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FTP(1)			    General Commands Manual			FTP(1)

NAME
       ftp - ARPANET file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
       ftp [-v]	[-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-k	realm] [-f] [-x] [-u] [-t] [host]

DESCRIPTION
       FTP  is the user	interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer	Proto-
       col.  The program allows	a user to transfer files to and	from a	remote
       network site.

OPTIONS
       Options	may be specified at the	command	line, or to the	command	inter-
       preter.

       -v     Verbose option forces ftp	to show	all responses from the	remote
	      server, as well as report	on data	transfer statistics.

       -n     Restrains	 ftp  from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial con-
	      nection.	If auto-login is enabled, ftp will  check  the	.netrc
	      (see  below)  file in the	user's home directory for an entry de-
	      scribing an account on the remote	machine.  If no	entry  exists,
	      ftp  will	 prompt	 for the remote	machine	login name (default is
	      the user identity	on the	local  machine),  and,	if  necessary,
	      prompt for a password and	an account with	which to login.

       -u     Restrains	 ftp from attempting ``auto-authentication'' upon ini-
	      tial connection.	If auto-authentication	is  enabled,  ftp  at-
	      tempts  to  authenticate	to  the	FTP server by sending the AUTH
	      command, using whichever authentication types are	 locally  sup-
	      ported.  Once an authentication type is accepted,	an authentica-
	      tion protocol will proceed by issuing ADAT commands.   This  op-
	      tion also	disables auto-login.

       -i     Turns off	interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

       -d     Enables debugging.

       -g     Disables file name globbing.

       -f     Causes credentials to be forwarded to the	remote host.

       -x     Causes  the  client to attempt to	negotiate encryption (data and
	      command protection levels	``private'')  immediately  after  suc-
	      cessfully	authenticating.

       -t     Enables packet tracing.

COMMANDS
       The  client  host  with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on
       the command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately	attempt	to es-
       tablish a connection to an FTP server on	that host; otherwise, ftp will
       enter its command interpreter and await	instructions  from  the	 user.
       When ftp	is awaiting commands from the user the prompt ``ftp>'' is pro-
       vided to	the user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

       ! [command] [args]]
	      Invoke an	interactive shell on the local machine.	 If there  are
	      arguments,  the  first  is  taken	to be a	command	to execute di-
	      rectly, with the rest of the arguments as	its arguments.

       $ macro-name [args]
	      Execute the macro	macro-name that	was defined  with  the	macdef
	      command.	Arguments are passed to	the macro unglobbed.

       account [passwd]
	      Supply  a	 supplemental password required	by a remote system for
	      access to	resources once a  login	 has  been  successfully  com-
	      pleted.	If  no argument	is included, the user will be prompted
	      for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

       append local-file [remote-file]
	      Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-
	      file  is left unspecified, the local file	name is	used in	naming
	      the remote file after being altered by any ntrans	or  nmap  set-
	      ting.  File transfer uses	the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and	structure.

       ascii  Set the file transfer type to network ASCII .  This is  the  de-
	      fault type.

       bell   Arrange  that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command
	      is completed.

       binary Set the file transfer type to support binary file	transfer.

       bye    Terminate	the FTP	session	with the remote	server and  exit  ftp.
	      An end of	file will also terminate the session and exit.

       case   Toggle  remote  computer file name case mapping during mget com-
	      mands.  When case	is on (default is off),	remote	computer  file
	      names  with  all	letters	in upper case are written in the local
	      directory	with the letters mapped	to lower case.

       ccc    Turn off integrity protection on the command channel.  This com-
	      mand  must be sent integrity protected, and must be proceeded by
	      a	successful ADAT	command.  Since	turning	off integrity  protec-
	      tion  potentially	allows an attacker to insert commands onto the
	      command channel, some FTP	servers	may refuse to honor this  com-
	      mand.

       cd remote-directory
	      Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-di-
	      rectory.

       cdup   Change the remote	machine	working	directory to the parent	of the
	      current remote machine working directory.

       chmod mode file-name
	      Change  the permission modes of the file file-name on the	remote
	      system to	mode.

       clear  Set the protection level on data transfers to ``clear''.	If  no
	      ADAT  command  succeeded,	 then  this  is	the default protection
	      level.

       close  Terminate	the FTP	session	with the remote	server,	and return  to
	      the command interpreter.	Any defined macros are erased.

