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KDRILL(1)		    General Commands Manual		     KDRILL(1)

       kdrill  v6.2  -	drill program for kanji	chars under Xwindows (X11R5 or
       better is required to run) kdrill also does dictionary lookup

       Yikes.. this man-page is	getting	huge. But I am	a  great  believer  in
       having  proper  documentation. Hopefully, this new format will help in-
       stead of	hinder.

       At some future point in time, I shall convert this huge beast to	 HTML.
       But  that  point	 is  not  now.	 [Although  actually,  you  CAN	 go to for
	some help ]

       TIP:  "/WORD" usually takes you to the next occurrence  of  "WORD",  if
       you are viewing this using a "man"-like program.

SECTIONS (of this man page)

       [Note:  most  of	 these	options	are now	somewhat redundant. Kdrill now
	its options. But just in case you want to know about these commandline

       -usefile	NewUsefileName
	      Change name of usefile, which lets you drill on specific charac-

	      Still read in usefile if it exists, but ignore it	at startup.

       -kdictfile OtherKanjidicFile
	      Use a different dictionary file name. You	may have "hira.dic" or
	      "kata.dic" installed, as well as "kanjidic", for example.

       -edictfile OtherKanjidicFile
	      Use a different edict-style-dictionary file name.	"none" for  no

       -englishfont FontName
	      Changes only english display of english-guess buttons.

       -kanjifont KanjiFontName
	      Change large kanji font.

       -smallkanji KanjiFontName
	      Change small kanji/kana font for kana-guess buttons.

	      Turns off	beep on	wrong answer.

	       say  whether  you  want	the  guess choices to be in "english",
	      "kanji", or "kana"

	       say whether  you	 want  the  'question'	to  be	in  "english",
	      "kanji", or "kana"

	      Start in ordered mode. Go	through	desired	kanji in order of #.

       -gradelevel _level #s_
	      Start  with different grade levels enabled. A string with	one or
	      more of [123456+]

	      Start with kana meanings instead of english.

       -lowfrequency #,	-highfrequency #
	      Set lowest and/or	highest	frequency kanji	you want to see.

       -logfile	filename
	      Change filename to log current errors to (with "Log" button)

	      Don't insist that	all dictionary entries have kana AND  English.
	      WARNING!	Normal	operation is to	ignore incomplete entries, and
	      thereby enable switching from kana to english  without  changing
	      the  quiz	 kanji.	Using this option will make kdrill move	to an-
	      other kanji if you switch	kana to	English	or vica	versa.
	       file I have currently. All characters  with  Frequency  ratings
	      have full	translations. ]

       Kdrill now saves	config options in $HOME/.kdrill, in X-resource format.
       The latest configuration	will automatically  be	saved  when  you  quit
       kdrill normally.	 If you	want to	change kdrill's	settings, and you dont
       see a way to do it in the options popup,	you can	probably change	it  in
       the  global "KDrill" resource file, or in your personal "$HOME/.kdrill"
       file.  See the sample "KDrill" file for more detail, which is often in-
       stalled	in  /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/KDrill,  or  someplace  similar.
       Values in $HOME/.kdrill will override the global	settings.

       You may change the background of	the windows using a resource file,  as
       mentioned above.

       kdrill  is  a  program  to drill	users on meanings of kanji characters.
       Various formats of drills are available:

	  kanji	  --\ /--- kanji
	  kana	   --*--   kana
	  english --/ \--  english

       kdrill will present you with a kanji (or	kana or	 english  phrase)  and
       five  possible meanings for it. Your goal is to guess which one matches
       the kanji at the	top. Initially,	it will	choose randomly	from  the  en-
       tire dictionary,	so you will probably want to narrow the	range, via the
       OPTIONS section,	below.

       Any grade level or frequency rating the current kanji has will be  dis-
       played  in  the top right hand side of the window, next to the "G:" and
       "F:" letters. The kanji index number will be displayed after  the  "#:"

       Click  with  your primary mouse button (usually the left	one) on	one of
       the multiple-choice answered to see how well you	know the lone kanji or
       meaning.	  You  may  also  use  the  number  keys  to make your choice.

