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kill(1)			    General Commands Manual		       kill(1)

NAME
       kill - send a signal to a process; terminate a process

SYNOPSIS
       signame]	pid ...

       signum] pid ...

   Obsolescent Versions:
DESCRIPTION
       The  command  sends a signal to each process specified by a pid process
       identifier.  The	default	signal is which	normally terminates  processes
       that do not trap	or ignore the signal.

   Options
       recognizes the following	options:

	      List all values of
				signame	 supported  by the implementation.  No
				signals	are sent with this option.   The  sym-
				bolic  names  of the signals (without the pre-
				fix) are written to standard output, separated
				by spaces and newlines.

	      Send the specified signal	name.
				The default is number signame can be specified
				in upper- and/or lowercase,  with  or  without
				the  prefix.   These values can	be obtained by
				using the option.  The	symbolic  name	repre-
				sents  signal  value  zero.  See "Signal Names
				and Numbers" below.

	      Send the specified decimal signal	number.
				The default is See "Signal Names and  Numbers"
				below.

	      (Obsolescent.) Equivalent	to

	      (Obsolescent.) Equivalent	to

   Operands
       pid  is	a process identifier, an unsigned or negative integer that can
       be one of the following:

	      The number of a process.

	      All processes, except special system  processes,	whose  process
	      group
		     ID	is equal to the	process	group ID of the	sender.

	      All processes, except special system processes,
		     if	 the  user has appropriate privileges.	Otherwise, all
		     processes,	except special system processes, whose real or
		     effective user ID is the same as the user ID of the send-
		     ing process.

	      All processes, except special system  processes,	whose  process
	      group
		     ID	 is  equal to the absolute value of pid	and whose real
		     or	effective user ID is the same as the user of the send-
		     ing process.

       Process	numbers	can be found with the command (see ps(1)) and with the
       built-in	command	available in some shells.

   Signal Names	and Numbers
       The following table describes a few of the more common signals that can
       be useful from a	terminal.  For a complete list and a full description,
       see the header file and the manual entry	signal(5).

     signum   signame	Name		Description
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
	0     SIGNULL	Null		Check access to	pid
	1     SIGHUP	Hangup		Terminate; can be trapped
	2     SIGINT	Interrupt	Terminate; can be trapped
	3     SIGQUIT	Quit		Terminate with core dump; can be trapped
	9     SIGKILL	Kill		Forced termination; cannot be trapped
       15     SIGTERM	Terminate	Terminate; can be trapped
       24     SIGSTOP	Stop		Pause the process; cannot be trapped
       25     SIGTSTP	Terminal stop	Pause the process; can be trapped
       26     SIGCONT	Continue	Run a stopped process

       the null	signal,	invokes	error checking but no signal is	actually sent.
       This can	be used	to test	the validity or	existence of pid.

       the  (default)  terminate  signal,  can	be  trapped  by	 the receiving
       process,	allowing the receiver to execute an orderly shutdown or	to ig-
       nore  the  signal  entirely.   For orderly operations, this is the pre-
       ferred choice.

       the kill	signal,	forces a process to terminate immediately.  Since can-
       not  be trapped or ignored, it is useful	for terminating	a process that
       does not	respond	to

       The receiving process must belong to the	user of	the  sending  process,
       unless the user has appropriate privileges.

       As  a  single  special case, the	continue signal	SIGCONT	can be sent to
       any process that	is a  member  of  the  same  session  as  the  sending
       process.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon completion,	returns	with one of the	following values:

	      At least one matching process was	found for each
		   pid operand,	and the	specified signal was successfully pro-
		   cessed for at least one matching process.

	      An error occurred.

EXAMPLES
       The command:

       signals process number 6135 to terminate.  This gives  the  process  an
       opportunity to exit gracefully (removing	temporary files, etc.).

       The following equivalent	commands:

       terminate  process  number  6135	 abruptly  by  sending a signal	to the
       process.	 This tells the	kernel to remove the process immediately.

WARNINGS
       If a process hangs during some operation	(such as I/O) so  that	it  is
       never  scheduled, it cannot die until it	is allowed to run.  Thus, such
       a process may never go away after the kill.   Similarly,	 defunct  pro-
       cesses  (see  ps(1)) may	have already finished executing, but remain on
       the system until	their parent reaps them	(see wait(2)).	Using to  send
       signals to them has no effect.

       Some  non-HP-UX	implementations	 provide only as a shell built-in com-
       mand.

DEPENDENCIES
       This manual entry describes the external	command	and the	built-in  com-
       mand of the POSIX shell (see sh-posix(1)).  Other shells, such as C and
       Korn (see csh(1)	and ksh(1) respectively), also provide as  a  built-in
       command.	 The syntax for	and output from	these built-ins	may be differ-
       ent.

SEE ALSO
       csh(1), ksh(1), ps(1), sh(1), sh-posix(1), kill(2), wait(2), signal(5).

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
								       kill(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | DEPENDENCIES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

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