       cprotect	[protection-level]
	      Set  the	protection level on commands to	protection-level.  The
	      valid protection levels are ``clear'' for	unprotected  commands,
	      ``safe''	for  commands  integrity  protected  by	 cryptographic
	      checksum,	and ``private''	for commands confidentiality  and  in-
	      tegrity  protected by encryption.	 If an ADAT command succeeded,
	      then the default command protection level	is ``safe'', otherwise
	      the only possible	level is ``clear''.  If	no level is specified,
	      the current level	is printed.  cprotect clear is	equivalent  to
	      the ccc command.

       cr     Toggle  carriage	return	stripping  during  ascii type file re-
	      trieval.	Records	are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed  se-
	      quence  during ascii type	file transfer.	When cr	is on (the de-
	      fault), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to con-
	      form with	the UNIX single	linefeed record	delimiter.  Records on
	      non-UNIX remote systems may contain single  linefeeds;  when  an
	      ascii  type  transfer  is	 made,	these linefeeds	may be distin-
	      guished from a record delimiter only when	cr is off.

       delete remote-file
	      Delete the file remote-file on the remote	machine.

       debug [debug-value]
	      Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is  specified
	      it  is  used  to set the debugging level.	 When debugging	is on,
	      ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded  by
	      the string `-->'

       dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print  a listing of the directory	contents in the	directory, re-
	      mote-directory, and, optionally, placing the  output  in	local-
	      file.   If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user
	      to verify	that the last argument is indeed the target local file
	      for  receiving  dir  output.   If	no directory is	specified, the
	      current working directory	on the remote machine is used.	If  no
	      local  file  is specified, or local-file is `-', output comes to
	      the terminal.

       disconnect
	      A	synonym	for close.

       form format
	      Set the file transfer form to format.   The  default  format  is
	      ``file''.

       get remote-file [local-file]
	      Retrieve the file	remote-file and	store it on the	local machine.
	      If the local file	name is	not specified, it is  given  the  same
	      name  it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration	by the
	      current case, ntrans, and	nmap settings.	The  current  settings
	      for  type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring
	      the file.

       glob   Toggle filename expansion	for mdelete, mget, and mput.  If glob-
	      bing  is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are taken
	      literally	and not	expanded.  Globbing for	mput  is  done	as  in
	      csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is expanded
	      separately on the	remote machine and the lists are  not  merged.
	      Expansion	of a directory name is likely to be different from ex-
	      pansion of the name of an	ordinary file: the  exact  result  de-
	      pends on the foreign operating system and	ftp server, and	can be
	      previewed	by doing `mls remote-files -' Note: mget and mput  are
	      not  meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.  That
	      can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree  (in
	      binary mode).

       hash   Toggle  hash-sign	 (``#'')  printing  for	each data block	trans-
	      ferred.  The size	of a data block	is 1024	bytes.

       help [command]
	      Print an informative message about the meaning of	 command.   If
	      no argument is given, ftp	prints a list of the known commands.

       idle [seconds]
	      Set  the	inactivity  timer on the remote	server to seconds sec-
	      onds.  If	seconds	is omitted, the	current	 inactivity  timer  is
	      printed.

       lcd [directory]
	      Change the working directory on the local	machine.  If no	direc-
	      tory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

       ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print a listing of the contents of a directory on	the remote ma-
	      chine.   The  listing  includes any system-dependent information
	      that the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX  sys-
	      tems  will  produce  output from the command `ls -l'.  (See also
	      nlist.)  If remote-directory is left  unspecified,  the  current
	      working  directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp
	      will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is	indeed
	      the target local file for	receiving ls output.  If no local file
	      is specified, or if local-file is	`-', the output	is sent	to the
	      terminal.

       macdefmacro-name
	      Define a macro.  Subsequent lines	are stored as the macro	macro-
	      name; a null line	(consecutive newline characters	in a  file  or
	      carriage returns from the	terminal) terminates macro input mode.
	      There is a limit of 16 macros and	4096 total characters  in  all
	      defined  macros.	Macros remain defined until a close command is
	      executed.	 The macro processor interprets	`$' and	`\' as special
	      characters.  A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced
	      by the corresponding argument on the  macro  invocation  command
	      line.   A	 `$'  followed	by an `i' signals that macro processor
	      that the executing macro is to be	looped.	  On  the  first  pass
	      `$i'  is	replaced by the	first argument on the macro invocation
	      command line, on the second pass it is replaced  by  the	second
	      argument,	 and  so  on.	A `\' followed by any character	is re-
	      placed by	that character.	 Use the `\' to	prevent	special	treat-
	      ment of the `$'.