       If you guess correctly, you will	move on	to another character.  If  you
       guess  incorrectly,  you	 will have to guess again. Furthermore,	kdrill
       will make a note	that you didn't	know either the	 character  displayed,
       or the character	for the	incorrect meaning you clicked on.

       If  you	are  playing  in random	order, kdrill will randomly repeat the
       ones you	have missed. You will have to get  a  missed  character	 right
       twice  for  kdrill  to  think you know it. If you miss a	character more
       than once, you will have	to repeat the character	two times  the	number
       of  times  you missed it. If you	are playing in order, kdrill will keep
       to the order, and not go	back. It will still  remember  ones  you  have
       missed, however,	and will go back to them if you	later switch to	random

       There are two ways of "cheating", if you	are learning  new  characters,
       and don't want to have an incorrect guess recorded. One way is to press
       the "cheat" button, and the correct answer  will	 be  highlighted.  The
       other way is to make a guess with button	2 on your mouse. The character
       of the one you clicked on will appear in	the  search  window.   If  the
       search window was not already open, it will appear when you do this.

       If  you	want  to  change the way the game works	while playing, you can
       bring up	the options window by pressing the options button. If you know
       how  you	 want the game to play before starting it, you can most	likely
       do what you want	with a command-line option, described at  the  top  of
       this  man-page.	If  you	 want to permanently change an option, see the
       "RESOURCES" header, above.

       The following options are to help narrow	down the range	of  kanji  you
       get quizzed on.


	      You  may specify which grade levels you wish to study, by	click-
	      ing on the buttons labeled: "1", "2", "3", "4", "5",  "6",  "+",
	      or "All",	in the "Grade Select" window. You may also select/uns-
	      elect a grade by holding down shift, followed by "1", "2",  "3",
	      "4", "5",	"6", "+", or "a", in the main window.

	      The  "All" feature will select all grades. but it	will not unse-
	      lect them.

	      The default is to	have all the grades enabled.


	      Some kanji have frequency	ratings.  That	means  that,  in  real
	      life, some kanji are used	more frequently	than others. Frequency
	      rating 1 means that this is the most frequently used  character.
	      The  frequency  of the true answer you are guessing will be dis-
	      played in	the top	right of the main window,  next	 to  the  "F:"
	      sign, if a frequency rating exists.

	      The  frequency  range  area  in the options window allows	you to
	      limit the	kanji you see based on	their  frequency  rating.  The
	      frequency	 range	area  consists	of  two	 smaller  input	areas;
	      "High", and "Low".  High means a kanji that is  high  frequency.
	      That  is	to say,	something that is used often. According	to the
	      definitions of the dictionary, "1" means the kanji that is  used
	      the most often. A	frequency rating of "2"	means that the charac-
	      ter has a	lower frequency	than "1".  The	most  frequently  used
	      kanji is the character for "day",	which is "F: 1".

	      Setting  a  number  in  the  "High" window limits	high frequency
	      kanji.  If there is a number in the "High"  window,  that	 means
	      that you will see	no kanji that is of higher frequency than that
	      number. Similarly, setting a number in the  "Low"	 window	 means
	      that  you	will see no kanji of frequency lower than that number.
	      2000 is a	"Low" frequency	kanji. If you put 2000	in  the	 "Low"
	      area,  you would see nothing of lower frequency than the charac-
	      ter rated	at 2000	(which happens to be "hazy")  that  you	 would
	      see nothing

	      A	 blank in the "High" or	"Low" fields indicates no limit	in the
	      field. If	you try	to set either window to	"0", it	will automati-
	      cally set	itself blank for you.


	      It  is possible to be drilled on kanji in	order, without repeti-
	      tion, until "all"	kanji have been	covered. Any  restrictions  on
	      grade  level or frequency	will still apply. To enable or disable
	      ordering,	click on the "Showing randomly"	(or  "Showing  in  or-
	      der") button in the options window.

	      Note  that  "in  order"  does not	mean in	order of frequency. It
	      means in the order represented by	the dictionary,	denoted	by the
	      '#' number shown at top right. This happens to be	the JIS-encod-
	      ing of the Kanji,	which we also call the kanji index.

