keepThreadInfo will	be ignored.

	      This  indicates  the  time in minutes between automatic rescans.
	      The default is 60	minutes, 0 means no  automatic	rescans.   Re-
	      gardless	of  this,  rescans  will  only be performed at special
	      points, to prevent a 'rescan-idle-rescan'	loop.

	      The width	of the group name in the group list, default is	42.

	      Setting this to True will	make knews ask at  which  article  the
	      threading	of a group should start.  A hack.

	      If  this	is specified, knews will use this for posting, instead
	      of posting via NNTP.  If your server requires some kind  of  au-
	      thentication  that only inews understands, you could set this to
	      'inews -h'.  Note	that inews appends the signature, so you don't
	      want knews to add	one too.

	      Also see the resource Knews.configPostingAgent above.

	      These are	used to	implement the NNTP AUTHINFO USER/PASS protocol
	      if required by the server.  These	exist mostly for backward com-
	      patibility;  authentication  is usually only required when post-
	      ing, and then it is better to use	inews for postingAgent,	 since
	      presumably inews knows all about the required authentication.

       Here  is	 an  example  of some settings that will improve things	over a
       slow network connection:

       readActiveFile:		False
       retrieveDescriptions:	False
       descriptionsFile:	~/.knews/cache-%s/descriptions
       fillNewsrcFile:		True

       but note	that you will probably want to read the	active file and	 group
       descriptions at least the first time you	connect	to a server.

       The following resources may be set on a per group basis;	they should be
       prefixed	with the name of the group they	apply to.

	      This tells knews whether to keep thread  information  in	memory
	      after  the group is exited.  This	will make reentering the group
	      fast. Legal values are: True, Subscribed and False. 'Subscribed'
	      means only do it if the group is subscribed, and exists to allow
	      settings such as:

	      *keepThreadInfo:	  Subscribed

	      to keep thread info for  all  subscribed	groups.	  The  default
	      value   for   this   option  is  'Subscribed'  if	 the  resource
	      Knews.keepThreadInfo is set to True and 'False' otherwise.

	      These two	set the	sizes of the two article caches, the  defaults
	      are  0.  The 'ahead cache' is used to prefetch articles from the
	      server in	the background using a second connection.  The	'trail
	      cache'  is  used to keep articles	that you have already read, so
	      that going back, saving or uudecoding will be faster.  The maxi-
	      mum values for these are 32.

	      This  indicates how the threads should be	sorted.	 A thread con-
	      sists of several subjects.  These	are sorted within  the	thread
	      according	 to the	order they occur.  Then	the threads are	sorted
	      according	to the setting of this option.	The legal  values  and
	      their meanings are:

	      subject	    Alphabetically by the first	subject	in the thread.
	      size	    Number of unread articles in the thread.
	      full-size	    Number of articles in the thread.
	      hot	    Number of hot articles in the thread.
	      date	    The	date of	the first unread article.
	      average-date  The	average	date of	unread articles	in the thread.
	      author	    Alphabetically by the first	From: line in the thread.
	      none	    No sorting.

	      All these	values may be prefixed with a minus sign to indicate a
	      reversal of the order, or	a plus sign which is a no-op.  The de-
	      fault value is none.

	      Setting  this to False will stop expirations from	the kill file.
	      The default is True, which means that Message-id kills will  ex-
	      pire when	you enter a group where	the kill entry would have been
	      applicable, but the article with that message-id was not found.

	      This string is used to attribute quotations when you post	a fol-
	      lowup. The default is

	      In article %m,\n	   %f writes:

	      where \n is a newline.  The following %'s	are expanded:

	      %%    %
	      %d    The	date of	the quoted article in the form 01 Jan.
	      %f    The	From: line of the article replied to.
	      %i    The	initials of the	previous poster.
	      %I    The	initials of the	previous poster, capitalized.
	      %m    The	message-id of the article replied to.
	      %n    The	current	newsgroup.
	      %r    The	real name of the previous poster.
	      %s    The	subject	of the quoted article.
	      %t    The	time of	the quoted article in the form 18:24:02.
	      %w    The	week day of the	quoted article.
	      %y    The	year of	the quoted article.

	      Thus  '%w,  %d  %y %t GMT' will give the date in standard	rfc822

	      This is the full name used in the	'From:'	header in the articles
	      you  post.  The  default	is  $NAME, if set, otherwise the gecos
	      field from the password file, suitably truncated.