       mdelete [remote-files]
	      Delete remote-files on the remote	machine.

       mdir remote-files local-file
	      Like dir,	except multiple	remote files may be specified.	If in-
	      teractive	prompting is on, ftp will prompt the  user  to	verify
	      that  the	 last argument is indeed the target local file for re-
	      ceiving mdir output.

       mget remote-files
	      Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and	do a  get  for
	      each file	name thus produced.  See glob for details on the file-
	      name expansion.  Resulting file names will then be processed ac-
	      cording  to  case,  ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are	trans-
	      ferred into the local working directory, which  can  be  changed
	      with  `lcd directory'; new local directories can be created with
	      `! mkdir directory'.

       mkdir directory-name
	      Make a directory on the remote machine.

       mls remote-files	local-file
	      Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be  specified,  and
	      the  local-file  must be specified.  If interactive prompting is
	      on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
	      indeed the target	local file for receiving mls output.

       mode [mode-name]
	      Set  the	file  transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
	      ``stream'' mode.

       modtime file-name
	      Show the last modification time of the file on  the  remote  ma-
	      chine.

       mput local-files
	      Expand  wild cards in the	list of	local files given as arguments
	      and do a put for each file in the	resulting list.	 See glob  for
	      details  of  filename expansion.	Resulting file names will then
	      be processed according to	ntrans and nmap	settings.

       newer file-name
	      Get the file only	if the modification time of the	remote file is
	      more  recent  that  the file on the current system.  If the file
	      does not exist on	the current system, the	remote file is consid-
	      ered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical	to get.

       nlist [remote-directory]	[local-file]
	      Print  a list of the files in a directory	on the remote machine.
	      If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working di-
	      rectory  is  used.   If  interactive  prompting  is on, ftp will
	      prompt the user to verify	that the last argument is  indeed  the
	      target  local file for receiving nlist output.  If no local file
	      is specified, or if local-file is	`-', the output	is sent	to the
	      terminal.

       nmap [inpattern outpattern]
	      Set  or  unset  the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
	      are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If  ar-
	      guments  are  specified, remote filenames	are mapped during mput
	      commands and put commands	issued without a specified remote tar-
	      get  filename.   If arguments are	specified, local filenames are
	      mapped during mget commands and get commands  issued  without  a
	      specified	 local	target	filename.  This	command	is useful when
	      connecting to non-UNIX remote computer with different file  nam-
	      ing  conventions	or practices.  The mapping follows the pattern
	      set by inpattern and outpattern.	[Inpattern] is a template  for
	      incoming	filenames  (which  may have already been processed ac-
	      cording to the ntrans and	case settings).	  Variable  templating
	      is accomplished by including the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9'
	      in inpattern.  Use `\' to	prevent	this special treatment of  the
	      `$'  character.  All other characters are	treated	literally, and
	      are used to determine the	nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For
	      example,	given  inpattern  $1.$2	 and the remote	file name "my-
	      data.data", $1 would have	the value "mydata", and	$2 would  have
	      the  value  "data".   The	 outpattern  determines	 the resulting
	      mapped filename.	The sequences `$1', `$2', ...,	`$9'  are  re-
	      placed  by any value resulting from the inpattern	template.  The
	      sequence `$0' is replace by the  original	 filename.   Addition-
	      ally,  the sequence `[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by	[seq1] if seq1
	      is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by	seq2.  For ex-
	      ample, the command

		   nmap	$1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

	      would  yield  the	 output	filename "myfile.data" for input file-
	      names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the
	      input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input file-
	      name ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as	in the
	      example: `nmap $1	sed "s/	*$//" >	$1'.  Use the `\' character to
	      prevent special treatment	of the `$','[',']',  and  `,'  charac-
	      ters.

       ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
	      Set  or  unset the filename character translation	mechanism.  If
	      no arguments are specified, the filename	character  translation
	      mechanism	 is  unset.  If	arguments are specified, characters in
	      remote filenames are translated during  mput  commands  and  put
	      commands	issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
	      arguments	are  specified,	 characters  in	 local	filenames  are
	      translated  during mget commands and get commands	issued without
	      a	specified local	target filename.  This command is useful  when
	      connecting  to  a	 non-UNIX  remote computer with	different file
	      naming conventions  or  practices.   Characters  in  a  filename
	      matching	a  character  in  inchars are replaced with the	corre-
	      sponding character in outchars.  If the character's position  in
	      inchars  is longer than the length of outchars, the character is
	      deleted from the file name.

       open host [port]	[-forward]
	      Establish	a connection to	the specified host FTP server.	An op-
	      tional  port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will at-
	      tempt to contact an FTP server at	that port.   If	 the  auto-au-
	      thenticate option	is on (default), ftp will attempt to authenti-
	      cate to the FTP server by	sending	the AUTH command, using	which-
	      ever  authentication types which are locally supported.  Once an
	      authentication type is accepted, an authentication protocol will
	      proceed  by  issuing ADAT	commands.  If the auto-login option is
	      on (default), ftp	will also attempt  to  automatically  log  the
	      user  in	to the FTP server (see below).	If the -forward	option
	      is specified, ftp	will forward a copy  of	 the  user's  Kerberos
	      tickets to the remote host.

       passive
	      Toggle  passive data transfer mode.  In passive mode, the	client
	      initiates	the data connection by listening  on  the  data	 port.
	      Passive  mode  may  be necessary for operation from behind fire-
	      walls which do not permit	incoming connections.

       private
	      Set the protection level on data transfers to ``private''.  Data
	      transmissions are	confidentiality	and integrity protected	by en-
	      cryption.	 If no ADAT command succeeded, then the	only  possible
	      level is ``clear''.

       prompt Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs dur-
	      ing multiple file	transfers to allow the user to selectively re-
	      trieve  or  store	files.	If prompting is	turned off (default is
	      on), any mget or mput will transfer all files, and  any  mdelete
	      will delete all files.

       protect [protection-level]
	      Set  the protection level	on data	transfers to protection-level.
	      The valid	protection levels are ``clear''	for  unprotected  data
	      transmissions,  ``safe''	for  data transmissions	integrity pro-
	      tected by	 cryptographic	checksum,  and	``private''  for  data
	      transmissions confidentiality and	integrity protected by encryp-
	      tion.  If	no ADAT	command	 succeeded,  then  the	only  possible
	      level is ``clear''.  If no level is specified, the current level
	      is printed.  The default protection level	is ``clear''.

       proxy ftp-command
	      Execute an ftp command on	a secondary control connection.	  This
	      command allows simultaneous connection to	two remote ftp servers
	      for transferring files between the two servers.  The first proxy
	      command  should  be an open , to establish the secondary control
	      connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other  ftp  com-
	      mands  executable	 on  the  secondary connection.	 The following
	      commands behave differently when prefaced	by  proxy:  open  will
	      not  define new macros during the	auto-login process, close will
	      not erase	existing macro	definitions,  get  and	mget  transfer
	      files  from  the	host  on the primary control connection	to the
	      host on the secondary control connection,	and put, mput, and ap-
	      pend  transfer files from	the host on the	secondary control con-
	      nection to the host on the primary  control  connection.	 Third
	      party  file  transfers  depend  upon support of the ftp protocol
	      PASV command by the server on the	secondary control connection.

       put local-file [remote-file]
	      Store a local file on the	remote	machine.   If  remote-file  is
	      left  unspecified,  the local file name is used after processing
	      according	to any ntrans or nmap settings in  naming  the	remote
	      file.  File transfer uses	the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and	structure.

       pwd    Print the	name of	the current working directory  on  the	remote
	      machine.

       quit   A	synonym	for bye.

       quote arg1 [arg2] [...]
	      The  arguments  specified	 are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP
	      server.

       recv remote-file	[local-file]
	      A	synonym	for get.

       reget remote-file [local-file]
	      Reget acts like get, except that if  local-file  exists  and  is
	      smaller  than  remote-file,  local-file is presumed to be	a par-
	      tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is  con-
	      tinued from the apparent point of	failure.  This command is use-
	      ful when transferring very large files over  networks  that  are
	      prone to dropping	connections.

       remotehelp [command-name]
	      Request  help  from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is
	      specified	it is supplied to the server as	well.