       TIP: A good way to start	learning a range of chars, is to select	the
	      "in order" option, and a particular grade	level and/or frequency
	      range.   Press  'C'  (Shift-c)  for  super-cheat.	This will both
	      highlight	the correct answer, AND	show the full  kanji+kana+eng-
	      lish meanings in the popup search	window!

	      When  you	 have looked at	it enough, click on the	correct	answer
	      to move on to the	next kanji.

	      Or rather	than use the super-cheat option	repeatedly... Read the
	      next section.

       If  you	would like a small little window to memorize new chars in, in-
       stead of	the bulkier 'main' or 'search' windows,	there is now a 'learn'
       window.	 Pressing  the (learn) button on the main window will bring up
       the learn window, which only displays kanji, kana, and english meanings
       of  a  char.  Pressing one of the 'next'	buttons	will select a new char
       for you to look at, using the same rules	of choosing that the main win-
       dow uses.  (grade levels, and an	optional usefile)

       A usefile is a way to tell kdrill "I want to be quizzed on these	kanji,
       and ONLY	these specific kanji". Generally speaking,  it	is  easier  to
       just  pick a particular grade level or frequency	range to quiz yourself
       on. But if you know you want specific kanji (for	example, to study  for
       a class!) having	a usefile is very useful.

       Grade  and  Frequency  restrictions will	apply, even if you have	a use-
       file. Thus, if all your usefile-defined kanji are of grade 4 or higher,
       and  you	 have  only  selected grades 3 and lower, kdrill will complain
       that there are not enough kanji available, and attempt to add  viewable
       grade levels until there	are enough value kanji to quiz on

       To add or remove	a kanji	from the "usefile", pull up the	search window,
       and view	a particular kanji. The	"usefile" button at the	far right will
       be  highlighted if it is	in the usefile list. You can toggle the	button
       to set the status as you	wish.

       If you want to see all the kanji	in your	usefile, click on  the	"show"
       button,	below the "usefile" toggle, in the search window. It will then
       show you	the current list, and pressing on one will display it  in  the
       search  window.	You can	then remove it via the "usefile" toggle	if you

       When you	quit kdrill, it	will update the	usefile, IF you	have a minimum
       number  in  the	list  (currently, 10). If you want to know if you have
       enough, use the options window to toggle	"No Usefile"  to  "Using  Use-
       file".  It  will	not let	you, if	there are not enough characters	in the

       If you wish kdrill to ignore your usefile when you start	it up, you may
       use the -nousefile option.

       Usefile format

	      If you want to edit a usefile by hand, this is the format:

	      A	 usefile  consists  of a list of hex numbers; one per line, no
	      initial spaces allowed. A	usefile	lets the program know you  are
	      interested  in  certain  kanji, from the thousands listed	in the
	      dictionary.  It is possible to add comment lines by  having  the
	      very  first  character  of a line	be "#".	However, those will be
	      overwritten if you make changes from within  the	program.   Hex
	      numbers  can  be checked or found	by using the "xfd" util	on the
	      "kanji24"	font.  Alternatively, you could	use the	search	window
	      or  main	kdrill	window.	 In on of the "#" input	boxes, type in
	      "0x", and	then the hex number.  It is best to  do	 this  in  the
	      search window, since the main window may have range restrictions
	      on it.

       It is now possible to search for	a character in kdrill. You may	search
       for an English phrase, a	kana phrase, or	a particular kanji.

       kdrill  will  automatically show	the first match. If there is more than
       one match, it will be shown in a	secondary popup	window.	  That	window
       can  be	changed	to display the english,	kanji, or kana meaning of each
       dictionary entry. Click on one to have it displayed in the main	search

       Additionally,  if  a search turns up a kanji phrase instead of a	single
       kanji, you may click on the phrase at the top of	the search window,  to
       have  the  secondary  multi-listing window display the individual kanji
       for you to examine in further detail.

       English search

	      First, bring up the search window	by pressing the	search button.
	      Then,  enter  an	English	 word (or fragment) in the bottom-most
	      section of the window, and press return  or  enter.  The	window
	      will then	display	the first kanji	it finds that has that word in
	      its definition, along with its index number,  grade,  and	 other
	      information available, if	any.