	      A	colon and white-space separated	list specifying	which  headers
	      to show in the article window, and in what order.	The default is


	      If the name of the header	starts with a captial letter (From: as
	      opposed to from:), knews will decode rfc1522 encoded  words  en-
	      countered	in this	header.	 (Those	are the	weird things that look
	      like =?iso-8859-1?q?stuff_here?=.)  Encoded 16-bit charsets  are
	      not decoded in headers yet.

	      This  boolean tells whether message/partial articles will	be re-
	      membered and offered for assembly.

	      Lines in an article matching this	 regular  expression  will  be
	      considered  quoted  lines,  and  may  be marked with a different
	      color and	font. The default is

	      ^[ \t]*[:>|]

	      which matches lines beginning with an arbitrary amount of	 white
	      space  (the  \t denotes a	tab, note that \t won't	actually work)
	      followed by a >, : or | character.

	      You will probably	want to	have this expression anchored...

	      The fonts	for this charset will be used to display articles that
	      lack  MIME-headers.   If	this  is not set, us-ascii will	be as-

	      Also, rfc1522 encodings of this charset in the From and  Subject
	      header  will  be	decoded	when displayed in the article tree and
	      the thread list.	In this	case, iso-8859-1 is the	default.

	      A	boolean	option indicating whether to show the number of	 lines
	      in articles in the thread	tree.  The default is the value	of the
	      resource Knews.showNumberLines, whose default is False.

	      The contents of this file	will be	used to	sign the articles  you
	      post (before editing). The default is ~/.signature.

	      The width	of the subject in the thread list, default is 56.

	      These strings are	used for quoting when posting a	followup arti-
	      cle; the first one are used to quote lines that were not	quoted
	      in  the  original	 article, and the second one is	used for lines
	      that were	already	quoted.	 What lines are	considered  quoted  is
	      determined  by  the  quoteRegexp.	 The defaults are "> " and ">"
	      respectively.  In	these strings, %i is expanded to the  initials
	      of the previous author and %I to the initials, capitalized.

	      This  string will	be instered into articles that are also	mailed
	      to the previous author.  The default is "[posted and mailed]".

	      If this is set, it will be used as the content of	 a  'Distribu-
	      tion' header.  The default value is the value of the environment
	      variable DEFNEWSDIS if set, otherwise empty.

	      A	boolean	specifying whether to show all headers in the  article
	      window. It also means turn off all MIME transformations. The de-
	      fault is False.

	      A	string used to construct the 'Reply-To:' header	in  the	 arti-
	      cles you post. The default is the	value of the environment vari-
	      able REPLYTO if set, otherwise empty.

	      A	string used to construct the 'Organization:' header in the ar-
	      ticles  you post.	The default is $NEWSORG	if set,	otherwise $OR-
	      GANIZATION if set, otherwise nothing.

	      If this boolean is True, as it is	by default, articles that  are
	      crossposted  will	 be  marked  read  in all groups when you read
	      them, mark them read, kill them or catch them up.

	      Note that	this only applies to subscribed	groups,	and will  only
	      work if the server's overview file contains the Xref: headers.

	      This  string  is inserted	into the head of all articles you post
	      (before editing).	The default is empty.  This could be  used  to
	      put in Mime headers, like	this:

	      *extraHeaders:   Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

	      This is a	combination of extraHeaders and	attribution: it	is in-
	      serted in	the headers of replies and followups and the same  %'s
	      as in attribution	are expanded.  An example:

	      *followupHeaders:	  X-Comment-To:	%r

	      Uudecoded	 files	will end up in this directory.	Or rather, the
	      forked off uudecoding process will be given this as its  current
	      working directory.  The default is ~/News.

	      This  program  will  be used to uudecode files: it will be given
	      the bodies of the	relevant articles on standard input.  The  de-
	      fault is NULL, which means that knews will do its	best to	filter
	      out garbage and then pipe	the rest to 'uudecode'.

       Here is an example of how to set	 different  signatures	for  different

       swnet*signatureFile:	~/.signature-svensk
       de*signatureFile:	~/.signature-deutsch
       *linux*signatureFile:	~/.signature-linux

       The first sets the file ~/.signature-svensk for all groups in the swnet
       hierarchy, the second one sets the file ~/.signature-deutsch for	the de
       hierarchy,  and	the  last one sets the file ~/.signature-linux for any
       group containing	linux as a component (not merely  a  substring).   The
       file ~/.signature will be used for all other groups.

       Knews  defines a	number of actions that can be tied to keys and buttons
       via translations.  For the default translations,	 see  the  application
       defaults	file.

	      Does the right thing.

       kill-append(field, scope	[, color])
       kill-prepend(field, scope [, color])
	      These  action procedures append and prepend respectively entries
	      to the kill file for the current group  according	 to  the  cur-
	      rently selected article.