       remotestatus [file-name]
	      With no arguments, show status of	remote machine.	 If  file-name
	      is specified, show status	of file-name on	remote machine.

       rename [from] [to]
	      Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

       reset  Clear  reply  queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply
	      sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchronization	may be
	      necessary	 following  a violation	of the ftp protocol by the re-
	      mote server.

       restart marker
	      Restart the immediately following	get or put  at	the  indicated
	      marker.	On  UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset into
	      the file.

       rmdir directory-name
	      Delete a directory on the	remote machine.

       runique
	      Toggle storing of	files on the local system  with	 unique	 file-
	      names.  If a file	already	exists with a name equal to the	target
	      local filename for a get or mget command,	a ".1" is appended  to
	      the  name.  If the resulting name	matches	another	existing file,
	      a	".2" is	appended to the	original name.	If this	 process  con-
	      tinues  up to ".99", an error message is printed,	and the	trans-
	      fer does not take	place.	The generated unique filename will  be
	      reported.	  Note that runique will not affect local files	gener-
	      ated from	a shell	command	(see below).   The  default  value  is
	      off.

       safe   Set  the	protection  level on data transfers to ``safe''.  Data
	      transmissions are	integrity-protected by cryptographic checksum.
	      If  no  ADAT  command succeeded, then the	only possible level is
	      ``clear''.

       send local-file [remote-file]
	      A	synonym	for put.

       sendport
	      Toggle the use of	PORT commands.	By default, ftp	 will  attempt
	      to  use  a  PORT command when establishing a connection for each
	      data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays when
	      performing  multiple file	transfers.  If the PORT	command	fails,
	      ftp will use the default data port.  When	the use	of  PORT  com-
	      mands  is	disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands
	      for each data transfer.  This is useful for certain  FTP	imple-
	      mentations which do ignore PORT commands but, incorrectly, indi-
	      cate they've been	accepted.

       site arg1 [arg2]	[...]
	      The arguments specified are sent,	verbatim, to  the  remote  FTP
	      server as	a SITE command.

       size file-name
	      Return size of file-name on remote machine.

       status Show the current status of ftp.

       struct struct-name
	      Set  the	file  transfer	structure  to struct-name.  By default
	      ``stream'' structure is used.

       sunique
	      Toggle storing of	files on  remote  machine  under  unique  file
	      names.  Remote ftp server	must support ftp protocol STOU command
	      for successful completion.  The remote server will report	unique
	      name.  Default value is off.

       system Show the type of operating system	running	on the remote machine.

       tenex  Set  the	file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX ma-
	      chines.

       trace  Toggle packet tracing.

       type [type-name]
	      Set the file transfer type to type-name.	If no type  is	speci-
	      fied,  the current type is printed.  The default type is network
	      ASCII.

       umask [newmask]
	      Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If  new-
	      mask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

       user user-name [password] [account]
	      Identify	yourself to the	remote FTP server.  If the password is
	      not specified and	the server requires it,	ftp  will  prompt  the
	      user  for	 it (after disabling local echo).  If an account field
	      is not specified,	and the	FTP server requires it,	the user  will
	      be  prompted  for	 it.  If an account field is specified,	an ac-
	      count command will be relayed to the remote server after the lo-
	      gin  sequence  is	completed if the remote	server did not require
	      it for logging in.  Unless ftp is	 invoked  with	``auto-login''
	      disabled,	 this process is done automatically on initial connec-
	      tion to the FTP server.

       verbose
	      Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all  responses  from  the
	      FTP  server  are displayed to the	user.  In addition, if verbose
	      is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics	regarding  the
	      efficiency of the	transfer are reported.	By default, verbose is
	      on.

	? [command]
	      A	synonym	for help.

       Command arguments which have embedded spaces may	be quoted  with	 quote
       `"' marks.

ABORTING A FILE	TRANSFER
       To abort	a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key	(usually Ctrl-
       C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
       will  be	 halted	 by  sending a FTP protocol ABOR command to the	remote
       server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed  at	 which
       this  is	accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
       processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an
       `ftp>'  prompt  will  not  appear until the remote server has completed
       sending the requested file.