	Kana search

	      If  you  want  to	search for a kana phrase, you now have TWO op-

	      For more experienced users, you can finally type in that	tempt-
	      ing  kana	 window.  There	 is no little ^	cursor,	but dont worry
	      about that.  DO worry about the following	conventions:

		Type "n	" (n,space) to convert a ending	'n' to kana
		Press "'" for small-tsu. (type "chotto"	as "cho'to")
		Press "-" for kana elongation. ("bi-ru")
		Press backspace	to erase the last char.
		Press return to	start the search.

	      For a pointy-clicky method of input,  press  the	"kana  search"
	      button.  This will pop up	the kana seach window. (Press it again
	      to remove	the window.)  Press the	kana(s)	 you  want  to	search
	      for. The chars you press will be shown next to the "kana search"
	      button in	the main search	 window.  When	you  have  the	phrase
	      ready, press the [Search]	box.

	      If  your kana recognition	isn't all it should be,	you can	toggle
	      romaji mode in the options popup (via "options"  from  the  main
	      window).	 Additionally, if you don't know katakana, but want to
	      translate	a katakana phrase, use the <=> button  to  toggle  be-
	      tween  hiragana  and  katakana.	Note  that  even if you	are in
	      katakana input mode, it will print out your buttonpresses	as hi-
	      ragana.	This  is because the search engine treats hiragana and
	      katakana identically.

	      If you make a mistake, press the <-  button,  or	backspace,  to
	      erase the	last char.

	      The characters you press will appear at the bottom of the	popup,
	      and also on the main search window next to the kana search  but-
	      ton.  As	noted  above, if you make a mistake typing, use	the <-
	      button on	the kana window	to erase, or the backspace key.


	      You now have a multiple ways to look up Kanji.

       4-corner	Kanji search

	      If you want to find a kanji by shape,  press  the	 kanji	search
	      button on	the search window. This	will bring up the kanji	search
	      window.  Press it	again to remove	the kanji search window.

	      This window employes  the	 "4-corner  method"  of	 lookup.   The
	      4-corner method has lots of strange rules	to it. I strongly rec-
	      ommend that you read the description that	comes in the  kanjidic
	      document	file.  It  is  impossible  for me to cover all details

	      In brief,	you have to press each corner of the center  box,  and
	      select  one  of  the  ten	 elements  from	the top	row, that best
	      matches that corner of the kanji you want	to look	up. For	 those
	      already  familiar	 with the 4-corner method, the "blank" element
	      is an alias for the first	element.  There	are still only 10 pos-
	      sible positions.

	      Press the	paragraph button (backwards 'P') when you are ready to

	      For those	NOT already familiar with the 4-corner	method...  un-
	      fortunately,  it	sounds	easy, but it is	really horribly	diffi-
	      cult, and	I again	refer you to the documentation that comes with
	      the kanjidic dictionary file. Look for "kanjidic.doc"

       SKIP Kanji search

	      Pressing	the "Kanji SKIP	search"	button,	will bring up the SKIP
	      window.  This window has directions on it	 already.  Follow  the
	      directions to define what	the kanji looks	like.

       Kanji cut-n-paste lookup

	      For ELECTRONIC lookup... if you view Japanese text online	with a
	      program like "kterm", you	can  now  select  a  single  kanji  in
	      kterm,  and  paste it into a special "drop target" in the	search
	      window. It is to the far right of	the "kanji" search button.

	      If you highlight multiple	characters, kdrill will	now only  look
	      for  an  exact  match  of	 all characters	you paste in. (up to 4
	      chars).  Multi-char matching will	 NOT  WORK,  unless  you  have
	      downloaded the additional	dictionary, "edict"

	      Note:  There  is	a BUG in some versions of netscape 4.x.	If you
	      are viewing kanji	in a frame,  you  can  seemingly  highlight  a
	      character,  but  it  will	not cut-n-paste	to kdrill, or anywhere
	      else. If this occurs, use	right-click to "open frame in new win-
	      dow",  where  you	 will be able to use cut-n-paste.  Cut-n-paste
	      from netscape was	also improved in version 5.9.6


	      If you have a kanji already showing in the  search  window,  and
	      you  are	using the 'edict' dictionary, you can search the large
	      dictionary for  occurences  of  the  current  kanji.  Press  the
	      "match" button next to the kanji display.