	      Valid values for the 'field' parameter are "From", "Subject" and
	      "Message-Id", and	valid values for 'scope' are  "Thread",	 "Sub-
	      thread"  and  "Subject".	If the color parameter is present, the
	      entry added is a hot-entry with that color, otherwise  it	 is  a

	      It  is  probably a good idea to use these	with field = "message-
	      id", since message-id kills are very efficient and  expire  with
	      the corresponding	article.

	      This  will  popup	a kill file editor for the supplied group.  If
	      no group is given, the editor for	the global kill	file is	popped

       mime-hack(content-type, content-transfer-encoding)
	      This action procedure reloads the	current	article, pretending it
	      had the  specified  Content-Type	and  Content-Transfer-Encoding
	      headers.	 For  example  mime-hack(image/jpeg,  uue) reloads the
	      current article pretending it has	Content-Type image/jpeg	and is
	      uuencoded, thus makeing knews display it as an inline image.

	      The default key-bindings have the	following:
	      ctrl-J	  mime-hack(image/jpeg,	uue)
	      ctrl-G	  mime-hack(image/gif, uue)
	      ctrl-P	  mime-hack(image/png, uue)

	      These move around	in the thread tree. If the arg is 'read', they
	      will also	read in	the relevant article, if arg is	 'fake',  they
	      will also	try to read 'fake' articles.

	      These  move up and down in the lists. If arg is given, it	is the
	      number of	steps, or if it	contains a '.',	the  fraction  of  the
	      window to	move.

	      These two	actions	moves between modes.

	      These  are  combination actions.	E.g. tree-or-list-up(arg) does
	      tree-up or list-up(1), depending on which	is relevant.

	      This rereads the current article.	If arg is given,  the  article
	      is displayed with	full header and	no MIME	transformations.

	      This  moves between the subject list and the thread tree.	If arg
	      is 'toggle', it toggles, if arg is 'yes' it goes	to  the	 tree,
	      and if arg is 'no', it goes to the subject list.

	      These  correspond	 to  the  options  on the post menu. If	arg is
	      given as 'yes' or	'no', it indicates whether to  include	quoted

	      These perform the	corresponding functions	on the misc menu.

       pipe(command, parts [, scope])
       save(filename, parts [, scope])
	      Pipe and save actions.  The argument 'parts' is a	combination of
	      the characters 'f', 's', 'h', 'b',  'e',	corresponding  to  the
	      'bogus  from',  'bogus subject', 'head', 'body' and 'empty line'
	      options on the save popup	window.	 The 'scope' parameter is  op-
	      tional,  and is one of 'window', 'article', 'subject', 'thread',
	      'subthread' and 'tagged',	corresponding to those options on  the
	      save popup.

	      These  tag the unread articles in	a thread or subject.  If 'all'
	      is specified, they tag all articles in the thread	or subject.

	      These untag the tagged articles in a thread or subject.

	      This action tags all unread hot articles,	same as	 on  the  misc

	      Guess what.

	      Changes  the size	of the upper portion of	the main window	by the
	      specified	number of pixels.

	      Causes a group to	be scheduled for 'thread ahead'.

	      Popups the 'find group' popup, same as the 'find	group'	option
	      on the misc menu.

       The X interface of knews	is built with its own widget set plus the Lay-
       out Widget. You are welcome to use it if	you like. Unfortunately	 there
       is no documentation.

       This software is	Copyright 1995,	1996 by	Karl-Johan Johnsson.

       The threading algorithm was inspired from trn. Thanks to	Wayne Davison.

       Knews uses Keith	Packard's Layout Widget.

       The  distribution  includes  Henry Spencer's regex package for environ-
       ments that do not have the POSIX.2 regular expression functions.

       Thanks to Mattias Jonsson for ardent testing.

       From the	gif89a spec:

       "The Graphics Interchange Format(c) is the Copyright property of
	CompuServe Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of
	CompuServe Incorporated."

       Any problems are	of course entirely due to me.

       egrep(1),  knewsd(1),  trn(1),  uudecode(1),   mailcap(5),   newsrc(5),

       If the server doesn't support XOVER, threading will be very slow.

       The uudecode function may not recognize or correctly handle all cases.

       The  dithering  algorithm used for grayscale images and color gifs (es-
       sentially 'closest match') is very poor.

       AUTHINFO	SIMPLE doesn't work for	the second connection.

       When the	last article in	a group	has been cancelled, the	number of  un-
       read articles may be incorrect.

       Send bug	reports	to

				     1996			      KNEWS(1)


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