       The terminal interrupt key sequence will	be ignored when	ftp  has  com-
       pleted  any  local  processing  and is awaiting a reply from the	remote
       server.	A long delay in	this mode may result from the ABOR  processing
       described  above, or from unexpected behavior by	the remote server, in-
       cluding violations of the ftp protocol.	If the delay results from  un-
       expected	 remote	 server	behavior, the local ftp	program	must be	killed
       by hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
       Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are	processed according to
       the following rules.

       1.     If the file name `-' is specified, stdin (for reading) or	stdout
	      (for writing) is used.

       2.     If the first character of	the file name is `|', the remainder of
	      the  argument is interpreted as a	shell command.	Ftp then forks
	      a	shell, using popen(3) with the argument	 supplied,  and	 reads
	      from  (writes to)	stdout (stdin).	 If the	shell command includes
	      spaces, the argument must	be quoted; e.g.	  ``"  ls  -lt"''.   A
	      particularly useful example of this mechanism is:	``dir more''.

       3.     Failing the above	checks,	if ``globbing''	is enabled, local file
	      names are	expanded according to the rules	used in	 csh(1);  c.f.
	      the  glob	 command.   If	the ftp	command	expects	a single local
	      file (.e.g.  put), only the  first  filename  generated  by  the
	      ``globbing'' operation is	used.

       4.     For  mget	 commands and get commands with	unspecified local file
	      names, the local filename	is the remote filename,	which  may  be
	      altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting file-
	      name may then be altered if runique is on.

       5.     For mput commands	and put	commands with unspecified remote  file
	      names,  the  remote filename is the local	filename, which	may be
	      altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The	resulting filename may
	      then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
       The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect	a file
       transfer.  The type  may	 be  one  of  ``ascii'',  ``image''  (binary),
       ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (mostly for PDP-10's	and PDP-20's).
       Ftp supports the	ascii and image	types of  file	transfer,  plus	 local
       byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

       Ftp  supports  only  the	default	values for the remaining file transfer
       parameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE
       The .netrc file contains	login and initialization information  used  by
       the  auto-login process.	 It resides in the user's home directory.  The
       following tokens	are recognized;	they may be separated by spaces, tabs,
       or new-lines:

       machine name
	      Identify a remote	machine	name.  The auto-login process searches
	      the .netrc file for a machine token that matches the remote  ma-
	      chine  specified	on  the	ftp command line or as an open command
	      argument.	 Once a	match is made, the  subsequent	.netrc	tokens
	      are  processed,  stopping	when the end of	file is	reached	or an-
	      other machine or a default token is encountered.

       default
	      This is the same as machine name except that default matches any
	      name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be after
	      all machine tokens.  This	is normally used as:

		   default login anonymous password user@site

	      thereby giving the user automatic	anonymous  ftp	login  to  ma-
	      chines not specified in .netrc.  This can	be overridden by using
	      the -n flag to disable auto-login.

       login name
	      Identify a user  on  the	remote	machine.   If  this  token  is
	      present,	the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
	      specified	name.

       password	string
	      Supply a password.  If this token	 is  present,  the  auto-login
	      process  will  supply  the specified string if the remote	server
	      requires a password as part of the login process.	 Note that  if
	      this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other than
	      anonymous, ftp will abort	the auto-login process if  the	.netrc
	      is readable by anyone besides the	user.

       account string
	      Supply  an  additional  account  password.   If  this  token  is
	      present, the auto-login process will supply the specified	string
	      if the remote server requires an additional account password, or
	      the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it  does
	      not.

       macdef name
	      Define  a	 macro.	 This token functions like the ftp macdef com-
	      mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name; its
	      contents	begin  with  the next .netrc line and continue until a
	      null line	(consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.   If
	      a	 macro	named init is defined, it is automatically executed as
	      the last step in the auto-login process.

ENVIRONMENT
       Ftp utilizes the	following environment variables.

       HOME   For default location of a	.netrc file, if	one exists.

       SHELL  For default shell.

SEE ALSO
       ftpd(8)

       Lunt, S.	J., FTP	Security Extensions, Internet Draft, November 1993.

HISTORY
       The ftp command appeared	in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
       Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by  the
       remote server.

       An  error in the	treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
       transfer	code has been corrected.  This correction may result in	incor-
       rect  transfers	of  binary  files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the
       ascii type.  Avoid this problem by using	the binary image type.

									FTP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER | FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS | FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS | THE .netrc FILE | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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