       What are	all those letters?

	      The  top row; "G,	F, #", all refer to the	basic indexes that are
	      shown in the mail	kdrill window. They  stand  for	 "Grade,  Fre-
	      quency, and Index	#", respectively.

	      H	denotes	the index in the "Halperin" dictionary

	      N	denotes	the index in the "Nelson" dictionary

	      Ux denotes the "Unicode" of the kanji. It	is Ux to make it stand
	      out as the only one that expects input in	Hexadecimal.  This  is
	      because that is the way the dictionary has it.

	      For  all	windows	 with the little ^ in them, you	can change the
	      values.  When you	press return or	enter in them, kdrill will at-
	      tempt  to	find a match for what you just entered.	If it can find
	      no match,	it will	blank out all fields displayed.

	      You can use this jump-to-index feature in	the main  window  too.
	      However,	the  main  window will keep any	restrictions you might
	      have while doing the search (limits by usefile, grade,  or  fre-
	      quency limit).

	      The  search  window ignores any restrictions on the main window,
	      and searches the entire on-line dictionary.

       Almost everything has a keyboard	shortcut in kdrill.

	   Key				     Action
	 1,2,3,4,5		    Make a guess
	 Shift+(123456+)	    Change grade levels	used
	 c			    (C)heat
	 C			    Super(C)heat
	 e			    Guess (e)nglish definision
	 k			    Guess which	(k)anji	fits
	 m			    Guess which	kana (m)eaning fits
	 E			    Quiz on (E)nglish
	 K			    Quiz on (K)anji
	 M			    Quiz on kana (M)eaning
	 l			    popup (l)earn window
	 n			    (n)ext char, IF in learn window
	 o			    Toggle in-(o)rder drill
	 O			    Bring up (O)ptions window
	 p			    Go back to (p)revious
	 Control+q		    (Q)uit kdrill
	 u			    Toggle (u)sefile usage.
	 s			    (S)earch for a Kanji
	 T			    Timer start/stop
	 x			    clear missed count

       Additionally, the Sun keyboard "Find" (F19) and "Props" (F13) keys  are
       bound to	the search and options windows,	respectively.

       kdrill  checks  for  a file by the name of .kanjiusefile	in the current
       directory, although this	name can be changed either with	the '-usefile'
       option, or in a resource	file.

       kdrill  also  checks for	a logfile, named kdrill.log by default,	in the
       current directory. This can be changed with the -logfile	option,	or  in
       a resource file.	See "LOGFILES AND MISSED KANJI", below.

       kdrill uses a file called "kanjidic" (which does	not come in the	source
       package)	to interpret many of the various 16-bit	 kanji	chars  in  the
       kanji24	font supplied with the X11R5 distribution. This	file should be
       in a place accessible to	all users. Normally it would  be  in  /usr/lo-
       cal/lib or somewhere similar.

       kanjidic	 subdivides  its entries into grade levels, and	frequency rat-
       ings. Grade levels are similar to school	grade levels,  but  more  com-
       pressed.	 For  kdrill's purposes, grade levels start at 1, and increase
       to 6. There are many kanji that do not have a grade level, due to their
       infrequency  of	use,  or  other	 reasons. These	are denoted by the "+"
       character in the	grade select window.

       The user	can restrict the range of kanji	to drill on in different,  yet
       compatible,  ways. The first way	is to make a ".kanjiusefile" with a an
       explicit	list of	desired	kanji.	(described above in "USEFILES"),

       Changes you make	to the "Grade Select" window or	the "Frequency	Range"
       section	will not do anything until you supply the correct match	to the
       current drill-question (or press	the english/kana toggle	button).

       Keep in mind that the xfd font tool and other applications may refer to
       kanji  characters  by a hexadecimal number. You may enter a hexadecimal
       number by starting it with "0x".	For example,  "0x315c".	  To  maintain
       compatibility  with  the	dictionary, the	kdrill "usefile" expects hexa-
       decimal input, not decimal input. Similarly, the	 logfile  also	stores
       kanji  in  hexadecimal  format. This makes it easy to use a log file of
       kanji you have missed as	a usefile, for repeated	drilling.

       Every time you guess incorrectly, kdrill	makes a	note.  It  later  will
       give  you extra practice	on ones	you missed, if you are playing in ran-
       dom order.  It will only	repeat a missed	character  about  25%  of  the
       time.   The  more you miss a particular character, the more kdrill will
       repeat showing it to you.

       You can store a list of your incorrect answers by  pressing  the	 "Log"
       button.	kdrill	will then write	out all	the kanji characters it	thinks
       you do not know into the	logfile. This will erase any information  pre-
       viously in that logfile.	kdrill will also automatically update the log-
       file when it quits The next time	you start up kdrill, it	will automati-
       cally read in the logfile, if it	exists.

       The  logfile is named "kdrill.log", by default. You may change the name
       of the logfile with the -logfile	option.

       It is  a	good idea to press "Log" just before  quitting	kdrill.	  That
       way,  it	 will  remember	which characters you are weak on, for the next
       time you	play. It will then go back to those characters	from  time  to
       time,  if you play in "random" order. If	you do not press "Log",	kdrill
       will not	save a record of what you have missed.

       Alternatively, you can use the logfile as a usefile. kdrill  will  then
       only  quiz  you on those	kanji you missed. If you choose	to do this, it
       is a good idea to copy the log file over	to a different file. That way,
       you can make a logfile for your new usefile. For	example, in UNIX;

       cp kdrill.log kdrill.usefile kdrill -usefile kdrill.usefile

       The  total  number  of  missed  entries is shown	in the main window. If
       there are just too many for your	comfort	(learning  new	kanji  can  be
       difficult!)  you	can ERASE THE COUNT with your backspace	or delete key.

       The  dictionary	for  kdrill, kanjidic, is currently available where it
       originated, via ftp from, or from  a  mirror  in  the
       U.S.  at Likewise for the "edict" dictionary.
       There are many other mirror sites mentioned on  the  kdrill  web	 page.
       (See below)

       At  the monash site, both the dictionary	and this program can currently
       be found	in /pub/nihongo

       This program's primary ftp site is now

       There is	also an	official kdrill	URL;

	      This currently shows you some screen-shots, and mentions the ftp

       "kanjidic"  isn't  perfect. There are "incomplete" entries, missing ei-
       ther English or kana translations. There	are also entries consisting of
       "See  Nxxxx",  which isn't really an improvement. Note that you can now
       use the search window to	follow those "See Nxxxx" references!   [  Just
       search for that Nxxx, as	if doing a search for English ]

       Likewise, this man page may be incomplete!

       Philip P. Brown

       (Who has	finally	taken a	format Japanese	lesson!	Which helped a lot,
	but  am	 now  back  on the slow	"self-taught" track. sigh! shikatta ga

       This program was	originally created while I was a student at  the  Uni-
       versity	of California. However,	this program was developed entirely by
       myself, on my own computer, not related to any classwork. I retain sole
       right to	this program.

       I,  Philip  Brown,  hereby  give	 permission to use, and/or modify this
       code, so	long as	it it not sold for profit, and I am given credit some-
       where  in  the  code. Unrelated works originally	derived	from this code
       are not covered by this restriction (although it	would be nice to  men-
       tion me!)

       Send donations, postcards, muffins, letters of commendation, to

	      Philip Brown
	      5353 Josie Ave
	      Lakewood,	CA 90713

       [ I HAVE	received some nice email, and more is always welcome. No post-
	though.	Sniff... Although I DID	actually receive a small donation.
	Yaaay! I can buy more manga now! :-> ]

       Bug reports always "welcome". However, please ensure that you  can  re-
       produce it, so I	can fix	it for you.  Also, be sure to let me know your
       machine type, and version of kdrill you are using.

       Philip Brown

       SEE ALSO: for information on  how  to
       use kdrill for Chinese learning

Phil's Software		       Auguest 21st, 2003		     KDRILL(1)


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